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Dari Bounded System ke Borderless Society: Krisis Metode Antropologi dalam Memahami Masyarakat Masa Kini Irwan Abdullah
Antropologi Indonesia Vol 30, No 2 (2006): Jurnal Antropologi Indonesia
Publisher : Department of Anthropology

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Abstract

Society and culture can no longer be viewed as they have been in the past. Fundamental changes in group and cultural dynamics provide a new context with implications on how anthropological research must be done. A major change is the shift from the view of societies and cultures as bounded systems to the deterritorialization of culture. The author identifies three stages of change bearing upon agrarian cultures, i.e., market entry, market integration and market expansion. There is a new social reality wherein increasingly intensive mobility is enabled by transportation and communication, thus allowing movement across geographic and cultural boundaries. The author notes that the implications of this are manifold, i.e., a shift in the context for the production of meaning; the problem of the locus of culture; conventional methods of data collection that do not inform the anthropologist on how to handle data available from electronic media; the problem of representation and representativeness; and the matter of determining the unit of analysis in research. Key words: culture change; cultural deterritorialization; research methods.
Penggunaan dan Penyalahgunaan Kebudayaan di Indonesia: Kebijakan Negara dalam Pemecahan Konflik Etnis Irwan Abdullah
Antropologi Indonesia No 66 (2001): Jurnal Antropologi Indonesia
Publisher : Department of Anthropology

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Abstract

The ethnic conflict in Indonesia is a sign of huge problems facing Jakarta and local areas Indonesia, therefore the explanation for its occurrence cannot be produced without examining the central-periphery relations, which involve structural problems in constructing and maintaining power. Ethnicity, for instance, has become political commodity, which is constructed by central powers and made manifest through the concept of SARA (ethnicity, religion, race and inter-group relations). Thus, government tends to find and explain the root of ethnic conflict in ethnic cultural differences itself, whereby differences of ideology and life practices are viewed as the source of conflict. This article attempts to examine ethnic conflict by analyzing three main factors, which are first, the change in the balance of ethnic relations. Second, the imposition of a uniform politics in pluralistic society. Third, a weakening of traditional relationship and the credibility of local elites as a result of government intervention. Based on these three factors, this article concludes that ethnic conflicts are not only matters of ethnic cultural differences, but also are rooted much deeper in systematic mistakes in managing these differences and the conflicts itself ,where culture has been used for government's political interests.
Dari Bounded System ke Borderless Society: Krisis Metode Antropologi dalam Memahami Masyarakat Masa Kini Irwan Abdullah
Antropologi Indonesia No 60 (1999): Jurnal Antropologi Indonesia
Publisher : Department of Anthropology

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Abstract

Society and culture can no longer be viewed as they have been in the past. Fundamental changes in-group and cultural dynamics provide a new context with implications on how anthropological research must be done. A major change is the shift from the view of societies and cultures as bounded systems to the deterritorialization of culture. The author identifies three stages of change bearing upon agrarian cultures, i.e., market entry, market integration and market expansion. There is a new social reality wherein increasingly intensive mobility is enabled by transportation and communication, thus allowing movement across geographic and cultural boundaries. The author notes that the implications of this are manifold, i.e., a shift in the context for the production of meaning; the problem of the locus of culture; conventional methods of data collection that do not inform the anthropologist on how to handle data available from electronic media; the problem of representation and representativeness; and the matter of determining the unit of analysis in research.
Antropologi di Persimpangan Jalan: Refleksi dari Pemahaman akan Tindakan Kaum Muda Irwan Abdullah
Antropologi Indonesia No 54 (1997): Jurnal Antropologi Indonesia
Publisher : Department of Anthropology

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Abstract

Irwan Abdullah presents his argument that the concept of deviant is no longer relevant to the analysis of the activities of young people's. An effort to understand their activities as a subordinate expression of the culture domination is appropriate. Perceiving their activities as deviant cannot be understood with Geertz's cultural concepts. He said that culture is shared values. Young people have their own way in understanding the meaning of life. Their values are not merely inherited from older generation, but the products of the reinterpretation process. The author further argues that in today's social transformation process and media becomes the great agent in disseminates a new life style. This changes is determinant in the formation process of the young people chooses.
Kekerasan: Mispresentasi Perempuan dalam Ruang Publik (Suatu Agenda Penelitian) Irwan Abdullah
Jurnal Studi Gender dan Anak Vol 7 No 02 (2020): Juli-Desember 2020
Publisher : Pusat Studi Gender dan Anak (PSGA) Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (LP2M) UIN Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (157.448 KB) | DOI: 10.32678/jsga.v7i02.182

Abstract

Tulisan ini akan menjelaskan kekerasan sebagai misrepresentasi perempuan di dalam ruang publik. penjelasannya merupakan suatu agenda penelitian. Dilatarbelakangi oleh kompleksitas persoalan perempuan, ketika terjadinya kekerasan, harus direspons dengan melibatkan berbagai metode penelitian, baik kualitatif maupun kuantitatif. Permasalahannya, kekerasan yang terjadi dalam berbagai bentuk, sudah menjadi suatu budaya bersama dan telah menjadi praktik kolektif, sehingga kekerasan bukan lagi sesuatu yang bersifat brutal tetapi sebagai (satu-satunya) jalan yang efektif untuk mencapai tujuan-tujuan individu dan bahkan kelompok. Dengan pendekatan yang didasari oleh asumsi bahwa kaum perempuan merupakan kelompok yang sadar dan memahami posisi kultural dan strukturalnya dalam masyarakat, tulisan ini akan menjawab dua pertanyaan. Pertama, apakah masih ada kecenderungan oposisi biner (laki-laki dan perempuan sebagaimana nature terhadap culture) di dalam penelitian gender yang bias pada pemaknaan tunggal dan bersifat satu arah (dari laki-laki ke perempuan)? Kedua, apakah relasi sosial masih bersifat top-down menyangkut hubungan-hubungan yang sinergis dan kemitraan antara laki-laki dan perempuan? Disimpulkan bahwa dengan pendekatan post-feminisme, pembongkaran (dekonstruksi) atas dominasi laki-laki yang menempatkan perempuan sebagai objek, sebagai suatu pemikiran ulang terhadap makna “relasi gender” yang dibangun oleh berbagai proses sosial ekonomi dan politik.
Pergeseran Representasi Hijabista dalam Media Sosial Franceline Anggia; Irwan Abdullah
Jurnal Hawa : Studi Pengarus Utamaan Gender dan Anak Vol 2, No 1 (2020): Juni
Publisher : UIN Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29300/hawapsga.v2i1.2922

Abstract

Kehadiran hijabista (hijab-fashionista) yang berkancah di media sosial instagram tidak dipungkiri lagi telah banyak mengisi layar gawai. Para hijabista ini kebanyakan merupakan perempuan-perempuan muda (menjelang atau sekitar berusia 30 tahun) yang entah itu meamng berbisnis jilbab atau merupakan sosok berpengaruh (influencer) dalam dunia kecantikan atau dalam dunia mode pakaian Muslim di media sosial instagram. Para perempuan ini, dengan modal sosial dan ekonomi yang dimiliki, nampak tetap mempertahankan nilai-nilai agama dalam hal cara berpakaian bagi perempuan Muslim di samping modifikasi gaya jilbab yang mereka kenakan dan tampilkan dalam koleksi visual profil instagram mereka.
Femininity and Masculinity in Arabic Words: Gender Marking in Muslim Cosmology Muassomah Muassomah; Wildana Wargadinata; Galuh Nur Rohmah; Rohmani Nur Indah; Siti Masitoh; Istiadah Istiadah; Irwan Abdullah
Langkawi: Journal of The Association for Arabic and English Vol 7, No 2 (2021)
Publisher : Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Kendari

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.31332/lkw.v7i2.3130

Abstract

The Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) language strongly indicates the sociolinguistic phenomenon as it reflects gender marking in language use. This study aims to explore how the Arabic letters attributed to specific gender identities, how the gender ideology of Arab culture create gender biases, and how the biases influence Arab social structure. It uses aspects of masculinity and femininity of Arabic letters that affect gender inequality and order of values on language, tradition and culture. Masculine letters are letters that have the property of being able to hold and entail other letters, while feminine letters that have the nature can be attached with other letters but cannot be attached. In this study, Arabic letters were mapped by observing their use in written and oral interaction in the contexts of Arab as first and second language. This research is a qualitative in nature. The data on ideology's influence on social structure were collected through interviews with three key informants representing their areas of expertise on language anthropology, sociolinguistic, and applied linguistic. The morphological analysis was carried out to identify the internal structure of the words. The sociolinguistic analysis explored the linguistic construction that to social construction. The finding showed that their internal structures, these letters were classified as masculine or feminine. From the sociolinguistic point of view, gender issues following social construction that has already formed gender relations. In other words, Arabic letters affect the order of values that tend to be gender-biased in the Arabic context.
Contestation between Puritan Islam and Kejawen in the Urban Yogyakarta of Indonesia Muhammad Arifin; Irwan Abdullah; Atik Tri Ratnawati
Al-Albab Vol 8, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Graduate Program of Pontianak Institute of Islamic Studies

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (174.931 KB) | DOI: 10.24260/alalbab.v8i2.1460

Abstract

Tensions between Puritan Islam and Kejawen Islam have never been resolved, despite various accommodation efforts. The ongoing contestation of the two traditions in Islam in Yogyakarta is because both always maintain strict cultural boundaries through symbols that represent their respective identities, be it in religious, art, cultural, economic and political practices. This study focuses on three aspects: (1) the form of representation of the contestation between Islam and Tradition (Kejawen) in the city of Yogyakarta; (2) the historical and cultural context which is the basis for the contestation between Islam and tradition; and (3) how the contestation between Islam and the Kejawen tradition is managed by each community in an effort to minimize the occurrence of social conflict between the two. Through these three aspects, this research aims to offer a new perspective in viewing the dialectical relations between Puritan Islam and Javanese (Kejawen) tradition contextually. The contestation between the Islamic tradition and the Kejawen tradition continued because of historical, political and global currents that provided space for both traditions to build their respective cultural identities.
Being Minority in Papua: Religious and Political Identity Struggle of the Dani Muslims Ade Yamin; Irwan Abdullah; Achmad Nurmandi; Hasse Jubba; Zuli Qodir
Al-Albab Vol 8, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Graduate Program of Pontianak Institute of Islamic Studies

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (502.739 KB) | DOI: 10.24260/alalbab.v8i1.1362

Abstract

The issue of religious and political identity of the Dani Muslims in Papua has been associated to social construction of the ethnic and religious aspects as the basis of political policies by the local government. The local government present in the form of Undang-Undang Otonomi Khusus Papua (UU OTSUS Papua) or the Law Number 21 of 2001 concerning Special Autonomy for Papua has been understood to become one of the keys playing roles in constructing the identity of people in modern Papua. This work attempts to review the process of becoming minority of the Dani Muslims within the context of the Papua society. They live in the central mountains with limited infrastructure and access to modern life. The work suggests that the Dani Muslim has become minority in terms of political representation as well as religious identity due to three conditions. First, the practice and implementation of the Law Number 21 of 2001 concerning Special Autonomy for Papua has significantly influenced the live of the Dani Muslims with regards to their political representation as well as religious identity. Second, they embrace Islam as a way of life and have to deal with the cultural conditions of the Dani community in general that are very consistent in maintaining their local tradition. Third, the domination of religious symbols used in public spaces has been found to have much influence to the identity of minority groups. The Christian Papuans later made further claims of Papua as the Land of Christ has had a broad impact not only on the access to public services for the Dani Muslims but has also presented them with new pressure and marginalized in terms of political position and religious group existence.
Constructing Urban Lifestyle Through Billboard Advertising: A Case Study In Yogyakarta Cut Irna Liyana; Irwan Abdullah; Sajarwa Sajarwa
Jurnal Community Vol 7, No 2 (2021)
Publisher : Prodi Sosiologi FISIP Universitas Teuku Umar

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35308/jcpds.v7i2.4455

Abstract

Advertising has an effect on changing lifestyles in urban communities. The massive development of billboard advertising in Indonesia's urban areas makes people exposed to advertising content every day. By using vocabulary and visualizing, directly or implicitly, advertising conveys messages and meanings that have an effect on the evolving lifestyles of urban populations. This paper would highlight how the language of advertising creates urban lifestyles in Yogyakarta by researching how advertising language building transmits a message and advertising language builds a lifestyle with an ideological orientation. It is also intended to support the target audience. This is qualitative analysis and data collection was carried out through observation and recording of the billboard advertising in Yogyakarta. Data was analyzed using the multimodal discourse analysis method of Gunter Kress and Theo van Leeuwen. The results indicate that billboard advertisements not only offer the commodity, but also convey the message of urban lifestyle directly and indirectly. Urban lifestyles are built using semiotic modes; language (using code mixing and foreign language) and visualization (using icon, image and color); in billboard advertising. They as well constructed ideologies that have structured society horizontally and vertically.Keywords: