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EFEKTIFITAS METODE PENGAJARAN CARA MENYIKAT GIGI TERHADAP PENURUNAN INDEKS PLAK ANAK USIA 3-5 TAHUN: EFFECTIVITY OF TOOTH BRUSHING TEACHING METHOD IN DECREASING PLAQUE SCORE OF 3-5 YEARS OLD CHILDREN Hermina; Vera
Dentika: Dental Journal Vol. 15 No. 1 (2010): Dentika Dental Journal
Publisher : TALENTA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (138.43 KB) | DOI: 10.32734/dentika.v15i1.1685

Abstract

Plaque is the main cause of caries and periodontal disease. Plaque can be cleaned by toothbrushing. Tootbrushing, as all habits of hygiene, can be teachable in the early of childhood because cognitive and motoric abilities can be improved. The aim of this study was to analyse the decreasing plaque indexes among different teaching methods that is with video, demonstration and combination methods. The study design was an experimental pre and post test design. Sixty children from preschool children at Boddhicita school Medan was divided into 4 groups (I-video; II-demonstration; III-combination method ; IV-control group). Plaque control measurement was used with Quigley-Hein index. The results showed that there were significant differences (p<0,05) in decreasing plaque score among the teaching methods (p<0,05). As conclusions, teaching method with combination is more effective in teaching 3-5 years old child than demonstration method. Video method is not recommended in teaching 3-5 years old child.
Thyroid Disease Among Workers Exposed To Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Vera; Ilyas, Muhammad
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (191.444 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.12.114-9

Abstract

Background: Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) is one of the Perfluoroalkyl acids family that can affect human health. It can act as an endocrine disruptors which interfered the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis and targeted the biosynthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones, which can caused thyroid diseases. To determine the causal relationship between PFOA and thyroid diseases, it is necessary to look for some evidence regarding this relationship. The search for evidence is also complemented by a seven-step occupational disease assessment to establish occupational diseases.Methods: The literature searching using the electronic database “PubMed”, “Cochrane”, and “Scopus” search engine. The keyword is “PFOA” “perfluoroalkyl substances” “perfluorooctanoic acid” “perfluorooctanoate” AND “thyroid disease” “thyroid function” “thyroid parameters” combined with MeSH and Title/Abstract terms. The inclusion criteria are research on humans, English language, free full article and the exclusion is duplicate articles.Result: From the five literature obtained, there are differences in results. Four articles stated that there are association between PFOA and thyroid diseases but one articles stated PFOA concentrations measured in this study were not associated with thyroid hormones.Conclusion: Althought most articles stated there are associations between PFOA and thyroid disease but it does not mean that PFOA can caused thyroid disease so it is still not clear the causal relationship between PFOA and thyroid disease especially in occupational setting.