Hasballah, Khairuddin
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Studi Pemikiran Ibnu Qayyim Al-Jauziyyah tentang Ḥakam dan Relevansinya dengan Mediasi di Pengadilan Agama Hasballah, Khairuddin; Rahmadani, Rahmadani
Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam Vol 3, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Islamic Family Law Department, Sharia and Law Faculty, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (334.323 KB) | DOI: 10.22373/sjhk.v3i1.4430

Abstract

Ulama berbeda pendapat tentang maksud ḥakam dan otoritasnya dalam ketentuan QS. An-Nisā’ ayat 35 terkait menyelesaikan perselisihan suami-istri. Masalah yang ingin diteliti adalah bagaimana makna ḥakam menurut Ibnu Qayyim al-Jauziyyah, bagaimana otoritas ḥakam dalam menyelesaikan sengketa suami-istri menurut Ibnu Qayyim al-Jauziyyah, dan bagaimana relevansi pemikiran Ibnu Qayyim al-Jauziyyah tentang ḥakam dengan mediasi di Pengadilan Agama. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa makna ḥakam menurut Ibnu Qayyim al-Jauziyyah yaitu hakim. Maksud ḥakam bukan dimaknai sebagai wakil atau orang kepercayaan dari keluarga laki-laki atau perempuan. Ketentuan QS. An-Nisā’ ayat 35 menunjukkan makna yaitu dua orang ḥakam sebagai hakim yang menyelesaikan perselisihan masing-masing suami-istri. Otoritas ḥakam dalam menyelesaikan sengketa suami-istri  menurut Ibnu Qayyim al-Jauziyyah yaitu diberi kewenangan untuk tetap menyatukan hubungan pernikahan suami-istri yang berselisih, atau bisa juga memutuskan dengan menceraikan keduanya. Terdapat bagian-bagian tertentu yang tampak sama dan relevan antara pemikiran Ibn Qayyim al-Jauziyyah tentang ḥakam dengan konsep mediasi di Pengadilan Agama. Kesamaan dan relevansi keduanya adalah terletak dari pihak yang menjadi juru damai, yaitu sama-sama ditentukan bukan dari pihak keluarga. Namun perbadaannya yaitu terkait dengan otoritas mediator dan ḥakam. Menurut Ibn Qayyim, ḥakam diberi kewenangan untuk memutuskan dengan menceraikan keduanya. Sementara dalam konsep mediasi, seorang mediator hanya bertugas mendamaikan dan tidak ada kewenangan untuk menceraikan.
Identifying ‘Illat through Munasabah in Islamic Law: A Perspective of Imam Al-Ghazali Hasballah, Khairuddin; Darna, Andi; Said, Wardana; Akbar, Hajarul; Karim Makinara, Ihdi; Fauzan, Faisal
Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam Vol 5, No 2 (2021)
Publisher : Islamic Family Law Department, Sharia and Law Faculty, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22373/sjhk.v5i2.10914

Abstract

This study discusses the way in determining ‘illat through the munasabah method proposed by Imam al-Ghazali in the perspective of Islamic law. The study focuses on two main problems: the identification of ‘illat through munasabah and the legal formulation to utilize hikmat to obtain ‘illat according to al-Ghazali. This normative legal research used a legal history approach as an analytical tool to examine the Islamic scholars’ thoughts on concepts, theories and ways of doing istinbath. The study concluded that according to al-Ghazali there are three kinds of munasabah in determining ‘illat, consisting of munasib mu’atstsir, munasab mula’im, and munasib gharib. In munasib mu’atstsir, there is no issue found in seeking ‘illat because the ‘illat is understood directly from the nash or ijma’. Therefore, munasabah is no longer needed in the determining ‘illat. Here, the munasabah method focuses on munasib mula’im and munasib gharib in identifying ‘illat. Munasib mula’im seeks for the genus ‘illat, an ‘illat drawn from every event that has been predetermined by the nash, by examining the same hikmah in each of the events. Such hikmah is then used as the genus ‘illat which will later be applied as qiyas for other events that have been legally stipulated by the nash. On the other hand, munasib gharib seeks for the species ‘illat, an ‘illat obtained from an event that has been predetermined by the nash, with no comparison found in other events. ‘Illat determined from munasib gharib is also hikmah, having no concrete nature. In the perspective of legal history, this method of seeking ‘illat is inseparable from kalam and philosophy as was the development of the Islamic sciences at the time. As such, this had also affected al-Ghazali’s mastery in Islamic law as well as in other Islamic disciplines. 
The Milk Al-Yamin Concept as a Validity of Sexual Relationship in a Modern Context: an Analysis of Muhammad Syahrur's Thoughts Hasballah, Khairuddin
Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam Vol 4, No 2 (2020)
Publisher : Islamic Family Law Department, Sharia and Law Faculty, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22373/sjhk.v4i2.7068

Abstract

In the understanding of fiqh turats, the concept of milk al-yamin is affecting the legal protection for oppressed slaves during the Jahiliyah period. According to Syahrur, the concept of milk al-yamin had similarities and differences with the marriage contract. The similarity lies in the ability to have sexual relations, while the difference is that a marriage contract is not merely a sexual relationship, but it has a legal effect on the production of the rights and obligations of a husband and wife to build a family, and other social activities related to mushaharah. Milk al-yamin does not arrive at the emergence of rights and obligations as husband and wife as a result of a marriage contract. The concept of milk al-yamin that Syahrur understands for the present context is how the legal proposition (the Quran) remains suitable with the current era, not to be eradicated historically because it is no longer relevant. He built a new logic for the concept of milk al-yamin in the present context, which is called ‘aqd ihsan. The concept of milk al-yamin understood by Syahrur enables the authorization of contractual marriages or mut'ah which were abolished according to the Sunni school of fiqh. The concept of contract marriage or mut'ah does not have general marriage conditions, because the purpose is not to build a family, but purely sexual relations, and does not belong to the category of formal marriage, although at the same time it is not haram. In consequence, the concept of milk al-yamin is not becoming a basis for legitimizing nonmarital sexual relations.