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Profile of children with increased intracranial pressure on mannitol treatment Sander D Teddy; Abdul Latief; Bambang Madiyono
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 44 No 4 (2004): July 2004
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (304.86 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi44.4.2004.148-52

Abstract

Background Early recognition of increased intracranial pressure(IIP) and well-monitored management are determining indicatorsfor treatment outcome. As far as we know, data of children with IIPon mannitol treatment has not been available.Objective To elicit the profile of IIP patients who received mannitolat the Department of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital,Jakarta.Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Data were obtainedfrom medical records of patients with increased intracranial pres-sure who received mannitol at the Department of Child Health,Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta between July 2001 to Oc-tober 2003Results Fifty-four IIP patients with mannitol treatment were included.Forty-two (78%) were under-five years old. Thirty-six subjects (67%)were boys; 30 (56%) were undernourished. Central nervous systeminfections (meningitis and encephalitis) were the most frequent causesof IIP. Most of the head CT scan revealed cerebral edema, hydroceph-alus, and cerebral hemorrhage. Fifty subjects (93%) had decline of con-sciousness; most of them were somnolent. Improvement in conscious-ness was identified in 31 subjects, in which 21 subjects reached fullconsciousness. Vomiting, which was found in 25 subjects (46%), sub-sided after mannitol administration. Behavioral changes were found in49 subjects (91%); 32 subjects still had persistent behavioral changesafter mannitol administration. Large and protruding fontanel was foundin 7/22 subjects, cerebral nerve paralysis in 23 subjects (43%) andpapillary edema in 6 of 34 subjects who underwent funduscopy. Duringthe treatment with mannitol, fever was found in 5 subjects, vomiting in 2subjects, skin edema and tachycardia each in 1 subject. Metabolic aci-dosis was found in 6/13 subjects, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in 16and 13 out of 30 subjects respectively. Death occurred in 9 subjects(17%).Conclusion In IIP patients, the administration of mannitol has atendency to improve consciousness, vomiting, and behavioral orpersonality changes. The high incidence rate of electrolyte imbal-ances and metabolic acidosis during the treatment indicated theneed of periodic monitoring to detect early disorders.
PERAN ORGANISASI PERTAHANAN RAKYAT PITU ULUNNA SALU DALAM MEMPERTAHANKAN NEGARA KESATUAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA DARI ANCAMAN DI/TII TAHUN 1958 Busran Busran; Abdul Latief; Rezki Azis
Journal Peqguruang: Conference Series Vol 4, No 1 (2022): Peqguruang, Volume 4, No.1, Mei 2022
Publisher : Universitas Al Asyariah Mandar

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35329/jp.v4i1.2051

Abstract

Bangsa Indonesia berhasil memproklamirkan kemerdekaan pada Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, namun perjuangan belum sampai disitu. Banyak pergolakan yang terjadi sebagai ujian atas bangsa yang masih muda tersebut. Salah satu yang banyak menyita perhatian adalah gerakan Darul Islam / Tentara Islam Indonesia yang mencoba mendirikan sebuah negara yang lepas dari Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Pemerintah segera mengambil tindakan tegas dengan memadamkan pemberontakan tersebut baik secara diplomasi maupun secara militer. Perang melawan DI/TII juga terjadi di Mambi, pada Tahun 1958 ketika OPR-PUS dan Tentara Bantuan Operasi (TBO) 710 menyerang kota Mambi yang menjadi markas DI/TII di Pitu Ulunna Salu. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah :1).Bagaimana Peran OPR-PUS dalam membela dan mempertahankan NKRI dari ancaman DI/TII diwilayah PUS  2). Apakah  penyerangan OPR-PUS ke Mambi adalah konflik SARA atau bukan. Jenis Penelitian yang digunakan adalah jenis penelitian sejarah yang meliputi langkah-langkah Heuristik, Verifikasi, Interpretasi, dan Historiografi. Hasil penelitian ini dapat diutarakan bahwa organisasi Pertahanan Rakyat Pitu Ulunna Salu adalah organisasi yang pro pemerintah pusat. Dalam perjuangannya melawan DI/TII, OPR-PUS bekerjasama dengan TNI dari Batalyon 710. Penyerangan OPR-PUS ke Kota Mambi bukanlah konflik SARA.Kata Kunci : Pitu ulunna salu, NKRI
An Impact of CSR Program in Enhancing Welfare (A Case Study of Catfish Cultivation Group Tanah Berongga-Sido Urep Kebun Tanjung Seumantoh Village, Karang Baru Sub District Aceh Tamiang District, Aceh Province) Baihaqi; Zulkarnen Mora; Abdul Latief
Jurnal Ilmiah Samudra Akuatika Vol 4 No 1 (2020): Jurnal Ilmiah Samudra Akuatika
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Samudra

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33059/jisa.v4i1.2478

Abstract

Corporate Social Responsibilities was part of fully commitment from the company to communities. This responsibility applied into CSR policy aims to increase sensibility and occuring positive impact for the company. The principle of CSR implemented by PT Pertamina EP-Field Rantau refers to five essentials: local resources based, community based, economic empowerment, sustainability and participatory planning. Act number 25 tahun 2007 about capital investment and Act number 40 tahun 2007 about limited company mentions for tripple buttom line. In 2010 PT Pertamina EP-Field Rantau has conducted social mapping to Makmur Sub-village. The result indicated that the villagers are living in poverty line and teenegers were not working well. The main prospect developed were fishery cultivation due to the topography of this sub village were clay and preferable for ground pool and the availability of natural feeds like golden snail and maggot. PT Pertamina EP-Field Rantau committed to establish group of cultivation of catfish Tanah Berongga-Sido Urep. PT Pertamina EP-Field Rantau assisted technical assistance through local partnership. This strategy sychronizes with MDG‘s goal in establishing global partnership in order to decrease poverty. There were 8 members previously and now 24 members joining to this group. The method was used case study whereas this was identical with explanatory by attracting causality for the object. The advance accepted by group of cultivation of catfish Tanah Berongga-Sido Urep appreciated from local and national media. The massive news was influenced to the rapidly of visitor with aiming to study, comparative study and recreation. Currently each of members was getting profitable 6 millions/ depends on the amount of catfish pool owned. This effort shown that catfish cultivation was giving significant impact for these groups and the desire to create Makmur Sub-village as a center of catfish cultivation in Aceh Tamiang.
ANALISIS TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM) MENGGUNAKAN OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS (OEE) DI PT. PERKEBUNAN NUSANTARA VI OPHIR abdul latief
Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi: Jurnal Keilmuan dan Aplikasi Teknologi Industri Vol 19, No 2 (2019): JURNAL SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI
Publisher : Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Industri Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (397.109 KB) | DOI: 10.36275/stsp.v19i2.204

Abstract

PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VI Unit Usaha Ophir Pasaman Barat merupakan salah satu dari enam belas unit usaha yang ada di bawah pengolahan manajemen PT. Perkebuan Nusantara VI Unit Usaha Ophir Pasaman Barat yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan buah kelapa sawit, Pada perusahaan ini masih terdapat kerusakan pada komponen-komponen mesin dan berkurangnya jumlah produksi minyak kelapa sawit, dengan banyaknya kerusakan dan kerugian perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang pengolahan, salah satu mesin yang digunakan adalah mesin Screw Press. Mesin yang beroperasi secara terus menerus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui besarnya nilai OEE untuk mesin Screw Press, dan setelah mengetahui nilai OEE maka setelah itu dilakukan pembandingan dengan nilai OEE dunia atau standard world class OEE demi meningkatkan performansi mesin. Overall Equipment Effectiveness(OEE) adalah metode sistematis untuk melakukan pengukuran tingkat efektivitas proses suatu mesin atau peralatan. Secara umum, besar kecilnya nilai OEE dipengaruhi oleh enam faktor yang biasa disebut dengan Six Big Losses. Penggunaan perhitungan nilai OEE mampu mengetahui besarnya nilai OEE dan faktor dominan yang menyebabkan rendahnya performansi suatu mesin atau peralatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa faktor yang mempengaruhi tingkat efektifitas mesin adalah avaibility rate dengan persentase rata-rata dari bulan Januari-Desember 2016 sebesar 97.948% - 98.837%, 6.315% - 8.282%, performance rate 85,42%, serta rate of quality product 99,15%. Nilai OEE pada mesin Screw Press sebesar 61.742% - 81.75%.
Comparison of serial blood lactate level between dengue shock syndrome and dengue hemorrhagic fever (evaluation of prognostic value) M. Tatang Puspanjono; Abdul Latief; Alan R. Tumbelaka; Sudigdo Sastroasmoro; Hartono Gunardi
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 47 No 4 (2007): July 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (538.111 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi47.4.2007.150-5

Abstract

Background Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) mortality is still high.Monitoring of blood lactate level is important to evaluate shock.Objectives The study were to review the difference between bloodlactate level of DSS and that of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF),to correlate blood lactate level with hypoxia state as shock riskfactors (PaO 2 , oxygen saturation, and anion gap) and to determinethe cut-off point of blood lactate level to predict shock.Methods The study was carried out at the Department of ChildHealth, Medical School, University of Indonesia, CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, from January until July 2006.Three mL venous blood specimen was collected from all subjectsfor peripheral blood, blood gasses, serology, and blood lactateexaminations. This study consisted of a retrospective cohort anda cross sectional method. Data were analyzed with Chi-squaretest. Continous data tested using Mann-Whitney method. Toknow the correlation between blood lactate level and shock riskfactors we use logistic regression test.Results In DSS group, 73% shows hyperlactatemia (lactate =2mmol/L). Conversion of lactate means between two groups issignificantly different from day one to day two and three. Therewas a negative correlation between lactate level and pO 2 andoxygen saturation. Oxygen saturation is the only value that hasclinical correlation. Regressions analysis can be applied using Y= 7.05–0.05 X equation. The cut-off point of lactate level asmarker for shock by using ROC curve is 32.015 mmol/L with 70%sensitivity and 83.3% specificity.Conclusions Hyperlactatemia in DSS can be considered as a signfor unappropriate treatment of shock. Blood lactate level can beused as a biochemical marker for tissue hypoxia, to assess severityof the disease, as monitoring of treatment, and has prognosticvalue of DHF cases.
PENGARUH TEKANAN PENGOMPAKAN, KOMPOSISI Er2O3 DAN PENYINTERAN PADA TEMPERATUR RENDAH TERHADAP KUALITAS PELET UO2 + Er2O3 Abdul Latief; Tata Terbit Saputra; Djoko Kisworo; Slamet Pribadi; Arief Sasongko Adhi
Jurnal Teknologi Bahan Nuklir Vol 1, No 2 (2005): Juni 2005
Publisher : PTBN - BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (175.671 KB)

Abstract

ABSTRAK PENGARUH TEKANAN PENGOMPAKAN, KOMPOSISI Er2O3 DAN PENYINTERAN PADA TEMPERATUR RENDAH TERHADAP KUALITAS PELET UO2 + Er2O3. Telah dilakukan percobaan pengaruh tekanan pengompakan, komposisi Er2O3 dan sintering pada temperatur rendah terhadap densitas, mikrostruktur, kekerasan dan rasio O/U dari pelet UO2 + Er2O3 dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui tekanan pengompakan, komposisi Er2O3 dan temperatur sinter yang relatif baik agar dapat memberikan kualitas pelet yang memenuhi persyaratan. Sejumlah serbuk UO2 <150 ìm dicampur dengan Er2O3 yang divariasi dari 0 – 1% dan seng stearat 0,4% kemudian dikompakkan dengan tekanan antara 2,93 – 5,23 ton/cm2. Pelet yang terbentuk disinter pada temperatur 1000, 1100 dan 1200 °C, dengan laju pemanasan 250 °C/jam, waktu penahanan 3 jam dalam lingkungan gas argon. Pelet hasil sinter ditentukan densitasnya, diamati mikrostrukturnya dengan mikroskop optik dan diuji kekerasannya dengan alat uji kekerasan Vickers serta dihitung rasio O/U-nya dengan metode gravimetri. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa tekanan pengompakan antara 2,93 – 4,68 ton/cm2 terhadap pelet UO2 + Er2O3 dengan komposisi Er2O3 0 – 1,0% dapat meningkatkan densitas pelet mentah dari kisaran 45,45 – 51,68% DT (Densitas Teoritis), sedangkan naiknya temperatur sinter antara 1000 – 1200 °C dapat meningkatkan densitas pelet sinter sampai 95,66% DT. Densitas pelet sinter yang memenuhi spesifikasi (92 – 95% DT) diperoleh pada temperatur sinter 1200 °C, tekanan pengompakan 4,10 – 4,68 ton/cm2 untuk komposisi Er2O3 antara 0 – 1,0%. Pada temperatur sinter 1000 °C dan 1100 °C hanya diperoleh densitas pelet sinter dibawah 92% DT. Pengamatan mikrostruktur dilakukan terhadap sampel UO2 + Er2O3 dengan komposisi Er2O3 0 – 1,0% yang dikompakkan pada tekanan 4,68 ton/cm2 dan temperatur sinter 1200 °C mempunyai butir bentuk ekuiaksial (equiaxial). Perubahan komposisi Er2O3 memberikan perbedaan ukuran butir dan kekerasan. Semakin besar komposisi Er2O3 maka butir pelet sinter akan semakin besar yaitu sebesar 8 ìm dan kekerasan akan semakin turun. Kenaikan komposisi Er2O3 pada penyinteran temperatur 1200 °C menyebabkan kenaikan rasio O/U sampai 2,12. KATA KUNCI: Racun dapat bakar, Komposisi Er2O3, Pelet UO2 + Er2O3, Pengompakan, Sintering temperatur rendah, Densitas, Mikrostruktur, Kekerasan, Rasio O/U ABSTRACT INFLUENCE OF COMPACTING PRESSURE, Er2O3 COMPOSITION AND LOW-TEMPERATURE SINTERING ON UO2 + Er2O3 PELLET QUALITY. The influence of compacting pressure, Er2O3 composition and low-temperature sintering on the density, microstructure, hardness and O/U ratio of UO2 + Er2O3 pellets was investigated to determine the optimum condition of compacting pressure, Er2O3 composition and sintering temperature to obtain good quality pellets. UO2 powder of <150ìm in size was mixed with Er2O3 of 1 - 1.0% and zinc stearat of 0.4% and then compacted at pressures of 2.9 – 5.23 ton/cm2. The green pellets were sintered at temperatures of 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C with a heating rate of 250 °C/hour and soaking time of 3 hours in argon atmosphere. The density of the pellets was determined, also the microstructure using optical microscope, hardness using Vickers hardness tester and O/U ratio using gravimetric method. The results showed that compacting pressure of 2.93 – 4.68 ton/cm2 on UO2 + Er2O3 pellets with Er2O3 composition of 0 – 1.0% could enhance green pellet density in the order of 45.45 – 51.68% TD (Theoretical Density), while increasing sintering temperature between 1000 – 1200 °C enhanced sintered pellet density to 95.66% TD. Sintered pellet density of 92 – 95% TD which conform to the specification was obtained at sintering temperature of 1200 °C, compacting pressure of 4.10 – 4.68 ton/cm2, and Er2O3 composition of 0 – 1.0%. At temperature of 1000 and 1100 °C the density of the pellets obtained was <92% TD. The microstructure observation which was done on UO2 + Er2O3 samples with Er2O3 composition of 0 – 1.0%, compacting pressure of 4.68 ton/cm2 and sintering temperature of 1200 °C showed the presence of equiaxial grains. Changes in Er2O3 composition resulted in different grain sizes and hardness. Higher Er2O3 composition increased the size of sintered pellet grain to 8 ìm and decreased its hardness. Increasing Er2O3 composition at sintering temperature of 1200 °C enhanced the O/U ratio up to 2.12.FREE TERMS: Burnable poison, Er2O3 composition, UO2 + Er2O3 pellet, Compacting pressure, Low-temperature sintering, Density, Microstructure, Hardness, O/U ratio<!-- /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} -->
Hyperlactacemia in critically ill children: comparison of traditional and Fencl-Stewart methods Hari Kushartono; Antonius H. Pudjiadi; Susetyo Harry Purwanto; Imral Chair; Darlan Darwis; Abdul Latief
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 47 No 1 (2007): January 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (563.506 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi47.1.2007.35-41

Abstract

Background Base excess is a single variable used to quantifymetabolic component of acid base status. Several researches havecombined the traditional base excess method with the Stewartmethod for acid base physiology called as Fencl-Stewart method.Objective The purpose of the study was to compare two differentmethods in identifying hyperlactacemia in pediatric patients withcritical illness.Methods The study was performed on 43 patients admitted tothe pediatric intensive care unit of Cipto MangunkusumoHospital, Jakarta. Sodium, potassium, chloride, albumin, lactateand arterial blood gases were measured. All samples were takenfrom artery of all patients. Lactate level of >2 mEq/L was definedas abnormal. Standard base excess (SBE) was calculated fromthe standard bicarbonate derived from Henderson-Hasselbalchequation and reported on the blood gas analyzer. Base excessunmeasured anions (BE UA ) was calculated using the Fencl-Stewartmethod simplified by Story (2003). Correlation between lactatelevels in traditional and Fencl-Stewart methods were measuredby Pearson’s correlation coefficient .Results Elevated lactate levels were found in 24 (55.8%) patients.Lactate levels was more strongly correlated with BE UA (r = - 0.742,P<0.01) than with SBE (r = - 0.516, P<0.01).Conclusion Fencl-Stewart method is better than traditionalmethod in identifying patients with elevated lactate levels, so theFencl-Stewart method is suggested to use in clinical practice.
The role of hearing capability test as a screening test for the possibility of hearing disorder in children with speech delay Fatmawaty Fatmawaty; Hartono Gunardi; Ronny Suwento; Abdul Latief; Rulina Suradi; Irawan Mangunatmadja
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 6 (2006): November 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (307.364 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.6.2006.255-9

Abstract

Background Hearing disorder may cause speech delay so thatevery child with speech delay should undergo hearing test. Thegold standard for audiometric test is otoacustic emission (OAE)and brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA). They havehigh sensitivity and specificity, but the availability is limited andexpensive. Hence, both tests are not available at the primary healthcare centers. In 1997, the Department of Health, Republic of Indo-nesia, established a simple subjective test instrument, i.e. the hear-ing capability test (HCT).Objective To asses the accuracy of HCT compared to the goldstandard hearing tests (OAE and/or BERA).Methods This study was a cross sectional study on 89 childrenaged less than 5 years who had speech delay and came to theGrowth and Development Outpatient Clinic or the General Outpa-tient Clinic, Pediatric Neurology Clinic of the Department of ChildHealth, Cipto Mangunkusumo (CM) Hospital; and Center for EarCare and Communicative Disorders (CECCD), Department of ENT,CM Hospital, during March to August 2005.Results HCT sensitivity and specificity were 92.9% and 27.7%,respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictivevalue (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likehoodratio (NLR) were 84%, 50%, 1.9, and 0.7, respectively.Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of HCT as a screeningtest of hearing disorder in children with speech delay were 93%and 28%, respectively. Based on this result, HCT should only beused as screening test and not as a diagnostic test
The prevalence of atopic dermatitis history in asthmatic children Rifda Suryati; Arwin AP Akib; I Boediman; Abdul Latief
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 4 (2006): July 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.4.2006.164-9

Abstract

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a risk factor of asthma. Thereis still limited information about its prevalence and characteristicsin asthmatic children.Objective To find out the prevalence of AD history in asthmaticchildren.Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the De-partment of Child Health, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta,from July until December 2004. Patients with asthma who were ator less than 5 years of age were included in the study. The parentshad completed study questionnaire about asthma, AD, and someinformation about atopic family history, the food history in infantperiod and environment factors.Results Ninety children met the inclusion criteria. Male and femaleratio was 1.5:1. Most of subjects reported onset of asthma in 12-36 months of age. The history of AD was found in 26% of asth-matic children with quite similar number for both sexes. All sub-jects had atopic family history with asthma as the most commonmanifestation. The environment factors contributed to this eventwere mother’s diet containing allergen and smoking history in familyduring pregnancy and lactation period. More than half of subjectshad no breast-feeding. Solid food and formulated milk had beenearly-introduced.Conclusion History of AD is found in 26% asthmatic children.The percentage of characteristic distribution of factors which hadbeen assumed has a role in asthma and AD was similarly equalbetween subjects with and without history of AD
Penentuan Kebutuhan Pokok Protein Pada Napu (Tragulus napu) Abdul Latief
Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan JIIP Volume XII No. 3 Edisi Agustus 2009
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Jambi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22437/jiiip.v0i0.178

Abstract

The study aimed to determine the protein requirements for basic life and growth on Napu. Four Napus with an average 3.2 kg body weight were used in this study. 4 X 4 Latin square design was used in this research. Feed treatment were contained four levels of protein, namely 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. Research  results showed that protein levels did not significantly affect dry matter intake, nitrogen  in faeces and nitrogen in urine. Consumption of nitrogen at levels 25% was higher (P <0.05) than 10%, 15% and 20% 0f protein level. Consumption of nitrogen on the protein level 10% and 15% were not significantly  different.  Nitrogen  balance  increased  (P  <0.05)  with  increased  levels  of  protein  in  feed. Retention of total nitrogen at the highest protein level was 0.92 g / kg BW and in the lowest level of 0.25 g/kg BW. The highest body weight gain was obtained at the protein level of 25% followed by the level of 20%, 15% and 10%. BW gain was not significantly different from the retention of nitrogen (R2= 0896). Nitrogen  requirement  was  estimated  at  the  time  of  retention  of  nitrogen  equal  to  zero  ie  0.20  g/kg BW/day, equivalent to 8.1% protein in feed. Nitrogen requirement for growth is 0.67 g N/kg BW/day, equivalent to 20.4% protein in feed