Wardhana AH
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Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia) against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly AH, Wardhana; N, Diana
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 19, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (264.467 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v19i1.993

Abstract

Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia) against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3). Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0), 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV). Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM) and Larval Rearing Media (LRM) for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95) and lethal time (LT50 and LT95) were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock. Key Words: Tithonia diversifolia, Myiasis, Chrysomya bezziana, Biolarvasidal
Efficacy of micro-encapsulated of local isolate B. thuringiensis as bio-insectiside for control of myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana larvae AH, Wardhana; S, Muharsini
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 19, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (174.209 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v19i1.996

Abstract

B. thuringiensis produces toxic crystal proteine (-endotoksin) which is specific for insect target, but non-toxic to human or non-target organism. Local isolate of B. thuringiensis have been collected from Kediri Regency where endemic area of myiasis. The aim of this study was to formulate the micro-encapsulated of B. thuringiensis using Freund Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) for protecting crystal in the field and enviromentally friendly. The formulae was then tested in vitro and in vivo. The result of in vitro trial towards seven local isolates of B. thuringiensis showed a decreased in the toxicity of those several isolates. In vivo trial of nine thin tail sheep using chosen isolat of 45.5A and 47.3A, resulted is no significant different for treatment sheep compared to control sheep (P > 0.05). It is concluded that micro-encapsulation method need to be developed according to the way of living the C. bezziana larvae in animal tissues. Key Words: Chrysomya bezziana, Bacillus thuringiensis, Freund Incomplete Adjuvant, Micro-encapsulated
Parasitaemia pattern and mortality of mice infected by Indonesian Isolate of Trypanosoma evansi. DH, Sawitri; Subekti, Didik T.; AH, Wardhana; ., Suhardono
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 18, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2410.495 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v18i4.334

Abstract

Trypanosomiasis (Surra) is one of the parasitic diseases is endemic and deadly for horses and buffalo in Indonesia.The etiology of the disease is a Trypanosoma evansi. Some T. evansi isolates had been isolated and cryopreservated. Those isolates had not been studied for their differences in virulence, particularly with regard to the pattern of parasiteaemia and their ability to promote mice mortality. Therefore in this study the differences in virulence was studied. DDY mice were divided in to 19 groups according to each isolate to be tested. Each group consisted of 5 mice. Infection were carried intraperitoneally at a dose of 104 Trypanosoma/mice. Mice were examined every two days. Blood samples were taken from tail’s peripheral blood and were examined under light microscope. Parasite were quantitatively counted using Naubauer chamber.  Parasitemia and mice survival were observed for 30 days or until all mice died.The results indicated that there was significant difference among the isolates.Through out the nineteenth isolate scan could be grouped into 3 different biotypes associated with patterns of parasitemia and their ability to kill mice. Biotype1 was the most virulent with the ability to promote mice mortality ≤ 8 days post-infection (dpi). The biotype2 and 3 were the lowest compared to biotype 1. Biotype2 had an undulating parasitaemia, where as biotype 3 showed persistently high parasitaemia with the ability to promote mice mortality ≥ 14dpi. The results also indicate the presence of mixed infections of biotypes that exist in one isolate of T. evansi. Key Words: Trypanosoma evansi, Biotype, Virulence, Mixed infection, Parasitaemia
Efficacy of micro-encapsulated of local isolate B. thuringiensis as bio-insectiside for control of myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana larvae Muharsini S; Wardhana AH
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 19, No 1 (2014): MARCH 2014
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (174.209 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v19i1.996

Abstract

B. thuringiensis produces toxic crystal proteine (-endotoksin) which is specific for insect target, but non-toxic to human or non-target organism. Local isolate of B. thuringiensis have been collected from Kediri Regency where endemic area of myiasis. The aim of this study was to formulate the micro-encapsulated of B. thuringiensis using Freund Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) for protecting crystal in the field and enviromentally friendly. The formulae was then tested in vitro and in vivo. The result of in vitro trial towards seven local isolates of B. thuringiensis showed a decreased in the toxicity of those several isolates. In vivo trial of nine thin tail sheep using chosen isolat of 45.5A and 47.3A, resulted is no significant different for treatment sheep compared to control sheep (P > 0.05). It is concluded that micro-encapsulation method need to be developed according to the way of living the C. bezziana larvae in animal tissues. Key Words: Chrysomya bezziana, Bacillus thuringiensis, Freund Incomplete Adjuvant, Micro-encapsulated
Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia) against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly Wardhana AH; Diana N
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 19, No 1 (2014): MARCH 2014
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (264.467 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v19i1.993

Abstract

Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia) against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3). Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0), 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV). Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM) and Larval Rearing Media (LRM) for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95) and lethal time (LT50 and LT95) were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock. Key Words: Tithonia diversifolia, Myiasis, Chrysomya bezziana, Biolarvasidal
Parasitaemia pattern and mortality of mice infected by Indonesian Isolate of Trypanosoma evansi. Didik T. Subekti; Sawitri DH; Wardhana AH; Suhardono .
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 18, No 4 (2013): DECEMBER 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2410.495 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v18i4.334

Abstract

Trypanosomiasis (Surra) is one of the parasitic diseases is endemic and deadly for horses and buffalo in Indonesia.The etiology of the disease is a Trypanosoma evansi. Some T. evansi isolates had been isolated and cryopreservated. Those isolates had not been studied for their differences in virulence, particularly with regard to the pattern of parasiteaemia and their ability to promote mice mortality. Therefore in this study the differences in virulence was studied. DDY mice were divided in to 19 groups according to each isolate to be tested. Each group consisted of 5 mice. Infection were carried intraperitoneally at a dose of 104 Trypanosoma/mice. Mice were examined every two days. Blood samples were taken from tail’s peripheral blood and were examined under light microscope. Parasite were quantitatively counted using Naubauer chamber.  Parasitemia and mice survival were observed for 30 days or until all mice died.The results indicated that there was significant difference among the isolates.Through out the nineteenth isolate scan could be grouped into 3 different biotypes associated with patterns of parasitemia and their ability to kill mice. Biotype1 was the most virulent with the ability to promote mice mortality ≤ 8 days post-infection (dpi). The biotype2 and 3 were the lowest compared to biotype 1. Biotype2 had an undulating parasitaemia, where as biotype 3 showed persistently high parasitaemia with the ability to promote mice mortality ≥ 14dpi. The results also indicate the presence of mixed infections of biotypes that exist in one isolate of T. evansi. Key Words: Trypanosoma evansi, Biotype, Virulence, Mixed infection, Parasitaemia