Said Zul Amraini
Jurusan Teknik Kimia Universitas Riau

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Pengaruh Kadar Serbuk Gergaji Dalam Proses Bioremediasi Tanah Tercemar Minyak Putri, Ade Rahayu; Amraini, Said Zul; Bahruddin, Bahruddin
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Wisuda Februari Tahun 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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Bioremediation is one of the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly methods to remediate many different types of waste materials widely used by many private and public entities. This research was conducted to determine the influence rates of sawdust in the bioremediation process of petroleum contaminated soil by using laboratory methods, in combination with the addition of fertilizer as sources of nitrogen. This research was conducted based on the 100:5:1 of C:N:P ratios, respectively. Test parameters needed to knowing the optimal condition in remediation were pH, moisture content and temperature. Results show the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded until 44% for the addition of 500 grams sawdust size 0.2 cm, 33% for the addition of 750 grams sawdust size 3 cm and 20% without any treatment within around two months. The addition of sawdust and fertilizer has increased the efficiency of TPH degradation and obtained positive relationship for the addition of fertilizer to the level of TPH degradation.  Keywords: bioremediation, sawdust, degradation, TPH, fertilizer
Depolimerisasi Lateks Karet Alam Secara Kimia Menjadi Liquid Natural Rubber (LNR) Menggunakan Katalis Cocl2 Dengan Variasi Kadar Nano2 Septian, Septian; Amraini, Said Zul; Bahruddin, Bahruddin
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 7 (2020): Edisi 1 Januari s/d Juni 2020
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Increase in derivative products from natural rubber latex with the depolymerization process to low molecular weight Liquid Natural Rubber (LNR). The use of CoCl2 and NaNO2 catalysts as degradation agents is believed to increase the efficiency of the depolymerization process. The purpose of this research is to synthesize LNR from natural rubber latex and determine the effect of NaNO2 levels and chemical depolymerization reaction time of natural rubber on the formation of molecular weight of Liquid Natural Rubber (LNR) products. The method used to produce LNR consists of several stages. The initial stage is the centrifugation of natural rubber latex which is the basic material in producing LNR. Then the main process is chemical depolymerization of natural rubber latex by the addition of degradation agents such as hydrogen peroxide, sodium nitrite and the cobalt diclloride (CoCl2) catalyst, which ends with the purification stage. The chemical depolymerization process uses a variation of the content of NaNO2 degrading agents which is 2, 3, 4 bsk (weight per hundred rubbers). The LNR results obtained will then be analyzed using FTIR and GPC analysis tools. The results of this study found that the content of NaNO2 is 4 bsk NaNO2 degradation levels of 126,448 g/mol. By using the chemical depolymerization process also undergoes the formation of functional groups such as carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Keywords: depolymerization, dry rubber concentration, gel permeation chromatography, natural rubber latex, reaction time
Pembuatan Bioetanol Dari Kulit Buah Nanas Dengan Metode Solid State Fermentation (SSF) Dan Pemurnian Dengan Proses Distilasi-Adsorbsi Dengan Variasi Ratio Bioetanol:Adsorben Safitri, Nadira; Chairul, Chairul; Amraini, Said Zul
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Wisuda Februari Tahun 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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Bioethanol is an ethanol which can be obtained by glucose fermentation from carbohydrate source that uses microorganisms help continued by distillation process. Adsorption is a separation process where the components of a fluid phase moves to the absorbing surface of the solid (adsorbent). In the fermentation process pineapple peel waste with Zymomonas mobilis and distillation process obtained the highest ethanol content of 11%, ethanol content obtained is not too high, so it needs a process that can increase the purity of bioethanol with distillation adsorption process. Bioethanol purification process using natural zeolite as adsorbent with variable change is the type of adsorbent of natural zeolite without activation with base activated natural zeolite and bioethanol:adsorbent ratio is 1:0,35 ; 1:0,5 ; 1:0,65. From the experimental results indicated that the highest ethanol content obtained of the zeolite and ethanol massa ratio of 1:0,65 with using base activated natural zeolite, ethanol content of 99,8% which fulfill Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for both technical ethanol and denatured bioethanol specification.  Keywords : bioethanol, solid state fermentation, pineapple peel, distillation adsorption, natural zeolite
Perbandingan Penyisihan COD Dari Limbah Cair Produksi Minyak Sawit Menggunakan Bakteri Kultur Tercampur Dan Kultur Tunggal Putri, Gustriana; Andrio, David; Amraini, Said Zul
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 6 (2019): Edisi 1 Januari s/d Juni 2019
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Palm oil mill effluent (POME) has a COD content of 44,444 mg / L. The use of mixed cultures and single cultures such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae in removing Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has the advantage of being able to adapt to mixed substrates. This research aims to study the comparison of COD removal from POME using mixed culture bacteria and single culture. This study was conducted in a batch system using Circulating bed reactor (CBR) with a working volume of 20L and 5L, the ratio of inoculum: substrate = 30%: 70%. The results showed that the efficiency of dissolved COD removal in mixed cultures was proportional to a single culture that was equal to 42% with a removal rate of 1.114 mg / L / day. Meanwhile, the growth rate of VSS in mixed culture bacteria was 2.800 mg / L / day and a single culture was 2.667 mg / L / day.Key words: Palm oil mill effluent, mixed culture bacteria, single cultures, COD Removal, VSS
Produksi Enzim Selulase Dari Bacillus Substillis Dengan Substrat Tandan Kosong Sawit Dengan Metode Perlakuan Awal Asam Nazaris, Nazsha Nayyazsha; Amraini, Said Zul; Andrio, David
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 6 (2019): Edisi 1 Januari s/d Juni 2019
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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The cellulase enzyme is a collection of several enzyme that work together to hydrolyze cellulase. Cellulase enzyme are widely used in the textile, food, detergent, bioefuel and pulp and paper industries so that the enzyme needs continue to increase every year. The production of cellulase enzyme using natural substrate which is widely available in Indonesia, namely empty palm bunches as a carbon source as an expensive carboxymethyl cellulase (CMC) substitute and using Bacillus substillis isolates. This study aims to obtain optimum conditions for cellulase enzyme production with acid pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch substrate and variations in pH of the medium using Bacillus substillis. Pretreatment was carried out so that lignocellulose biomass is more easily hydrolyzed and increases glucose level which will enter the next production phase. Variations in the pretreatment were carried out by adding with acids as well as variations in pH 6,5;7,0; and 7,5. Enzyme activity was calculated using the Nelson-Somogyi method. The result showed that the highest enzyme activity was obtained at pH 7,0 and 40ºC at the pretreatment TKS with acid of 0,041 U/ml. Keywords : Cellulase enzyme, Bacillus substillis, pretreatment, oil palm empty fruit bunch
Produksi Enzim Selulase Dan Xilanase Dari Eupenicillium Javanicum Dengan Substrat Kulit Nanas Menggunakan Solid-State Fermentation Ismala, Ullia Nurul; Evelyn, Evelyn; Amraini, Said Zul
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 7 (2020): Edisi 1 Januari s/d Juni 2020
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The utilization of enzymes in bioprocess industry increases annually. Enzyme ability to accelerate the reaction and its biodegradability make it preferable to be utilized as catalyst. Cellulase and xylanase are ones of common enzymes that used in industries, such as pulp and paper, detergent, syrup and more. Pineapple peel waste has potential lignocellulose content to substitute pure substrate such as cellulose and xylan which is not efficient in cost. Solid-state fermentation allows the microorganism to live in condition that suits its habitat. This research aims to investigate temperature of fermentation’s (25, 30 and 35 oC) effect on cellulase and xylanase enzyme production in solid-state and comparing the enzyme activities resulted with submerged fermentation method ones. Fermentation for enzyme production was done for 96 h and the pH of medium was adjusted at 4. Enzyme activity was obtained with DNS method using spectrophotometry visible at 540 nm. The highest enzyme activities were obtained at temperature 30 oC which resulted 0,054 U/mL for cellulase and 0,077 U/mL for xylanase.Keywords : cellulase, enzyme, solid-state fermentation, submerged fermentation, xylanase
Efisiensi Penyisihan Logam Cr (VI) Menggunakan Biosorben Jamur Coprinus comatus Teraktivasi NaOH Dispriana, Nurmala; Yenie, Elvi; Amraini, Said Zul
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 7 (2020): Edisi 1 Januari s/d Juni 2020
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Metal Cr (VI) is a metal found in high concentrations of liquid waste electroplating, so it is toxic can cause acute and chronic poisoning. Using fungi biomass become an alternative to solving environment pollution problems caused by heavy metals. The research purposed to learn the ability of C. comatus fungi biosorbent to set aside the metal Cr (VI) through the process of biosorbent characterization with variations of activator NaOH 0,3; 0,5 and 0,7 N with activation time 15 minutes. Result of the research showed characterization phase of biosorbent obtained the best conditions in treatment activator NaOH 0,3 N with efisiensi removal 47,81 %.Keywords : C. comatus fungi, concentration activation, metal Cr (VI), electroplating liquid waste.
Kinerja bioreaktor hibrid anaerob bermedia tandan dan pelepah sawit dalam penyisihan cod Ahmad, Adrianto; Amraini, Said Zul; Luturkey, Yance Andre
Jurnal Teknik Kimia Indonesia Vol 10, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : ASOSIASI PENDIDIKAN TINGGI TEKNIK KIMIA INDONESIA (APTEKIM)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5614/jtki.2011.10.3.4

Abstract

Performance of anaerobic hybrid bunch-frond palm mediated bioreactor in COD elimination The high contents of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in palm oil mill wastewater is able to cause the obstructed connection between air and a receiver of water body so that can make the lessening oxygen solubility in the receiver of water body. Hence, it is important to do innovation to get a good technology process of wastewater in order that the contents of COD become low. One of the wastewater processes can be done by using hybrid anaerobic bioreactor in eliminating COD that exists in palm oil mill wastewater. This research uses two units of hybrid anaerobic bioreactor i.e. hybrid anaerobic bioreactor mediated immobilization cell of empty stem palm and hybrid anaerobic bioreactor mediated immobilization cell of in 2.5 m3 of work volume. The process is done by using variation of imposition organic rate i.e. 10, 12.5, 14.28, 16.6, 20, 25, 33.3, and 50 kg COD/m3-day. The result of research showed that the highest eliminating COD is 82.67% in 14.28 kg COD/m3-day in bioreactor filled with empty palm fruit bunch and 84% for imposition organic rate 16.6 kg COD/m3-day in bioreactor filled with palm midrib. Therefore, both hybrid anaerobic bioreactors can be used for processing oil palm mill wastewater in high load of COD. Keywords: hybrid bioreactor, COD, wastewater, palm midrib, empty stem palmAbstrakKandungan Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) yang tinggi dalam limbah cair pabrik minyak sawit dapat menyebabkan terhambatnya kontak antara udara dengan badan air penerima sehingga mengakibatkan berkurangnya kelarutan oksigen dalam badan air penerima tersebut. Oleh karena itu, penting dilakukan terobosan baru untuk mendapatkan teknologi pengolahan limbah cair yang handal agar kandungan COD menjadi rendah. Salah satu teknologi pengolahan limbah cair tersebut adalah bioreaktor hibrid anaerob. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji kinerja beberapa jenis bioreaktor hibrid anaerob dalam penyisihan COD dalam limbah cair pabrik minyak sawit. Pada penelitian ini digunakan dua unit bioreaktor yakni bioreaktor hibrid anaerob dengan media imobilisasi sel tandan kosong sawit dan bioreaktor hibrid anaerob dengan media imobilisasi sel pelepah sawit dengan volume kerja 2,5 m3. Proses pengolahan dilakukan dengan variasi laju pembebanan zat organik, yaitu10; 12,5; 14,28; 16,6; 20; 25; 33,3; 50 kg COD/m3hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penyisihan COD yang tertinggi dicapai sebesar 82,67% dengan laju pembebanan organik 14,28 kg COD/m3hari pada bioreaktor bermedia tandan kosong sawit dan 84% untuk laju pembebanan organik 16,6 kg COD/ m3hari pada bioreaktor bermedia pelepah sawit. Dengan demikian, kedua bioreaktor hibrid anaerob ini dapat digunakan untuk mengolah limbah cair industri minyak sawit dengan beban COD tinggi.Kata kunci: bioreaktor hibrid, COD, limbah cair, pelepah sawit, tandan kosong sawit
Perancangan Pabrik MTBE ( Metil Tertiari Butil Eter ) Dari Metanol Dengan Desain Alat Utama Menara Distilasi Metanol Recovery Tower Atsarina, Aufa Zakya; Amraini, Said Zul
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 8 (2021): Edisi 1 Januari s/d Juni 2021
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Human life will not be separated from vehicles as a medium of transportation that makes it easier to move from one place to another. Until now, oil is the largest percentage of vehicle fuel providers. One of the important components in fuel from petroleum is additives. The addition of additives can produce fuel with a higher octane function as a booster, and also enhances the combustion of fuel by the vehicle engine. The type of additive used in most countries is methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is produced from a catalytic reaction that occurs between methanol and isobutene which will be produced with a capacity of 280,000 tons / year. One of the supporting tools for producing MTBE is a distillation tower, namely the methanol recovery tower.This distillation tower will separate the methanol that is still mixed with water from the previous operation unit so that the methanol can be recovered. Distillation tower is designed with feed, distillate and bottom temperatures of 357 K, 329 K and 372 K and feed, distillate and bottom flow rates of 14,207 kg / hour, 11,812 kg / hour and 2394 kg / hour. The results of the design obtained the distillation tower diameter and height of 5.28 m and 17.86 m with the number of trays is 35 pieces. The overall process to produce MTBE requires one fixed bed multitubular reactor, one mixer, four distillation units, three heat exchangers (one double pipe type and two shell and tube types), 2 heaters units (shell and tube), 2 coolers (double pipe), 3 centrifugal pumps with 5 storage tanks. The amount of Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) is $ 39,009,534. The amount of Direct Cost (DC) is $ 17,571,862 and Indirect Cost (IC) is $ 21,437,671. The Working Capital Investment (WCI) fee is $ 6,884,035 and the Total Capital Investment (TCI) fee is $ 45,893,569. The value of the Break Even Point (BEP) is 50%. The amount of Return On Investment (ROI) is 52%, Pay Out Time (POT) is 1.5 years, Shut Down Point (SDP) is 0.1% and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is 22.76%. The most sensitive factors that can affect the feasibility of this project are the selling price of the product and the volume of production. So that based on the analysis that has been done, it can be concluded that the factory is feasible to build. Keywords: Methyl Tert Butyl Ether, Methanol, Net Profit After Tax.
Prarancangan Pabrik Mtbe (Metil Tertiari Butil Eter) Dari Metanol Dengan Disain Alat Utama Reaktor MTBE (R-101) Pranoto, Monica Kartiningtyas; Amraini, Said Zul
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 8 (2021): Edisi 2 Juli s/d Desember 2021
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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There are more motorized vehicles in Indonesia in line with the increasing demand for fuel. This development will have a negative impact, environmental pollution so MTBE is a substances with a lower risk and environmentally friendly are chosen. The target market of this factory is to meet the need for MTBE in Indonesia and to export it to the Asia Pacific region. MTBE production process is carried out by reacting methanol with isobuten with a capacity is 280,000 tons/year. The MTBE reactor serves as a place for reacting methanoland isobuten to produce MTBE. The reactor is fixed bed multi tube type which has 109 tubes with Torisperical flanged dished head. Reactor operating temperature is 60ºC, pressure is 6 bar and using Amberlyst 15 as catalyst. The height of the reactor is 26.3 ft and diameter is 4.5 ft. The reaction is exothermic, so the principle of the reactor is like a shell and tube heat exchanger with cooling water flow of 1,070,054 lb/hour. The value of FixedCapital Investment is $ 39,009,534. The value of the Working Capital Investment is obtained 15% of the Total Capital Investment (TCI) or worth $ 6,884,035 so that the TCI is $ 45,893,569. The total production cost is $ 349,777,652 so that it will generate a grossprofit as $ 220,011,513 after deducting 35% tax. ROI after tax is 88%, BEP is 50% and Pay out time for 1 year with a Shut Down Point is 0.23%. This factory has an IRR that is 22.76% which is greater than the RRR of a bank which is 22.55%, then the value of NPV is $ 90,140,564 which is greater than the TCI. From these two factors, it can be concluded that the MTBE plant is feasible to build.Keyword: Isobutene, Methanol, methyl tert butyl ether, reactor fixed bed multi tube