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Biofuels Production from Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil Using Modified HY Zeolite Catalysts over A Continuous Fixed Bed Catalytic Reactor Istadi, I.; Riyanto, Teguh; Buchori, Luqman; Anggoro, Didi D.; Pakpahan, Andre W. S.; Pakpahan, Agnes J.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 10, No 1 (2021): February 2021
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.2021.33281

Abstract

The increase in energy demand led to the challenging of alternative fuel development. Biofuels from palm oil through catalytic cracking appear as a promising alternative fuel. In this study, biofuel was produced from palm oil through catalytic cracking using the modified HY zeolite catalysts. The Ni and Co metals were impregnated on the HY catalyst through the wet-impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Pyridine-probed Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. The biofuels product obtained was analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine its composition. The metal impregnation on the HY catalyst could modify the acid site composition (Lewis and Brønsted acid sites), which had significant roles in the palm oil cracking to biofuels. Ni impregnation on HY zeolite led to the high cracking activity, while the Co impregnation led to the high deoxygenation activity. Interestingly, the co-impregnation of Ni and Co on HY catalyst could increase the catalyst activity in cracking and deoxygenation reactions. The yield of biofuels could be increased from 37.32% to 40.00% by using the modified HY catalyst. Furthermore, the selectivity of gasoline could be achieved up to 11.79%. The Ni and Co metals impregnation on HY zeolite has a promising result on both the cracking and deoxygenation process of palm oil to biofuels due to the role of each metal. This finding is valuable for further catalyst development, especially on bifunctional catalyst development for palm oil conversion to biofuels.
PENGAMBILAN MINYAK KEDELAI DARI AMPAS TAHU SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL Buchori, Luqman; Sasongko, Setia Budi; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Aryanti, Nita
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 10, No 2 (2012): Oktober 2012
Publisher : School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro Univer

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (764.317 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.10.2.49-53

Abstract

ABSTRAK Kedelai adalah komoditi terbesar setelah padi di Indonesia. Kebutuhannya mencapai 2,3 juta ton per tahun. Dari jumlah tersebut 50% dikonsumsi berupa tempe, 40% berupa tahu, dan 10% berupa minyak kedelai. Dari produksi tahu, dihasilkan limbah ampas tahu. Dalam penelitian ini, lemak pada ampas tahu diekstraksi untuk mendapatkan minyak kedelai yang dijadikan bahan baku biodiesel. Hasil ekstraksi kemudian dianalisa untuk dibandingkan dengan standar bahan baku biodiesel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghitung berat lemak yang terekstrak dari ampas tahu terhadap lama waktu ekstraksi dan jenis solven yang digunakan, serta mengetahui komposisi minyak ampas tahu tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa waktu ekstraksi dan jenis solven mempengaruhi jumlah lemak yang dapat terekstrak. Benzene merupakan solven yang dapat mengekstrak minyak lebih baik daripada solven toluene dan n-heksane. Solven benzene memiliki waktu optimum lima jam untuk mengekstrak lemak yang terdapat di dalam ampas tahu. Dari hasil analisa, diketahui bahwa kadar FFA minyak kedelai yang menggunakan solven benzene sebesar 4,8%, lebih kecil daripada menggunakan solven toluene (5,4%) dan n-heksan (5,8%). Sedangkan bilangan penyabunan diperoleh 184,22 mgKOH/gr untuk benzene, 193,55 mgKOH/gr untuk toluene dan 184,22 mgKOH/gr untuk n-heksan. Kandungan posfor yang didapat sebesar 0,19 untuk benzene, 0,23 untuk toluene dan 0,12% untuk n-heksan. Nilai ini masih dalam kategori besar sehingga harus melewati pretreatment terlebih dahulu sebelum melewati proses transesterifikasi menjadi biodiesel. Kata Kunci: ampas tahu; biodiesel; kedelai; minyak kedelai; transesterifikasi ABSTRACT Soybeans are the largest commodity after rice in Indonesia. Needs to reach 2.3 million tons per year. Of this amount 50% is consumed in the form of tempeh, 40% in the form of knowing, and 10% of soybean oil. From tofu production, tofu waste generated. In this study, fat on tofu extracted for soybean oil used as biodiesel feedstock. The results are then analyzed for compared to standard biodiesel feedstock. This study aimed to calculate the weight of fat extracted from the tofu waste to extraction time and the type of solvent and determines the composition of the oil tofu. The results showed that the extraction time and the type of solvent affects the amount of fat that can be extracted. Benzene is a solvent that can extract oil better than the solvents toluene and n-hexane. Benzene had five hours optimum to extract the fat in the tofu. From the analysis, it is known that the FFA content of soybean oil using benzene was 4.8%, smaller than toluene (5.4%) and n-heksane (5.8%). While these numbers obtained by saponification 184.22 mgKOH/gr for benzene, 193.55 mgKOH/gr for toluene and 184.22 mgKOH/gr for n-heksane. The content of phosphorus of 0.19 for benzene, 0.23 for toluene and 0.12% for n-heksane. This value is still in the major categories that must be passed before pretreatment process trough transesterification into biodiesel. Keywords: tofu waste; biodiesel; soybean; soybean oil; transesterification
STUDI KEARIFAN LOKAL SASI KELAPA PADA MASYARAKAT ADAT DI DESA NGILNGOF KABUPATEN MALUKU TENGGARA Renjaan, Melissa Justine; Purnaweni, Hartuti; Anggoro, Didi Dwi
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 11, No 1 (2013): April 2013
Publisher : School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro Univer

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (275.304 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.11.1.23-29

Abstract

Dealuminasi dan Karakterisasi Zeolite Y sebagai Katalis untuk Konversi Gliserol menjadi Glycerol Monolaurate Didi Dwi Anggoro; Wahyu Bahari Setianto; Fadhil Rifqi P; Antonio Giovanno
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2016: Prosiding SNTKK 2016
Publisher : Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia Kejuangan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Glycerol is a side product of a biodiesel production using transesterification process and an alcoholic compound that consists of three hydroxyl group. One of the glycerol derivative compound is Glycerol Monolaurate which used in food additives, surfactant, medicine, cosmetics and others. In the making of Glycerol Monolaurate, catalysts is used to accelerate the reaction and increasing the yield of Glycerol Monolaurate. One of the catalysts that had been used is Zeolite Y. Dealumination is used to increase the acidity of the zeolites. Characterizationis used to determine the characteristics of the Zeolit Y that had been dealuminise. This study consists of several stages, there are dealumination of Zeolite Y using H2­SO4. Then, drying at 110 º C for 1 hour. Then, calcinating at 500-600 ºC for 3 hours. Catalyst characteristics are analyzing by the Surface Area Analyzer to determine the surface area of the catalyst, and analysis with X - Ray Diffraction (XRD) to identify the bulk phase and determine the nature of the catalyst crystals or crystalitation of a catalyst, and Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD) to analyze the acidity of Zeolit Y that had been dealuminise. So we can get the optimum condition to produce Zeolit Y catalysts which also can Glycerol Monolaurate with the biggest yield possible.
Pembuatan Briket Arang Dari Campuran Tempurung Kelapa dan Serbuk Gergaji Kayu Sengon Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Wibawa, Muhammad Hanif Dzikri; Fathoni, Moch Zaenal
TEKNIK Vol 38, No 2 (2017): (Desember 2017)
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (589.868 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v38i2.13985

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Indonesia merupakan negara tropis yang memiliki potensi dalam pengembangan energi terbarukan berupa energy biomassa dari briket tempurung kelapa. Briket ini merupakan hasil pengolahan limbah biomasa, diantaranya tempurung kelapa dan serbuk kayu. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu, konsentrasi perekat dan komposisi bahan baku terhadap nilai kalor  briket. Bahan yang digunakan antara lain serbuk gergaji sengon, tempurung kelapa, tepung tapioka, aquadest. Alat yang digunakan kiln drum, alat pengempa briket, bom kalorimeter, oven, alat screening. Variabel berubah dalam percobaan adalah komposisi bahan baku dan kadar perekat. Langkah penelitian dilakukan dengan pengarangan bahan baku, pencampuran komposisi bahan baku dengan variabel perekat, pencetakan dan pengempaan, uji coba nilai kalor, terakhir analisa data. Hasil pengujian nilai kalor briket bahwa semakin banyak komposisi bahan yang memiliki kalor lebih tinggi maka nilai kalor  campuran briket akan semakin tinggi. Nilai kalor briket sampel tidak memenuhi syarat untuk briket arang buatan Amerika, Inggris, dan Jepang namun diantaranya memenuhi syarat standar nasional Indonesia. Penambahan perekat dalam  pembuatan briket tempurung kelapa dimaksudkan agar partikel arang saling berikatan dan tidak mudah hancur, namun penambahan perekat yang berlebih akan menurunkan kualitas briket, semakin tinggi kadar perekat maka nilai kalor akan berkurang
OPTIMASI PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH ORGANIK RUMAH TANGGA MENGGUNAKAN KOMBINASI AKTIVATOR EM4 DAN MOL TERHADAP RASIO C/N Subandriyo, S; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Hadiyanto, H
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 10, No 2 (2012): Oktober 2012
Publisher : School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro Univer

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (909.901 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.10.2.70-75

Abstract

ABSTRAK Penelitian ini menggunakan sampah organik rumah tangga berupa campuran sampah organik dari dapur dan kebun dengan penambahan aktivator EM4, MOL dan campuran EM4/MOL. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan yaitu perbandingan kombinasi volume campuran aktivator EM4 dan MOL dan waktu fermentasi. Data hasil percobaan diplotkan dalam sebuah model matematis dan selanjutnya dioptimasi menggunakan software Statistica 6.0 dengan metode Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh model matematika untuk hubungan penggunaan kombinasi aktivator EM4 dan MOL  untuk nilai C/N : Y= 20,47 – 3,53X1 – 1,20X2 – 3,80X12 – 0,31X22 – 0,08X1X2.Hasil kondisi optimum variabel pengomposan terhadap nilai parameter hasil kompos yang diperoleh dari Grafik response fitted surface dan contour plot yang dihasilkan menunjukkan jenis optimasi proses nilai C/N maksimal terjadi pada 21% (warna coklat tua) pada campuran EM4/MOL 0,6 sampai dengan 1,2 dan waktu fermentasi 14 sampai dengan 30 hari. Kata kunci : sampah organik rumah tangga, pengomposan, response surfase methodology, rasio C/N. ABSTRACT This research using household organic waste that is a mixture of organic waste from the kitchen and garden with the addition of an activator EM4, MOL and mixed EM4/MOL. The research design used is a combination of volume mix ratio and activator EM4/MOL and the fermentation time. The data results was plotted on a mathematical model and then optimized using the software Statistica 6.0 Response Surface Methodology methods (RSM).The results obtained by use of a mathematical model for the relationship activator combination EM4 and MOL for a C/N: Y= 20,47 – 3,53X1 – 1,20X2 – 3,80X12 – 0,31X22 – 0,08X1X2.The optimum conditions for composting variable parameter values compost obtained from Graph fitted response surface and contour plots that indicates the type of process optimization resulting of C/N ratio maximum occurred in 21% (dark brown color) in a mixture EM4/MOL of 0.6 to 1.2 and fermentation time 14 to 30 days. Keywords: household organic waste, composting, response surface methodology, the C/N ratio
Effect of Temperature on Plasma-Assisted Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil into Biofuels Istadi, I.; Riyanto, Teguh; Buchori, Luqman; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Saputra, Roni Ade; Muhamad, Theobroma Guntur
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 9, No 1 (2020): February 2020
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.9.1.107-112

Abstract

Plasma-assisted catalytic cracking is an attractive method for producing biofuels from vegetable oil. This paper studied the effect of reactor temperature on the performance of plasma-assisted catalytic cracking of palm oil into biofuels. The cracking process was conducted in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD)-type plasma reactor with the presence of spent RFCC catalyst. The reactor temperature was varied at 400, 450, and 500 ºC. The liquid fuel product was analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the compositions. Result showed that the presenceof plasma and catalytic role can enhance the reactor performance so that the selectivity of the short-chain hydrocarbon produced increases. The selectivity of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel range fuels over the plasma-catalytic reactor were 16.43%, 52.74% and 21.25%, respectively, while the selectivity of gasoline, kerosene and diesel range fuels over a conventional fixed bed reactor was 12.07%, 39.07%, and 45.11%, respectively. The increasing reactor temperature led to enhanced catalytic role of cracking reaction,particularly directing the reaction to the shorter hydrocarbon range. The reactor temperature dependence on the liquid product components distribution over the plasma-catalytic reactor was also studied. The aromatic and oxygenated compounds increased with the reactor temperature.©2020. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved