Nengah Bawa Atmadja
Faculty of Economy and Business, Ganesha University of Education, Bali

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GERIA PUSAT INDUSTRI BANTEN NGABEN DI BALI PERSPEKTIF SOSIOLOGI KOMODIFIKASI AGAMA Atmadja, Nengah Bawa
Jurnal Kawistara Vol 4, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Sekolah Pascasarjana UGM

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (411.59 KB)

Abstract

In the 2000s, banten (offerings) of ngaben (cremation), a ritual of death in Balinese community is obtainedthrough market so it creates the commodification of banten. This condition is caused by the characteristicsof banten as an economic item, so the Balinese especially women is no longer to be able to make banten,and the expanding of market ideology turns someone to be more comfortable buying banten ngaben ratherthan making them independently. This condition provides an opportunity for geria (house of the priest)to develop the industry of banten. This is well corresponded with the ideology prevailing in geria, namelymarket ideology so that they see banten as a source of benefit. The position of geria is stronger than theconsumer of banten because geria dominates various capitals, such as economic, social, cultural, and symboliccapital synergistically. As the result, geria as banten manufacturer controls consumer hegemonically. Thisphenomenon is reflected on the price of banten set by geria and the consumer is just following
Women as Canang Sari Street Vendors in Bali Atmadja, Anantawikarama Tungga; Ariyani, Luh Putu Sri; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa
KOMUNITAS: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDONESIAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE Vol 8, No 1 (2016): Komunitas, March 2016
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/komunitas.v8i1.5116

Abstract

Every Hindu family in Bali dedicates offerings of Canang Sari on a daily basis. The provision of the offering is not always created by them, but they buy canang sari. This has turned canang sari into a market commodity. Therefore, women have emerged as canang sari street vendors in the several towns in Bali. This study examines the reasons why women do this job, especially in Singaraja Regency. The approach of this research was qualitative study which focused on critical social theory. The results show that the reasons women do such business activities not solely because canang sari street vendors is an informal economic sector, but also it is related to the ownership of economic, social, cultural, and symbolic capitals. This reason is strengthened by the condition of Balinese who have affected by McDonaldization society so they prefer to buy canang sari rather than making it their own.
Deconstructing Gender Stereotypes in Leak Atmadja, Nengah Bawa; Sendratari, Luh Putu; Rai, I Wayan
KOMUNITAS: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture Vol 7, No 1 (2015): Komunitas, March 2015
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/komunitas.v7i1.3597

Abstract

The belief of Balinese people towards leak still survive. Leak is a magic based on durgaism that can transform a person from human to another form, such as apes, pigs, etc. People tend to regard leak as evil. In general, the evilness is constructed in gender stereotypes, so it is identified that leak are always women. This idea is a power game based on the ideology of patriarchy that provides legitimacy for men to dominate women with a plea for social harmony. As a result, women are marginalized in the Balinese society. Women should be aware of so it would provide encouragement for them to make emancipatory changes dialogically. Kepercayaan orang Bali terhadap leak tetap bertahan sampai saat ini. Leak adalah sihir yang berbasiskan durgaisme yang dapat mengakibatkan seseorang bisa merubah bentuk dari manusia ke wujud yang lain, misalnya kera, babi, dll. Leak termasuk magi hitam sehingga dinilai bersifat jelek. Pada umumnya perempuan diidentikkan dengan leak sehingga melahirkan asumsi yang bermuatan steriotip gender bahwa leak = perempuan. Gagasan ini merupakan permainan kekuasaan berbasis ideologi patriarkhi dan sekaligus memberikan legitimasi bagi laki-laki untuk menguasai perempuan dengan dalih demi keharmonisan sosial. Akibatnya, perempuan menjadi termarginalisasi pada masyarakat Bali.  Perempuan harus menyadarinya sehingga memberikan dorongan bagi mereka untuk melakukan perubahan secara dialogis emansipatoris.
Women as Canang Sari Street Vendors in Bali Atmadja, Anantawikarama Tungga; Ariyani, Luh Putu Sri; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa
KOMUNITAS: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture Vol 8, No 1 (2016): Komunitas, March 2016
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/komunitas.v8i1.5116

Abstract

Every Hindu family in Bali dedicates offerings of Canang Sari on a daily basis. The provision of the offering is not always created by them, but they buy canang sari. This has turned canang sari into a market commodity. Therefore, women have emerged as canang sari street vendors in the several towns in Bali. This study examines the reasons why women do this job, especially in Singaraja Regency. The approach of this research was qualitative study which focused on critical social theory. The results show that the reasons women do such business activities not solely because canang sari street vendors is an informal economic sector, but also it is related to the ownership of economic, social, cultural, and symbolic capitals. This reason is strengthened by the condition of Balinese who have affected by McDonaldization society so they prefer to buy canang sari rather than making it their own.
Commodification of Tri Datu Bracelets Talisman in Balinese Community Atmadja, Anantawikrama Tungga; Ariyani, Luh Putu Sri; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa
KOMUNITAS: International Journal of Indonesian Society and Culture Vol 9, No 2 (2017): Komunitas, September 2017
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/komunitas.v9i2.8325

Abstract

This article is the result of qualitative research with critical paradigm on two issues, the meaning of tri datu bracelet talisman as well as commodities and reasons of its use. Informants were set purposively, i.e. tri datu bracelet talisman makers, sellers, users, and religious leaders. Data collection techniques were interview, observation and document study. The data analysis followed the steps of conceptualization, the results of conceptualization, verification, and objectivation. The results show that the commodification of tri datu bracelet talisman created commodity or popular tri datu bracelet talisman refers to its position as an artifact for the fulfillment of human basic needs on security. This situation raises the creative industries of tri datu bracelet talisman. The use of this talisman is associated with the meaning of tri datu = Tri Murti = Tri Sakti = Om = Ganesha and reinforced by Pancadewata = kepeng (ancient coin). Therefore, its magical power becomes a supreme power in order to overcome danger from niskala (bhuta Kala and black magic). The joy of wearing this talisman is not only because it is easy to buy, but also because the Balinese still believe in its magical power. More importantly, Tri datu bracelet is also the identity of Balinese ethnic as the identity of hope and resistance in the context of Ajeg Bali movement.
PITAMAHA: MIMICRY IN ARTS AND DESIGN DURING THE COLONIAL ERA Supir, I Ketut; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa; Mudana, I Gede
E-Jurnal Kajian Budaya (Online Journal of Cultural Studies) Vol 9, No 1 (2016): February 2016
Publisher : E-Jurnal Kajian Budaya (Online Journal of Cultural Studies)

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Abstract

During the pre-colonial era the Balinese arts and design were dominated by the themes of puppetry which contained the Hindu religious teachings. When the Dutch colonial government controlled Bali, the Balinese arts and design changed. This present study is intended to explore the existence of the Pitamaha association and the attitude of the Pitamaha painters towards the domination of the modern arts and design taught by Spies and Bonnet. The qualitative method and the postcolonial theory combined with various other critical supporting theories were used in the present study. The result of the study shows that Pitamaha is the first modern association of arts in Bali. However, Pitamaha still integrated the pattern of the Balinese traditional association. In this association, the royal elites were involved as the mediators between Spies and Bonnet and the Balinese painters. Spies and Bonnet taught the modern arts which were different from and even contrasted with the Balinese arts and design. However, the Pitamaha painters welcome it. This could not be separated from the practice of teaching through hegemony and domination which contrasted with what had been desired by the Balinese painters who intended to maintain the Balinese arts and design. In such an ambivalent condition, they mimed the modern arts and design. The mimicry made was not intended to mime the modern arts and design; instead, the mimicry made was intended to interpret with reference to the norms of the Balinese arts and design.
PITAMAHA: MIMICRY IN ARTS AND DESIGN DURING THE COLONIAL ERA Supir, I Ketut; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol 9 No 1 (2016): Volume 9, Number 1, February 2016
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

During the pre-colonial era the Balinese arts and design were dominated by the themes of puppetry which contained the Hindu religious teachings. When the Dutch colonial government controlled Bali, the Balinese arts and design changed. This present study is intended to explore the existence of the Pitamaha association and the attitude of the Pitamaha painters towards the domination of the modern arts and design taught by Spies and Bonnet. The qualitative method and the postcolonial theory combined with various other critical supporting theories were used in the present study. The result of the study shows that Pitamaha is the first modern association of arts in Bali. However, Pitamaha still integrated the pattern of the Balinese traditional association. In this association, the royal elites were involved as the mediators between Spies and Bonnet and the Balinese painters. Spies and Bonnet taught the modern arts which were different from and even contrasted with the Balinese arts and design. However, the Pitamaha painters welcome it. This could not be separated from the practice of teaching through hegemony and domination which contrasted with what had been desired by the Balinese painters who intended to maintain the Balinese arts and design. In such an ambivalent condition, they mimed the modern arts and design. The mimicry made was not intended to mime the modern arts and design; instead, the mimicry made was intended to interpret with reference to the norms of the Balinese arts and design.
IDEOLOGICAL DECONSTRUCTION OF THE PROMOTIONAL MEDIA IN BALI CULTURAL TOURISM Udayana, AA Gde Bagus; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa; Dhana, I Nyoman
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 10, Number 1, February 2017
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (512.487 KB) | DOI: 10.24843/cs.2017.v10.i01.p04

Abstract

The regional regulation issued by the Provincial Government Number 2 of 2012 defines that Tri Hita Karana is a Hindu philosophy explaining the three things which contribute to prosperity. Therefore, the promotional media of tourism should be ideally based on the ideology of Tri Hita Karana. However, the fact shows that it has been marginalized in the promotional media of the Bali cultural tourism. In relation to this, three main theories are used in the present study. They are the theory of deconstruction, the theory of practice, and the theory of social reality construction. The qualitative, descriptive, and interpretative methods were employed to analyze the data, which were collected through in-depth interview, observation and documentary study. Based on the result of the study, it can be concluded that the capitalistic ideology, the ideology of cultural dualism, the ideology of consumerism, the ideology of commercialism, the ideology of totalitarianism, and the ideology of pseudo-social responsibility have been responsible for the marginalization of the ideology of Tri Hita Karana in the promotional media of the Bali cultural tourism. The system used to deconstruct the promotional media of the Bali cultural tourism involves the government, private companies, and the graphic design consultants. They are oriented towards their respective ideology and interest. The ideology and interest-oriented promotional media of the Bali cultural tourism affect the image of Bali as a tourist destination. The implications are as follows: Bali is an area of the culture of tourism; it is an area where postmodern people live; it is an area where glocalization takes place; it is an area where modern spirituality develops; it is also an area where the identity of the Balinese people and culture is shown not to be in accordance with the fact.
PATRIARCHAL IDEOLOGY IN WORKS OF VISUAL ART OF BALINESE CONTEMPORARY WOMEN ARTISTS Hardiman, Hardiman; Putra, I Nyoman Darma; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa; Mudana, I Gede
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 11, Number 3, August 2018
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (646.232 KB) | DOI: 10.24843/cs.2018.v11.i03.p01

Abstract

Human problems are faced faced by Indonesian contemporary visual artists. However, the most typical are the problems faced by contemporary women visual artists, including those faced by Balinese contemporary women visual artists. Other than social problems, their personal problems also arise as women visual artists amidst patriarchal cultural construction. Balinese contemporary women visual artists, like Indonesian contemporary visual artists, are facing social problems and their personal problems as women. But, Balinese contemporary women visual artists also face very strong patriarchal (purusa) cultural ideology. This study aimed at revealing and describing the form of the subject matter of woman’s body as an expression of opposition in the works of visual art of the Balinese contemporary women visual artists; revealing and describing ideologies that operate behind the sexual representation of the Balinese contemporary women visual artists and revealing and describing the contestation of meaning in the ideological sexual representation of Balinese contemporary women visual artists. This study using interpretive qualitative method produced, first, works of Balinese contemporary women artists which have traditional visual elements comprising contour, repetition, rythm, dialect. The works of Balinese contemporary women visual artists also have modern visual elements comprising spatial awareness,distortion, stylization, material character, unity, and personal identity. In addition, the works of Balinese contemporary women artists also have post-modern visual elements of trans-aesthetics, dialogism, and disorder. Secondly, the ideologies that operate behind the works of Balinese contemporary visual artists can be classified into three ideologies based on the forms and contents of the works of art. The ideologies are patriarchal ideology that is related to the theme of superiority,phallus symbol, and weak group; feminism ideology that is related to the theme of subordination, equality, and subjectivity construction, and aesthetical ideology concerning with style, which is related to the classification of styles based on time, place, form, technique, and subjject matter. Third, meanings which can be developed from Balinese contemporary women visual artists are the meaning of domestic body and the meaning of open body in the sexual representation of Balinese contemporary women artists. The meaning of domestic body is found in the works of Cok Mas Asiti, Ni Nyoman Sani, and Sutrisni. Sani while the meaning of open body in the works of IGK Murniasih and Nia Kurniati Andika.
THE ROLE PLAYED BY THE STAKEHOLDERS IN THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE ART OF CRAFT AT TEGALLALANG, GIANYAR, BALI Sila, I Nyoman; Ardika, I Wayan; Atmadja, Nengah Bawa; Dhana, I Nyoman
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 10, Number 1, February 2017
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (512.274 KB) | DOI: 10.24843/cs.2017.v10.i01.p02

Abstract

The industrialization of the art of craft at Tegallalang, Gianyar, Bali results from the technological, economic and cultural development and leads to the production of different types of products of the art of craft. The industrialization of the art of craft cannot be separated from the role played by the stakeholders in order to obtain benefit. The problems of the study are as follows (a) what stakeholders play roles in the industrialization of the art of craft at Tegallalang, Gianyar, Bali? (2) How the stakeholders play their roles in the industrialization of the art of craft at Tegallalang, Gianyar, Bali? This present study is a qualitative one in which the critical theory of social practice proposed by Bourdieu and the ethnographic approach are used. The result of the study shows that the stakeholders playing roles in the industrialization of the art of craft at Tegallalang, Gianyar, Bali include the parents, the traditional village, the administrative village, the local government, the provincial government, craftsmen, the raw material supplier, the formal and informal financial institution, and foreign consumers. The stakeholders play their roles using different capitals such as the cultural capital, social capital, and economical capital. Those who have big capitals will dominate those who have fewer capitals and organize what products should be produced.