The concept of the analysis is to put a CaAl2O4:Mn2+ green phosphor layer on top of the YAG:Ce3+ yellow phosphor layer. After that, find the added CaAl2O4:Mn2+ concentration appropriate for the highest luminous flux (LF) and color homogeneity (CH). In this analysis, five equivalent WLEDs were applied but with distinct color temperatures, including 5600 K - 8500 K. The findings showed that CaAl2O4:Mn2+ brings great benefits to increase not only the luminous flux but also the color homogeneity. Especially, the higher the CaAl2O4:Mn2+ concentration, the more the luminous flux released by WLEDs, owing to the risen content of the light of green in WLEDs. Nevertheless, as the CaAl2O4:Mn2+ concentration raised significantly, a small reduction in the color rendering metric (CRI) and color quality scale (CQS) occurred. This is supported by simulation and calculation according to the theory of Monte Carlo. The paper results are the crucial contribution to the manufacture of WLEDs with better optical performance and color homogeneity of remote phosphor configurations.
Although the luminous of the remote phosphor structure tends to be better than that of the in-cup or conformal phosphor structures, the poor light quality prevents this lighting method from being widely used. It is recognized through experiments that the two-layer remote phosphorus structure should be used to improve color rendering index (CRI) and color quality ratio (CQS) for WLEDs. In the experiments, WLED structures containing green BaY2F8:Er3+,Yb3+ or red Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ phosphor on the yellow YAG:Ce3+ phosphor were performed at 8500 K.. After that, Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ and BaY2F8:Er3+,Yb3+ concentrations in each WLED structure is adjusted until chromatic performance reached the finest quality. As a result, Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+is proved to bring great benefits to the increase of CRI and CQS. Specifically, the greater the concentration of Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+, the better CRI and CQS because of the additional red-light material from this phosphor. The other phosphor material, green BaY2F8:Er3+,Yb3+ phosphor, is beneficial for the expansion of luminous flux. However, if the concentration of Mg8Ge2O11F2:Mn4+ or BaY2F8:Er3+,Yb3+ is over the limit, the decrease in lumen output and chromatic quality will occur. While doing the experiment, Mie-scattering theory and the Beer’s law are great tools to verify the accuracy of results. The results of this article can serve the purpose of improving WLEDs fabrication to produce higher quality product.
The phosphor layer shape and components distances are the subjects proposed to advance the quality of WLEDs in this article. The two distances, between phosphor layers (d1) and between the phosphor layer and the LED chip (d2) in Flat dual-remote phosphor (FDRP) and Concave dual-remote phosphor (CDRP) were examined by experiments to determine their impacts on WLEDs lighting performances. The results suggest that FDRP is a better option than CDRP for lighting performance. In each respective structure, the distances influence the lighting capacity and color output whenever they fluctuate. Therefore, to effectively control and study this phenomenon, the correlated color temperature is maintained at 8500 K, and the concentration of phosphor material is altered while the distances are changing. When d1 and d2 are at the starting value of 0, the recorded lumen output and chromatic performance of lighting devices are the lowest and begin to increase as d1 and d2 expand. Bigger d1 and d2 mean bigger scattering area and better chromatic light integration, which leads to higher color quality. Detailed results present that optimal values of d1 or d2 for the highest lumen output of 1020 lm are 0.08 mm or 0.63 mm, respectively. Meanwhile the lowest color deviation is accomplished with d1=0.64 mm or d2=1.35 mm.
TiO2 nanoparticle and silicon composite has powerful effect of scattering, thus it is famous in enhancing the scattered light in light-emitting diode (LED) packages. To accomplish higher lighting performance in LED devices, a thin encapsulation layer of TiO2 with high concentration and silicon glue is introduced to complement the main encapsulation one. After conducting experiments, the results present that in the case of the main encapsulation including only silicone, the light extraction efﬁciency (LEE) of COB LEDs increases to 65%. On the other hand, when there is the additional layer of TiO2 and silicone, the improvement of LEE depends on the concentration of TiO2. As this nanoparticle concentration decreases from 0.12 to 0.035 g/cm3, the LEE can be enhanced from 6% to 24%. Moreover, at the average correlated color temperature (CCT) of approximately 8500 K, the layer of TiO2/silicone composite can help to accomplish the reduction of the angular correlated color temperature (CCT) deviation, from 900 to 470 K, within −90° to 90° viewing angle range.
Though combining blue LED chips with yellow phosphor has been the most common method in white light-emitting diode (WLED) production, the attained angular correlated color temperature (CCT) uniformity is still poor. Thus, this article proposes to add ZnO nanostructures to WLED packages to promote the color uniformity of the WLEDs. The outcomes of the research demonstrate that utilizing ZnO at different amount can affect the scattering energy and the CCT deviations in WLEDs packages in different extents. Particularly, adding the node-like (N-ZnO), sheet-like (S-ZnO), and rod-like (R-ZnO) leads to the corresponding decreases of CCT deviations from 3455.49 K to 96.30 K, 40.03 K, and 60.09 K, respectively. Meanwhile, with 0.25% N-ZnO, 0.75% S-ZnO, and 0.25 % R-ZnO, WLED devices can achieve both better CCT homogeneity and lower reduction in luminous flux. The results of this article can be a valuable document for the manufacturer to use as reference in improving their WLED products.
If remote phosphor structures are put into comparison with conformal phosphor or in-cup phosphor, their luminous flux are better, but the color quality is not as elevated. This leads to an obvious need of a practical solution to enhance color quality. Therefore, many studies were carried out to achieve this purpose, and so is ours. We proposed using two layers of phosphor in WLEDs to achieve better rendering ability and chromatic performance. The identical WLEDs with different color temperatures, 5600 K-8500 K, were used and reported in this paper. Our research consists of two parts, which are placing a layer of red phosphor SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+on the yellow YAG:Ce3+ phosphor layer at first, and then specifying an appropriate SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ concentration to reach the highest color performance. It is shown that with the contribution of SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+,the color rendering index (CRI) and color quality scale (CQS) are increased. This can be explained by the increased amount of red light components in the WLEDs when the concentration of SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ was greater. However, excessive SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ will cause the reduction in the flux, which has been proven by the application of Mie scattering and the Lambert-Beer law. Therefore, the conclusion will present an optimal amount of SrwFxByOz:Eu2+,Sm2+ to obtain high color quality while minimizing the light loss.
The usage of BaSO4 nanoparticles on WLEDs luminous flux and color uniformity improvements have been analyzed and demonstrated in this manuscript. The mixture of BaSO4 and silicone placed on the yellow phosphor layer benefits the internal light scattering and thus enhances the angular correlated color temperature (CCT) homogeneity. Specifically, the blue-light intensity at large angles tend to increase and results in light intensity discrepancy, which can be corrected with added BaSO4. In addition to this, the BaSO4-silicone composite modifies the refractive index of the air-phosphor layer interface to an appropriate value, and thus, the luminous efficiency increases. The results show that the CCT deviations is reduced by 580 K, from 1000 K to 420 K, within the angle range from -700 to +700 with BaSO4 in the phosphor structure. The increase in luminous flux is also recorded by 2.25%, in comparison with that of the non-BaSO4 traditional structure, at the 120-mA driving current. Hence, integrating BaSO4 nanoparticles into the remote phosphor structure can contributes to the enhancement of both lumen output and CCT uniformity.
Light-emitting diodes devices that embedded with multiple chips (multi-chip white LEDs (MCW-LEDs)) are an advanced lighitng solution with much potential for improvement in the lighting industry. However, to further the applicacations and quality of white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) greater achivements must be found, thus, this paper focus on improving the color uniformity and luminous flux with green phosphor Ca2La2BO6.5:Pb2+. The results, which were measured through experiments conducted in WLEDs with average correlated color temperature from 6600–7700 K, show enhancements in color uniformity and luminous efficacy. In particular, the growing trend in the concentration of green phosphor Ca2La2BO6.5:Pb2+ results better color uniformity and lumnous flux, although the color quality scale (CQS) suffers a small decline. Therefore, it is confirmed that the Ca2La2BO6.5:Pb2+ phosphor is suitable in manufacturing WLEDs that focus on the color uniformity and luminous flux.
The poor color rendering index (CRI) induced by mono chip and phosphor configuration in the conventional white-light light-emitting diode (LED) urges for developments in both packaging and material, thus, a modern lighting solution was introduced. The dual-layer phosphor package is an innovative configuration that can retain the lumen output of conventional white light emitting diode (WLED) while also enhancing color quality. The structure of dual-layer phosphor package that was proposed includes two chips and one phosphor. The priority in this research is to keep improving the lighting properties of WLED, therefore, further experiments with this dual-chips and dual-phosphor package are conducted. The lighting properties of LED are measured multiple times with its nitride-based phosphor being altered in proportions and densities each occasion, the results are calculated with a color design model made specifically to monitor and adjust the color of white-light from LED to match desired outcome. The WLED at 5600 K correlated color temperature (CCT) is the sole research object of the experiments. The measured parameters from the 5600 K WLED and the color coordinates of CIE 1931 simulated from the color design model show that 0.0063 is the highest possible discrepancy at 5600 K (CCT). The information from this manuscript provide the manufacturers with the most efficient approach to create a white LED that has good color quality, high CRI and luminous flux.
The effects of red light-emitting phosphor CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+,Mn2+ on the optical properties of single-layer remote phosphor structure (SRPS) and dual-layer remote phosphor structure (DRPS) are the focus of this study. The differences in color quality and luminous flux (LF) of white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) between these two structures are also revealed and demonstrated based on the Mie theory. SRPS consists of one mixed phosphor layer betweenCaMgSi2O6:Eu2+,Mn2+ andYAG:Ce3+particles, while DRPS includes two separated layers: red phosphor layer and yellow phosphor layer. In this work, 5% SiO2 is added into the phosphor layers to increase scattering abilities. Discrepancies in structures greatly affect the optical characteristics of WLEDs. The results showed that the color rendering index (CRI) increased with the concentration in both structures with nearly equal values. Meanwhile, color quality scale (CQS) of DPRS is 74 at ACCTs ranging from 5600K to 8500K, higher than CQS of SRPS which is only 71 at 8500K. In addition, the luminous flux of DRPS is significantly higher than SRPS at 2% -14% of CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+,Mn2+. In summary, DRPS is better for color quality and lumen outputin comparison to SRPS and adding the right amount of red phosphor can enhance CQS and LF.