Muhammad Badaruddin
Universitas Bakrie

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Indonesia Rejoining OPEC: Dynamics of the Oil Importer and Exporter Countries Badaruddin, Muhammad
JAS (Journal of ASEAN Studies) Vol 3, No 2 (2015): Journal of ASEAN Studies
Publisher : Centre for Business and Diplomatic Studies (CBDS) Bina Nusantara University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21512/jas.v3i2.841


Reactivation of Indonesia’s full membership to the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) triggered discussion surrounding global petroleum governance. The country which decided to suspend its full membership at the end of 2008, currently labelled as net oil importer. However, in OPEC terms Indonesia never really left, instead of the organization termed it as a "suspension”. Departing from the abovementioned context and perspectives, purpose of this essay is to answer the questions about the significance of the Indonesia’s membership reactivation to OPEC, and the strategic context of the reactivation in the current global oil market. In answering these questions, this article draws the dynamics of the relation of Indonesia and OPEC through the history in the first part and explores Indonesia’s interests in rejoining OPEC in the second one. In the third part, this essay will explore the possible benefit for OPEC as an organization as well as for its member countries could achieve by approving Indonesia’s request to reactivate its membership, despite its status as a net oil importer.
Indonesia-China Energy Trade: Analyzing Global and Domestic Political Economic Significance in Indonesia-China LNG Trade Badaruddin, Muhammad
JAS (Journal of ASEAN Studies) Vol 1, No 1 (2013): Journal of ASEAN Studies
Publisher : Centre for Business and Diplomatic Studies (CBDS) Bina Nusantara University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21512/jas.v1i1.59


Indonesia had been the largest LNG exporter for almost three decades since 1977 to 2005. During 1970s and 1980s, Indonesia’s energy industry boosted its economic growth that valued 80% of the country’s annual exports and 70% of its annual revenues. Meanwhile, Indonesia presents an exceptional case since it decreases its LNG export while it has been developing its largest LNG plant in Tangguh due to prioritizing domestic energy demand. But, since Indonesia eagerly links its economy to China, it uses LNG export as a medium to strengthen Indonesia-China strategic partnership. Tangguh LNG export to China, although it is not Indonesia’s largest LNG export contract, reflects a unique case of a developing country’s international energy trade. Because it presents evolution of Indonesia’s LNG export policy through dynamics of regional and global economic turbulences. This paper analyses the LNG export in the context of Asian economic crisis and its recovery, the peak of crude oil price in 2008 and followed by global financial crisis as the context as well as Indonesia’s domestic political dynamics.
China’s Petropolitics: Its Business and Diplomacy in the South China Sea Badaruddin, Muhammad; Adiputra Zulham , Cipto
Journal of International Relations on Energy Affairs Vol 1 No 2 (2020)
Publisher : Department of International Relations Universitas Pertamina

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.51413/jisea.Vol1.Iss2.2020.159-193


China faces the threat of oil scarcity which has prompted the country to seek alternative oil sources, one of the disputed South China Sea. This research will discuss the relationship between China's energy needs and efforts to control the South China Sea, describing China's policies (petropolitics) in three approaches, namely diplomacy, military (defense) and economy (business, investment and aid) and policy implementation to realize the interests of controlling oil resources in the South China Sea region. This research uses a descriptive-qualitative method to analyze comprehensively the policy documents and official statements of the Government of China and ASEAN countries and supported by literature studies. The results of this research indicate that of the three approaches, the economic approach such as business and investment by China in Southeast Asia is currently more effective for China to strengthen its position and influence in Southeast Asia and the SCS dispute area and to control the oil in it. Meanwhile, diplomacy and military (defense) approaches use to support this economic approach.