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THE PERFORMANCE OF REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANE IN WATER TREATMENT Budiyono, Budiyono; Buchori, Luqman
TEKNIK Volume 29, Nomor 1, Tahun 2008
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (155.88 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v29i1.1898

Abstract

Membrane technology has led to a new focus on water and wastewater treatment. This is due to severaldrawback of the conventional water treatment i.e release the toxic and carcinogenic materials. In thisresearch, the use Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane for treating river and well water to obtain clean anddrinking water was studied. The variables studied were effect of pressure and operation time to themembrane flux. The pressure was varied from 1 to 7 bar and the operation time was varied from 15 to 60minutes. The content of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) in the permeate product was analyzed. The resultsshown that the increase of pressure would increase the membrane flux and decrease TDS. The increaseof the operation time would decrease membrane flux and TDS. The reverse osmosis membrane wassuccessfully applied to treat the river and well water. The product fulfill national standard quality ofdrinking water by viewpoint of the TDS content
KINETIKA TRANSESTERIFIKASI BIODIESEL JARAK PAGAR Luqman, Buchori; Setia, Budi Sasongko
TEKNIK Volume 33, Nomor 2, Tahun 2012
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (63.516 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v33i2.4383

Abstract

Biodiesel were produced by trans-etherification of castor oil with alcohol in the presence of NaOH catalyst. Thereaction mechanism and model of castor oil trans-etherification isA + 3B C + 3 DA, B, C, and D were castor oil, alcohol, glycerol, and ester. The reaction rate equation was r=-dCA/dt =k1(CA)(CB)3–k2(CC)(CD)3. In this study was used two measurement method of free fat acid as the rest content ofcastor oil with SNI 01-3555-1998 and AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemist). It found that SNI 01-3555-1998 method was the easier and the acurate measurement. The classification of alcohol used was methanol andethanol to compare the action both of them. Methanol produces the higher conversion than ethanol. The reactionin a batch reactor with temperature 40, 50, and 60°C in atmospheric pressure as the operation condition tolooking for kinetics parameter of trans-etherification. Coefficient reaction rate and activation energy were lookinto kinetics study. Reaction rate was a mathematics model as a function of concentration and time which solvedby Runge-Kutta, multivariable optimization and SSE (some square error) method using Matlab. The activationenergy (Ea) and impact factor (A) obtained by linier regression method. The result of study obtained the kineticsparameter of trans-etherification with methanol k1=1.9313x1031exp (-41.940/RT) average error 0.0010 andk2=2.7678x1025exp(-37.362/ RT) average error 0.0003. While kinetics parameter of trans-etherification withethanol obtained k1=1.168x1019exp(-24.588/ RT) average error 0.0306 and k2=4.9966x106exp(-10.328/RT)average error 0.1589. It means, more reactive alcohol then bigger the value of kinetics parameter.
PENGNARUH SENSITIVITAS PARAMETER OPERASI TERHADAP TERJADINYA REAKSI RUNAWAY PADA OKSIDASI METANOL MENJADI FORMALDEHID Luqman Buchori; Suherman Suherman
Reaktor Volume 10 No. 1 Juni 2006
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.10.1.1-8

Abstract

Formaldehida sebagai senyawa aldehida memiliki keistimewaan yaitu dapat bereaksi dengan hampir semua senyawa organik maupun anorganik sehingga formaldehida amat luas penggunaannya dalam industri yang ada. Reaksi oksidasi metanol menjadi formaldehida banyak dilakukan dalam reaktor anggun tetap. Dalam pengoperasiannya, di dalam reaktor ini sering dijumpai adanya fenomena yang  sangat  komplikatif dan mengganggu jalannya operasi yaitu distribusi aliran tidak merata (flow maldistribution) dan panas terlokalisir (hot spot). Kedua fenomena ini  sangat berbahaya karena dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya reaksi "runaway", yakni terjadinya kenaikan temperatur dan tekanan  reaktor yang sangat hebat secara mendadak. Penelitian ini  bertujuan untuk mengetahui distribusi temperatur sepanjang reaktor unggun tetap akibat pengaruh variabel operasi serta mempelajari pengaruh sensitivitas parameter operasi tehadap terjadinya reaksi runaway. Penelitian dilakukan dengan percobaan pengamatan distribusi tempeatur pusat reaktor secara aksial dan pemodelan untuk mengetahui kapan terjadinya reaksi runaway. berdasarkan hasil percobaan, pada temperatur umpan mendekati temperatur reaksi, semakin besar laju alir massa umpan total maka suhu yang teramati semakin besar pula. Demikian pula pada pengaruh umpan, semakin besar tempperatur umpan maka temperatur keluaran reaktor juga semakin besar. Hasil penyepakatan secara umum menunjukkan pendekatan yang bagus dengan hasil eksperimen. Reaksi runaway terjadi pada hasil simulasi dimana parameter operasi yang berpengaruh adalah fraksi metanol. dalam penelitian ini direkomendasikan bahwa fraksi methanol dalam umpan tidak boleh lebih dari 0,1.
PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK GORENG BEKAS DENGAN PROSES CATALYTIC CRACKING Buchori, Luqman; Widayat, Widayat
TEKNIK Volume 28, Nomor 2, Tahun 2007
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (395.817 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v28i2.2116

Abstract

Crude oil is a source of energy which is not be renewable. This fact motivates so much countries ineconomizing on fuel. Many researches have been done to gets another fuel substitute the crude oil.Biodiesel is represented as fuel instead of diesel fuel, and it is produced from vegetable oil. In the otherside, ex-cooking oil is waste-product from food industry, restaurant and household which is potential tobe alternative fuels because of the high contents of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Commonly the biodieselmade from vegetable oil by esterification and transesterification process. But if using esterification andtransesterification process to ex-cooking oil material, it is not economically feasible because the processmakes another reaction between alkaly catalist and oil to produce soap. One of biodiesel process iscatalytic cracking of the ex-cooking oil. This research is aimed to analyze zeolite catalist size effect(0.125mm; 0.3375mm; 0.425mm; 0.85mm; 1.18mm), and acid concentration on the product (2N; 3N;4N). This result shows that at 4N acid concentration and 0.125 mm zeolite catalist size is optimal whichcan reach diesel specification.
Biofuels Production from Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil Using Modified HY Zeolite Catalysts over A Continuous Fixed Bed Catalytic Reactor Istadi, I.; Riyanto, Teguh; Buchori, Luqman; Anggoro, Didi D.; Pakpahan, Andre W. S.; Pakpahan, Agnes J.
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 10, No 1 (2021): February 2021
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.2021.33281

Abstract

The increase in energy demand led to the challenging of alternative fuel development. Biofuels from palm oil through catalytic cracking appear as a promising alternative fuel. In this study, biofuel was produced from palm oil through catalytic cracking using the modified HY zeolite catalysts. The Ni and Co metals were impregnated on the HY catalyst through the wet-impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Pyridine-probed Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. The biofuels product obtained was analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine its composition. The metal impregnation on the HY catalyst could modify the acid site composition (Lewis and Brønsted acid sites), which had significant roles in the palm oil cracking to biofuels. Ni impregnation on HY zeolite led to the high cracking activity, while the Co impregnation led to the high deoxygenation activity. Interestingly, the co-impregnation of Ni and Co on HY catalyst could increase the catalyst activity in cracking and deoxygenation reactions. The yield of biofuels could be increased from 37.32% to 40.00% by using the modified HY catalyst. Furthermore, the selectivity of gasoline could be achieved up to 11.79%. The Ni and Co metals impregnation on HY zeolite has a promising result on both the cracking and deoxygenation process of palm oil to biofuels due to the role of each metal. This finding is valuable for further catalyst development, especially on bifunctional catalyst development for palm oil conversion to biofuels.
OPTIMASI PROSES POLIMERISASI MINYAK KULIT JAMBU METE (CNSL, CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID) DENGAN FORMALDEHID Buchori, Luqman
TEKNIK Volume 31, Nomor 2, Tahun 2010
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (292.418 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v31i2.1769

Abstract

Jambu mete represents the crop which is a lot of its benefit. From various benefit of jambu mete, there is onepart of which not yet been exploited in an optimal that is husk. Whereas in its husk is contain oil so-calledCashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) about 32-36%. This oil can be used as natural source phenol and alternativelysubstitution phenol from petroleum. This phenol is reacted by formaldehyde will form the phenol formaldehyderesin. Besides containing natural phenol, CNSL also contain the other bunch like karboksilat bunch, alkylbunch and alkenes bunch. This bunch will influence process of forming of phenol formaldehyde resin as aconsequence have an effect on characteristic and quality of resin so that require to be searched the optimumcondition in making of phenol formaldehyde resin. Objective of this research is to look for the optimumcondition in making of phenol formaldehyde resin of novolac type and also know the influence of comparison ofreactant and operating temperature for to resin yielded. Dependent variables in this research are reactorvolume (500 ml) with the volume bases 250 ml, catalyst acid HCl, mixing speed (200 rpm), operating time (90minute), pH (2) and operating pressure (1 atm). Independent variables are CNSL/formaldehyde ratio andoperating temperature. Perceived parameter is free rate formaldehyde. Method is used to design and processdata is RSM (Response Surface Methodology) method constructively the Static program. Result of this researchindicates that the most effect on variable is ratio CNSL/formaldehyde. Optimum condition are obtained at F/Cratio of 0.65-0.85 and temperature of 75-850C with the conversion of 0.55. The biggest rate resin obtained atF/C ratio 0.75/1 and temperature 80oC. This resin is very jell and have best sticky and also drug after runningdry. This novolac resin is applicated as furniture coating. Coating yielded have well sticky with the auburncolor.
Utilizing Shear Factor Model and Adding Viscosity Term in Improving a Two-Dimensional Model of Fluid Flow in Non Uniform Porous Media Bindar, Yazid; Makertihartha, IGBN; Supardan, M. Dani; Buchori, Luqman
Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences Vol 39, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM ITB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (436.337 KB) | DOI: 10.5614/itbj.eng.sci.2007.39.2.3

Abstract

In a packed bed catalytic reactor, the fluid flow phenomena are very complicated because the fluid and solid particle interactions dissipate the energy. The governing equations  were developed in the  forms of  specific  models. The shear factor  model was introduced in the momentum equation for covering the effect  of  flow  and  solid  interactions  in  porous  media.   A  two  dimensional numerical  solution  for  this  kind  of  flow  has  been  constructed  using  the  finite volume  method.  The  porous  media  porosity  was  treated  as  non-uniform distribution  in  the  radial  direction.  Experimentally,  the  axial  velocity  profiles produce  the  trend  of  having  global  maximum  and  minimum  peaks  at  distance very close to the wall. This trend is also accurately picked up by the numerical result. A more comprehensive shear factor formulation results a better velocity prediction than other correlations do. Our derivation on the presence of porous media leads to an additional viscosity term. The effect of this additional viscosity term was investigated numerically. It is found that the additional viscosity term improves  the  velocity  prediction  for  the  case  of  higher  ratio  between  tube  and particle diameters
Sintesa Metil Ester Sulfonat dari Minyak Jarak Pagar (Jathropa Curcas Oil) dan Aplikasinya pada Proses Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Nugroho, Amin; Buchori, Luqman
METANA Vol 15, No 1 (2019): Juni 2019
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1009.911 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/metana.v15i1.22666

Abstract

Konsumsi minyak bumi mengalami peningkatan dari tahun ke tahun, sementara produksinya cenderung mengalami penurunan. Produksi minyak bumi dapat ditingkatkan dengan oil recovery. Sejak tahun 1980, teknik Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) dengan menggunakan surfaktan sebagai penginjeksi (surfactant flooding) merupakan salah satu teknik yang paling berhasil untuk meningkatkan produksi minyak. Surfaktan dapat dibuat dari bahan alami, salah satunya dari minyak jarak pagar. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mengkaji pengaruh waktu reaksi dan pengaruh penambahan metanol terhadap metil ester sulfonat (MES, surfaktan) yang dihasilkan dalam operasi sulfonasi. Surfaktan yang diperoleh kemudian diaplikasikan dalam proses EOR. Proses pembuatan MES dari minyak biji jarak dilakukan melalui 2 tahapan yaitu proses esterfikasi dan transesterifikasi dengan katalis batu dolomite. Metil ester (ME) yang diperoleh kemudian disulfonasi untuk mendapatkan MES. Konsentrasi surfaktan anionik dalam produk dianalisa dengan spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa MES yang memiliki kandungan surfaktan anionik paling tinggi diperoleh pada waktu reaksi 90 menit dan penambahan metanol dengan konsentrasi 40%wt yaitu sebesar 55,464 mg/L. Uji kompatibilitas didapatkan larutan berwarna keruh (koloid), sedangkan tegangan antarmukanya sebesar 17,71 dyne/cm dan tegangan antarmuka pada suhu 80oC adalah 26,57 dyne/cm. Petroleum consumption has increased from year to year, while production tends to decline. Petroleum production can be increased by oil recovery. Since 1980, the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technique using surfactants as injectors (surfactant flooding) is one of the most successful techniques for increasing oil production. Surfactants can be made from natural ingredients, one of them from jatropha oil. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effect of reaction time and the effect of adding methanol to methyl ester sulfonate (MES, surfactant) produced in sulfonation operations. The surfactants obtained are then applied in the EOR process. The process of MES production from castor oil is carried out through 2 stages, namely esterfication and transesterification with dolomite catalyst. Methyl esters (ME) were obtained then sulfonated to obtain MES. The concentration of anionic surfactants in the product was analyzed by a spectrophotometer. The results showed that the MES which had the highest anionic surfactant content was obtained at the reaction time of 90 minutes and the addition of methanol with a concentration of 40% wt was 55.464 mg/L. Compatibility test obtained colloidal colored solution (colloid), while surface tension was 17.71 dyne/cm and surface tension at 80oC was 26.57 dyne/cm.
PENGAMBILAN MINYAK KEDELAI DARI AMPAS TAHU SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL Buchori, Luqman; Sasongko, Setia Budi; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Aryanti, Nita
Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 10, No 2 (2012): Oktober 2012
Publisher : School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro Univer

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (764.317 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jil.10.2.49-53

Abstract

ABSTRAK Kedelai adalah komoditi terbesar setelah padi di Indonesia. Kebutuhannya mencapai 2,3 juta ton per tahun. Dari jumlah tersebut 50% dikonsumsi berupa tempe, 40% berupa tahu, dan 10% berupa minyak kedelai. Dari produksi tahu, dihasilkan limbah ampas tahu. Dalam penelitian ini, lemak pada ampas tahu diekstraksi untuk mendapatkan minyak kedelai yang dijadikan bahan baku biodiesel. Hasil ekstraksi kemudian dianalisa untuk dibandingkan dengan standar bahan baku biodiesel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghitung berat lemak yang terekstrak dari ampas tahu terhadap lama waktu ekstraksi dan jenis solven yang digunakan, serta mengetahui komposisi minyak ampas tahu tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa waktu ekstraksi dan jenis solven mempengaruhi jumlah lemak yang dapat terekstrak. Benzene merupakan solven yang dapat mengekstrak minyak lebih baik daripada solven toluene dan n-heksane. Solven benzene memiliki waktu optimum lima jam untuk mengekstrak lemak yang terdapat di dalam ampas tahu. Dari hasil analisa, diketahui bahwa kadar FFA minyak kedelai yang menggunakan solven benzene sebesar 4,8%, lebih kecil daripada menggunakan solven toluene (5,4%) dan n-heksan (5,8%). Sedangkan bilangan penyabunan diperoleh 184,22 mgKOH/gr untuk benzene, 193,55 mgKOH/gr untuk toluene dan 184,22 mgKOH/gr untuk n-heksan. Kandungan posfor yang didapat sebesar 0,19 untuk benzene, 0,23 untuk toluene dan 0,12% untuk n-heksan. Nilai ini masih dalam kategori besar sehingga harus melewati pretreatment terlebih dahulu sebelum melewati proses transesterifikasi menjadi biodiesel. Kata Kunci: ampas tahu; biodiesel; kedelai; minyak kedelai; transesterifikasi ABSTRACT Soybeans are the largest commodity after rice in Indonesia. Needs to reach 2.3 million tons per year. Of this amount 50% is consumed in the form of tempeh, 40% in the form of knowing, and 10% of soybean oil. From tofu production, tofu waste generated. In this study, fat on tofu extracted for soybean oil used as biodiesel feedstock. The results are then analyzed for compared to standard biodiesel feedstock. This study aimed to calculate the weight of fat extracted from the tofu waste to extraction time and the type of solvent and determines the composition of the oil tofu. The results showed that the extraction time and the type of solvent affects the amount of fat that can be extracted. Benzene is a solvent that can extract oil better than the solvents toluene and n-hexane. Benzene had five hours optimum to extract the fat in the tofu. From the analysis, it is known that the FFA content of soybean oil using benzene was 4.8%, smaller than toluene (5.4%) and n-heksane (5.8%). While these numbers obtained by saponification 184.22 mgKOH/gr for benzene, 193.55 mgKOH/gr for toluene and 184.22 mgKOH/gr for n-heksane. The content of phosphorus of 0.19 for benzene, 0.23 for toluene and 0.12% for n-heksane. This value is still in the major categories that must be passed before pretreatment process trough transesterification into biodiesel. Keywords: tofu waste; biodiesel; soybean; soybean oil; transesterification
OPTIMASI PROSES POLIMERISASI CNSL DENGAN FORMALDEHID UNTUK APLIKASI COATING FURNITURE Faleh Setia Budi; Luqman Buchori
JURNAL ILMIAH MOMENTUM Vol 9, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Wahid Hasyim

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.36499/jim.v9i1.849

Abstract

Produksi jambu mete Indonesia mengalami peningkatan sebesar 6,2% dari tahun 1999 sampai 2003. Selain menghasilkan produk utama kacang mete yang bernilai ekonomi tinggi proses pemecahan biji mete juga menghasilkan limbah kulit biji yang belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Kulit biji mete mengandung minyak (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid/CNSL) sekitar 32-36%. Minyak ini mengandung senyawa phenol sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber phenol alami dalam pembuatan resin phenol formaldehid, menggantikan phenol yang berasal dari minyak bumi yang cadangannya semakin menipis. Penelitian yang dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variabel perbandingan reaktan dan suhu operasi terhadap resin yang dihasilkan dan mencari kondisi optimum reaksi polimerisasi phenol formaldehid dari CNSL serta kualitas coating yang dihasilkan. Pada proses reaksi phenol formaldehid variabel yang dipilih sebagai variabel berubah adalah  rasio Formaldehid/CNSL atau F/C (0.5, 0.75 dan 1) dan suhu operasi (70, 80 dan 80oC). Sedangkan lainnya merupakan variabel tetap yang meliputi volume 250 ml, katalis HCl(p)= 4 ml, kecepatan pengadukan 200 rpm, waktu operasi 90 menit, pH = 2 dan tekanan operasi 1 atm. Parameter yang diamati adalah kadar formaldehid bebas. Metode yang digunakan untuk merancang dan mengolah data hasil percobaan adalah RSM (Respon Surface Methodology). Variabel yang paling berpengaruh adalah rasio F/C dan kondisi optimum didapatkan pada rentang rasio F/C=0,65-0,85 dan rentang suhu 75-85oC dengan konversi 0,55. Kualitas resin terbaik untuk aplikasi coating diperoleh pada perbandingan reaktan F/C=0,75/1. Kata kunci : CNSL,  phenol formaldehid, coating