Claim Missing Document
Check
Articles

Found 40 Documents
Search

Sexual dimorphism related to growth in climbing perch Anabas testudineus Rahmat Hidayat; Odang Carman; , Alimuddin
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 15 No. 1 (2016): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Scientific Aquaculture (ISSA)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3170.908 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.15.8-14

Abstract

 ABSTRCT The phenomenon that often occurs in climbing perch culture (Anabas testudineus, Bloch) is a significant size difference between individuals of male and female those lead to high variation in culture yields. In addition to genetic factors, the difference possibly reflects the sexual dimorphism in this fish; female grows faster than male. This research was conducted to examine sexual dimorphism related to growth quantitatively. Sixty individuals of 45-days old juvenile derived from mating of five pairs broods were randomly picked up and reared individually in 20×20×100 cm3 net cages for 135 days. Fish were fed on commercial feed (30% protein) three times a day at 10% feeding rate. Body weight and body length were individually recorded every 15 days, sex was determined at the end of the experiment by surgering the fish and gonad was weighed to calculate gonadosomatic index (GSI). The results showed that growth and specific growth rate of female were 1.17 and 1.48 fold respectively higher than male. This result indicates that female monosex culture of climbing perch is highly promising. Keyword: dimorphism, growth, climbing perch, Anabas testudineus  ABSTRAK Salah satu fenomena yang sering dijumpai dalam budidaya ikan papuyu (Anabas testudineus, Bloch) adalah perbedaan ukuran yang mencolok antara individu jantan dan betina yang menyebabkan hasil panen ikan sangat bervariasi. Selain faktor genetik, perbedaan ini diduga disebabkan oleh adanya dimorfisme seksual terkait pertumbuhan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji dimorfisme seksual terkait dengan pertumbuhan ikan papuyu secara kuantitatif. Benih ikan umur 45 hari hasil pemijahan lima pasang induk diambil secara acak sebanyak 60 ekor dan dipelihara selama 135 hari secara individu di dalam 60 unit hapa (20×20×100 cm3). Ikan diberi pakan komersial (protein 30%) tiga kali sehari sebanyak 10% bobot tubuh. Bobot dan panjang semua ikan dicatat setiap 15 hari sekali, jenis kelamin ditentukan di akhir penelitian dengan cara membedah, mengamati gonad, dan menimbangnya untuk menentukan indeks gonadosomatik (IGS). Hasil penelitian membuktikan adanya dimorfisme seksual terkait pertumbuhan pada ikan papuyu; pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian ikan betina masing-masing 1,48 kali dan 1,17 kali lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan ikan jantan. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa pengembangan budidaya ikan papuyu monoseks betina prospektif untuk dilakukan. Kata kunci: dimorfisme, pertumbuhan, papuyu, Anabas testudineus 
GROWTH IN NURSERY AND GROW-OUT PHASES OF WHITE SHRIMP AFTER IMMERSED IN RECOMBINANT GIANT GROUPER GROWTH HORMONE Aulia Saputra; Odang Carman; . Alimuddin
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol. 7 No. 2 (2015): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (55.131 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitkt.v7i2.11119

Abstract

The growth of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) can be improved by using recombinant fish growth hormone through immersion. This research was performed to evaluate the white shrimp growth at nursery and grow-out phases after recombinant giant grouper growth hormone (rElGH) immersion. Shrimp were immersed at different stages in one liter seawater containing 15 mg rElGH for two hours. At the nursery stage 30,000 PL4 that previously immersed at nauplius stage (treatment A1), at PL4 (treatment B1) and control without rElGH immersion (K1) were reared in fiber tanks containing 750 L seawater for 8 days. At the grow-out phase, 100 PL11 that have been immersed in rElGH solution at nauplius stage (treatment A2), at PL4 (B2), PL11 (C2) and control without rElGH immersion (K2) were separately reared in fiber tanks containing 750 L seawater for 55 days. Each treatment consisted of three replications. The results showed that at the end of the nursery phase, B1 treatment increased 19% of body length, 30.2% of the body weight and decreased the coefficient of length variation 34.9% compared to control K1 (P<0.05). At the grow-out phase, C2 treatment enhanced 38.2% of body weight and 32% of biomass compared with control K2 (P<0.05). Thus, hatchery is better to immerse PL4, and the farmer should used rElGH-immersed PL11 for growing-out.Keywords: growth promoting, nursery, grow out, Litopenaeus vannamei, rElGH
Aktivitas Promoter â-aktin Ikan Medaka Jepang (Oryzias latipes) pada Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio) ', Alimuddin; Purwanti, Lola Irma; Ath-thar, MH. Fariduddin; Muluk, Chairul; Carman, Odang; Sumantadinata, Komar
Jurnal Natur Indonesia Vol 11, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Riau

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (72.918 KB) | DOI: 10.31258/jnat.11.2.70-77

Abstract

This study was conducted to examine activity of medaka (Oryzias latipes) â-actin promoter (mBP) in common carp(Cyprinus carpio) as the first step towards development of common carp transgenic in country. Gene constructpmBP-hrGFP that consists of mBA promoter and humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein gene(hrGFP) was injected into cytoplasm of one cell stage of common carp by using microinjector. PmBP-hrGFPconcentration used for microinjection was 50 μg/mL aquabides. Parameters observed were survival rate of embryo(SRe), hatching rate (HR) and expression of hrGFP gene. SRe was calculated before eggs hacthed, while hatchingrate (HR) was after all of eggs hatched. The activity of mBA promoter was analyzed by observation of hrGFP genetransient expression using a fluorescence microscope. The results of experiment showed that SRe (87,5%) andHR (79.2%) of control was respectevily higher than that of injected treatment (75.0% & 61.7%). Expression of hrGFPwas observed firstly at blastula (12 hours after fertilization) to 1-day-old larval stages (24 hours after hatching)with higher gene expression at blastula to late gastrula stages. Percentage of micronjected larvae expressinghrGFP at 6 hours after hatching reached 71.6 ± 6.7%. Conclusion was that mBA promoter could drove hrGFPexpression in common carp, hence it can be used to produce common carp transgenic by changing hrGFP withgenes correlated with important traits in aquaculture.
Effectiveness of B-actin promoter on driving target gene expression in common carp transgenesis Andi Aliah Hidayani; Odang Carman; . Alimuddin
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 10 No. 1 (2011): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Scientific Aquaculture (ISSA)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (925.474 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.10.16-23

Abstract

Promoter in transgene construct plays an important role on regulating of transgene expression level in transgenic fish. In fish transgenesis, researcher convinced that use all-fish gene construct is safety and prospective. This study was performed to compare effectiveness b-actin promoter, - the promoter which has ubiquitous, constitutive, housekeeping characteristics, from common carp (homologous) and from tilapia and medaka b-actin promoters (heterologous) in driving of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression as a model of target gene on common carp transgenesis. These gene constructs were separately microinjected into cytoplasm of 60 one-cell-stage common carp embryos. The results suggested that 70% survival rate at embryo stage and 45% hatching rate values showed that the microinjection was performed successfully. Percentage of embryos expressing GFP gene were slightly higher when injected using common carp and medaka promoters than those of using tilapia promoter. Percentage of larvae expressing GFP using common carp promoter was similar with medaka promoter. Furthermore, GFP expression using common carp b-actin promoter could be detected at one-week-old larvae, while GFP expressing using medaka b-actin promoter was lasted at 2-day-old larvae. The results demonstrated that homologous promoter more effective in driving of a target gene expression than that of heterologous promoter.  Key words: homologous promoter, GFP, transgenesis, common carp   ABSTRAK Promoter dalam konstruksi transgen berperan penting dalam pengaturan tingkat ekspresi transgen pada ikan transgenik. Dalam transgenesis ikan, peneliti meyakini bahwa penggunaan konstruksi gen "all-fish" adalah aman dan prospektif.  Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membandingkan efektivitas promoter β-aktin, - promoter yang memiliki ciri ubiquitous, constitutive, dan housekeeping, dari ikan dari ikan mas (homolog) dan ikan nila dan ikan medaka (heterolog) dalam mengendalikan ekspresi gen GFP sebagai model gen pada transgenesis ikan mas. Setiap  konstruksi gen tersebut diinjeksikan secara terpisah ke sitoplasma embrio ikan mas fase 1 sel sebanyak 60 embrio. Hasil penelitian dengan kelangsungan hidup embrio 70% dan derajat penetasan 45% menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan mikroinjeksi berhasil dengan baik.  Persentase embrio mengekspresikan gen GFP yang diinjeksi konstruksi gen dengan promoter β-aktin ikan mas dan ikan medaka sedikit lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan yang menggunakan promoter β-aktin ikan nila.  Selanjutnya, ekspresi gen GFP yang dikendalikan oleh promoter β-aktin ikan mas dapat dideteksi pada larva berumur 1 minggu, sedangkan ekspresi GFP dengan promoter β-aktin ikan medaka hanya bisa terdeteksi hingga larva berumur 2 hari.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa promoter homolog adalah lebih efektif dalam mengatur ekspresi gen target dibandingkan dengan promoter heterolog. Kata kunci: promoter homolog, GFP, transgenesis, ikan mas
Performance analysis of tetraploid striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) resulting from heat shock induction Prama Hartami; Odang Carman; Alimuddin Alimuddin; Muhammad Zairin Jr; Rahman Rahman; Dede Hermawan
Acta Aquatica: Aquatic Sciences Journal Acta Aquatica: Jurnal Ilmu Perairan, Vol. 8: No. 1 (April 2021)
Publisher : Universitas Malikussaleh

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29103/aa.v8i1.3828

Abstract

Striped catfish tetraploid induction through heat shock that carried out in this study is not intended to produce on growth fries.But to form a broodstock to produce triploid on growth fries through cross breeding without any physical shock induction process.The fries from the heat shock induction in the previous study were screened or selected by observing the maximum number of nucleoli in fin cells.The number of tetraploid individuals used in the performance test was 105 which were placed in three different concrete tanks.The results showed that the growth of tetraploid striped catfish was more significant than diploid with a difference in the daily weight percentage about 0.497% and 0.158% for length but insignificant differences in FCR and SR.In gonadal development based on histological observations, it was shown that each tetraploid and diploid both male and female striped catfish were at the same level of gonadal maturity.Female gonads were at the previtellogenic oocytes and vitellogenic oocytes, but males are dominated at the stage of spermatocytes and spermatozoa.This histology also shows us that the female gonad was still at the development stage, while the male had entered the mature stage and ready to be spawned.
Triploid striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus: growth performance and gonadal development Yusran Ibrahim; Dinar Tri Soelistyowati; Odang Carman
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol. 16 No. 1 (2017): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society of Scientific Aquaculture (ISSA)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3935.494 KB) | DOI: 10.19027/jai.16.1.76-82

Abstract

ABSTRACT  This study was aimed to evaluate the growth performance and gonadal development of diploid and triploid striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Triploids were produced through a heat shock method at 42 °C for two minutes, at two minutes after fertilization. Before treatment performed, group of triploid and diploid were separated through nucleolus counting confirmed cromoseme counting. Five individual of each group at the age of nine months were tagged and reared for two months. Parameter of growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were analysed using independent-samples t-test at confidence interval 95%, while gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonad histology were analysed descriptively. No significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish in terms of growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate (P>0.05) during the two months rearing period, while GSI was higher in diploid (P<0.05) compared to triploid females. Histological observations of triploid female gonads showed early development stage, indicating sterility through symptoms such as oocytes degradation and abnormal development. Meanwhile, male gonad developed faster compared to female as spermatids were found in several lobules. As conclusion, diploid and triploid striped catfish P. hypophthalmus growth performance did not differ up to the age of 11 months, although some sterility symptoms were observed in both male and female. Keywords: diploid, triploid, growth, gonad, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus   ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi performa pertumbuhan dan perkembangan gonad ikan patin siam Pangasianodon hypophthalmus diploid dan triploid. Triploid diproduksi dengan kejut suhu panas pada suhu 42 °C selama dua menit, pada dua menit setelah fertilisasi. Sebelum pengujian, kelompok diploid dan triploid dipisahkan dengan menganalisis jumlah nukleolus yang dikonfirmasi dengan penghitungan jumlah kromosom. Masing-masing lima ekor ikan diploid dan triploid pada umur sembilan bulan ditandai dan dipelihara selama dua bulan. Parameter pertumbuhan, rasio konversi pakan, dan kelangsungan hidup dianalisis menggunakan independent-samples t-test pada selang kepercayaan 95% sedangkan gonadosomatik indeks (GSI) dan histologi gonad dianalisis secara deskriptif. Pertumbuhan, rasio konversi pakan, dan kelangsungan hidup antara diploid dan triploid selama dua bulan pemeliharaan tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata (P>0,05). Nilai GSI diploid lebih tinggi (P<0,05) dibandingkan triploid, baik pada jantan maupun betina. Hasil histologi menunjukkan bahwa gonad ikan patin betina masih pada tahap perkembangan awal. Namun, indikasi steril terlihat dengan adanya degradasi oosit dan perkembangannya yang terganggu. Gonad jantan berkembang lebih cepat dibandingkan betina, dengan ditemukannya spermatid pada beberapa lobule. Gonad jantan triploid menunjukkan adanya gejala sterilitas tetapi tidak permanen, sebagian masih mampu berkembang hingga fase spermatid, namun jumlahnya lebih sedikit dibandingkan diploid. Berdasarkan penelitian, disimpulkan bahwa pertumbuhan antara ikan patin siam diploid dan triploid hingga umur 11 bulan tidak menunjukkan perbedaan, akan tetapi gejala sterilitas ditemukan baik pada jantan maupun betina triploid. Kata kunci: diploid, triploid, pertumbuhan, gonad, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus
Performance analysis of tetraploid striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) resulting from heat shock induction Prama Hartami; Odang Carman; Alimuddin Alimuddin; Muhammad Zairin Jr; Rahman Rahman; Dede Hermawan
Acta Aquatica: Aquatic Sciences Journal Acta Aquatica: Jurnal Ilmu Perairan, Vol. 8: No. 1 (April 2021)
Publisher : Universitas Malikussaleh

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29103/aa.v8i1.3828

Abstract

Striped catfish tetraploid induction through heat shock that carried out in this study is not intended to produce on growth fries.But to form a broodstock to produce triploid on growth fries through cross breeding without any physical shock induction process.The fries from the heat shock induction in the previous study were screened or selected by observing the maximum number of nucleoli in fin cells.The number of tetraploid individuals used in the performance test was 105 which were placed in three different concrete tanks.The results showed that the growth of tetraploid striped catfish was more significant than diploid with a difference in the daily weight percentage about 0.497% and 0.158% for length but insignificant differences in FCR and SR.In gonadal development based on histological observations, it was shown that each tetraploid and diploid both male and female striped catfish were at the same level of gonadal maturity.Female gonads were at the previtellogenic oocytes and vitellogenic oocytes, but males are dominated at the stage of spermatocytes and spermatozoa.This histology also shows us that the female gonad was still at the development stage, while the male had entered the mature stage and ready to be spawned.
Penggunaan Gen GH sebagai Marka Molekuler DNA Gurami, Osphronemus goramy dalam Pengembangan Teknologi Surrogate Broodstock Achmad, Marlina; Alimuddin, Alimuddin; Carman, Odang; Arfah, Harton; Zairin, Muhammad
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 11, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (34.127 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.7

Abstract

The technology of fish germ cell transplantation had been established to create broodstock systems by which a target offspring can be produced from a surrogate parent. Donor cell for transplantation is derived from transgenic fish carrying green fluorescent protein gene functions as a marker to distinguish the donor from recipient cell. In this study, an alternative technique was developed for identifying gouramy-derived donor cell and Nile tilapia as recipient by PCR amplification method using growth hormone (GH) gene as a molecular marker.  Specific primer for GH gouramy was designed by using Genetyx version 7 software.  ß-actin gene was used as an internal control of DNA loading. The result showed that a specific PCR amplification product of 340 in length was obtained when the DNA template was from gouramy, while no PCR product from Nile tilapia. The minimum concentration of genomic DNA of gouramy mixed with a 700 ng/µl of Nile tilapia that could be detected by PCR was 1 ng/µl. Thus, PCR method with specific GH primer may be useful to detect the incorporation of donor cell in recipient gonad towards development of surrogate broodstock technology.
TRANSPLANTATION OF GIANT GOURAMY (Osphronemus gouramy) TESTICULAR CELLS IN EARLY HATCHING TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) LARVAE Jasmadi Jasmadi; Odang Carman; Alimuddin Alimuddin
Widyariset Vol 2, No 2 (2016): Widyariset
Publisher : Pusbindiklat - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1178.395 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/widyariset.2.2.2016.77-85

Abstract

Cell transplantation technology has been widely developed in mammals, but less implemented in inland aquaculture fish. Giant gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy) is one of important comercial aquaculture commodities that has a relatively long first reproductive cycle compared to the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  Tilapia  has  a  faster  reproductive cycle  and  potential  as  giant gouramy surrogate broodstock. This study was aimed to applicate testicular cell transplantation technology of giant gouramy in tilapia larvae and to evaluate  its  success  rate  trough  donor cell  colonization.  Tilapia  larvae  of 1-2 dph (days post hatching) and 3-4 dph were injected with ±20.000 giant gouramy testicular cells in the peritoneal cavity, and then groomed for two months. Cell colonization of spermatogonium donor was determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), using giant gouramy F1-Growth Hormone and R1-Growth Hormone primers. The result of cell dissociation showed that a  bigger  giant gouramy  (827  g)  had  lower  of  spermatogonia  composition (4.45%) than a smaller gouramy (608 g) (14.96%). Donor cell colonization in  1-2 dph  recipient  was  higher  (100%)  than  in  3-4  dph  recipient  (75%). Whereas recipient Survival Rate (SR) was 89.34% for 1-2 dph recipient and 98.96% for 3-4 dph recipient respectively. This study suggests that testicular cell transplantation technology of giant gouramy could be appllied to tilapia (Xenotransplantation)  and  cell  transplantation  has  a better  performance in  1-2  dph  than  in  3-4  dph  recipients.  With such  success,  there  is  a  high potential that the giant gouramy cultivation can be increased through the cell transplantation technology.
Heat Shock and Its Consequences on Early Life Performance of Stripped Catfis (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Prama Hartami; Odang Carman; Muhammad Zairin; Alimuddin Alimuddin
Journal Omni-Akuatika Omni-Akuatika Special Issue 2nd Kripik SCiFiMaS
Publisher : Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (166.4 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.oa.2018.14.2.542

Abstract

Researchers have widely applied heat shock on zygote stadia of domesticated aquatic animals especially for the purpose of ploidy manipulation in fish to accelerate growth, intermediate products for the production of infertile seeds, providing prospective brood stock as well as the monosex population.  This is certainly an interesting study to see how far the impact of heat shock on the early development stages. This experiment used a 42 0C heat shock for 2.5 minutes on the zygote at different initial time i.e. 28.5; 29; 29.5; 30 and 30.5 minutes after fertilization. All treated larvae and control were reared in a 25 liters plastic container at density of 5 larvae per liter. The results showed that high percentage of fertilization rate were 92.61 % to 96.32 % and hatching rate was 85.33 % without any abnormalities were achieved in the control. While in all treatments had a very low hatching rate of 4.12 % to 8.93 % with relatively high abnormalities of 12.36 % to 27.60 % and a significant differences (P<0.05) compared to controls, but survival rate, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio after 30 days rearing period showed no significant difference (P>0,05). In terms of seed production, the heat shock treatment will limit 78 % to 82 % of larvae production.
Co-Authors ', Alimuddin , Alimuddin , Alimuddin , Alimuddin . ALIMUDDIN . Alimuddin . Alimuddin . Syafiuddin Agus Oman Sudrajat Alfis Syahril Alimuddin Alimuddin Alimuddin Alimuddin Alimuddin Alimuddin Alimuddin Alimuddin Andi Aliah Hidayani Andi Aliah Hidayani ANNA OCTAVERA Aulia Saputra Chairul Muluk D.S. Sjafei Dede Hermawan DEDI JUSADI Dendi Hidayatullah Deni Radona Deni Radona Deni Radona Didik Ariyanto Didik Ariyanto Dinar Tri Soelistyowati Dinar Tri Soelistyowati Dinar Tri Soelistyowati Dinar Tri Soelistyowati Soelistyowati Dita Puji Laksana Eddy Supriyono Ermianus Samalei Firda Amalia Sukma Flandrianto S. Palimirmo GORO YOSHIZAKI Handika Gilang Pramana Putra Harton Arfah Hylda Khairah Putri I. Andriani I. Herviani Ibrahim Satrio Faqih Iis Diatin Irin Iriana Kusmini IRMA ANDRIYANI Jasmadi Jasmadi Jean-Christophe Avarre K. Sumantadinata Kadarusman Kadarusman Komar Sumantadinata Kukuh Adiyana Laurent Pouyaud Lola Irma Purwanti M. Syaifudin M. Syukur M. Zairin Junior M. Zairin Junior M. Zairin Junior Marlina Achmad Media Fitri Isma Nugraha MH. Fariduddin Ath-thar Mia Setiawati Muh. Herjayanto Muh. Herjayanto Muhamad Syukur Muhammad Agus Suprayudi Muhammad Fariduddin Ath-Thar Muhammad Sami Daryanto Muhammad Zairin Muhammad Zairin Muhammad Zairin Jr Muhammad Zairin Jr. Muhammad Zairin Jr. MUHAMMAD ZAIRIN JUNIOR Muhammad Zairin Junior Muhammad Zairin Junior Muhammad Zairin Junior N. Sugiri Nadia Mega Aryani Nunun Ainun Putri Sari Banun Kaliky Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo Nurfitriani Siti Yumaidawati Prama Hartami Prama Hartami Rahma Vida Anandasari Rahman Rahman Rahman Rahman Rahman Rahman Rahmat Hidayat Ridwan Affandi Rodhi Firmansyah Rudhy Gustiano Rudhy Gustiano S. Purwati Siti Subaidah Sri Setyo Wulandari Sri Sundari Sukenda Sukenda Sumie Etoh Tatak Dwi Cahyono Yogi Himawan Yusran Ibrahim