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Senyawa Naringenin 7, 3’, 4’ -Trimetil Eter dari Daun Tanaman Pacar Cina (Aglaia Odorata Lour) Kusrini, Dewi; Kosela, Soleh; Chairul, Chairul
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 2, No 2 (1999): Volume 2 Issue 2 Year 1999
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5339.871 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jksa.2.2.67-72

Abstract

Senyawa Naringenin, 7, 3’, 4', - trimetil eter berhasil diisolasi dari fraksi n-heksana ekstrak daun Pacar cina. Senyawa tersebut diisolasi dengan cara kolom kromatografi (KK) dan kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi (KCKT) serta ditentukan struktur molekulnya dengan menggunakan metode spektroskopi.
Pembuatan Karbon Aktif Dari Kulit Durian Sebagai Adsorbent Logam Fe Febriansyah, Beni; Chairul, Chairul; Yenti, Silvia Reni
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 2, No 2 (2015): Wisuda Oktober Tahun 2015
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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Abstract

Durian peel is known as the waste that can pollute the environment. One effort to improve the economic value of the durian skin can be done with the process into activated carbon. This study aims to obtain optimum conditions for the use of activators of Kaliaum Hidroksida on the quality of activated carbon and activated carbon absorption of Fe metal. Activated carbon is made via two processes, namely the process of carbonization and activation at 320oC temperature with a solution of Kalium Hidroksida by varying the massa aktif carbon1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, dan 3 gr and adsorb time30, 60, 90, dan 120 menit. To determine the quality of activated carbon, activated carbon characteristics tested, such as moisture content, ash content, and the absorption of iodine. The results showed that the characteristics of activated charcoal SNI 06-3730-1995 meets the standards the water content of 14.12%, 5.46% ash content and absorption of I2 solution of 580.27 mg / g in adsorbing metals Fe. Application of Fe metal adsorption by activated carbon from durian skin with 3 grams of carbon mass variation and contact time of 90 minutes where the adsorption efficiency is 96.75%.Keywords: activated carbon, durian skin, potassium hydroxide
ANALISIS KOMPONEN KIMIA DAUN WATI {PIPER METHYSTICUM FORST. F) Chairul, Chairul; Jamal, Yuliasri; Agusta, Andria
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 4, No 2&3 (1998)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/beritabiologi.v4i2&3.1276

Abstract

Wati(Piper methysticum Forst.f.)leaves has been used as narcotic in some parts of Irian Jaya since longtime ago. The GCMS analysis of wati leaves organic extracts(hexane,chloroform, methanol)has detected 48 components consisted alkanes,oxygenated hydrocarbons, fatty acid, steroids and alkaloids,including 5 major components, i.e. dihydro kawain,anisol p-undecyl, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-on, levulinic acid and one of unknown component.Forty-three other minor components will be discussed.
PENAPISAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN BEBERAPA TUMBUHAN OBAT INDONESIA MENGGUNAKAN RADIKAL 2,2-DIPHENYL-1 PICRYLHYDRAZYL (DPPH) Wulansari, Dewi; Chairul, Chairul
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 16, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (132.995 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ16iss1pp%p

Abstract

Antioksidan merupakan senyawa yang berguna mengatasi kerusakan oksidatif akibat radikal bebas dalam tubuh sehingga turut berperan mencegah berbagai macam penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antioksidan dari beberapa tumbuhan obat Indonesia. Sebanyak 37 ekstrak metanol tumbuhan obat diuji aktivitas antioksidannya secara in vitro menggunakan metode peredaman radikal bebas 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) dan vitamin C sebagai kontrol positif. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan 29 ekstrak memiliki aktivitas diatas 50% pada konsentrasi 1000 ppm. 5 ekstrak dengan aktivitas tertinggi antara lain ekstrak kulit batang Sapium baccatum dan Leucosyke capitellata, ekstrak daun Ardisia crispa, Glochidion cauliflorum, dan Glochidion superbum.
Pemurnian Bioetanol Hasil Fermentasi Nirah Nipah Menggunakan Proses Destilasi-Adsorpsi Menggunakan Adsorben CaO Villarul, Trya Nungky; Chairul, Chairul; Yenti, Silvia Reni
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 4, No 2 (2017): Wisuda Oktober Tahun 2017
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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Abstract

The rapid rate of world population growth conduces demand and supply of fuel is not balance. So that, energy reserves has been depleted in large numbers. Especially fossil fuels which is a main energy. The government has compiled program and policy for development of bioethanol and biodiesel to resolve energy crisis in indonesia which targeted in 2025 can be approximately 15-20% fuels need to fulfill transportation sector and the national industry. This research aims to produce bioethanol fuel grade-adsorption using distillation methods, determine the effect of the ratio of CaO : bioethanol and height of the adsorbent in the column for producing bioethanol fuel grade. The raw material is bioethanol from nipa sap fermentation results with 13% ethanol content. Ethanol content obtained not too high previously, so that should be took a process that can be increase the purity of bioethanol with distillation process-adsorption. This research divided into two stages . First stage is nipa sap bioethanol distiled up to 96% concentration and second stage is distillation-adsorption using CaO adsorbent. Independent variables on this research is ratio of CaO : bioethanol and a particle size of adsorbent in the adsorption column. The most influence process to review bioethanol purification is distillation-adsorption CaO with ratio : bioethanol 1 : 2 and a particle size of adsorbent is 200 mesh cm with purity of 99,7% and had been categorized fuel grade bioethanol.Keywords: CaO, bioethanol, distilation- adsorption process, nypa
KULTIVASI MIKROALGA CHLORELLA SP. SECARA FED-BATCH DALAM MEDIA POME SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU BIOETANOL Muria, Sri Rezeki; Chairul, Chairul; Harianja, Dina Citra Naomi
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 6 (2019): Edisi 2 Juli s/d Desember 2019
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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Abstract

Bioethanol is an environmental friendly biofuel, one of the raw materials is microalgae, because microalgae can produce carbohydrates which can be used for fermentation in the process of bioethanol production. In this research the microalgae Chlorella sp. cultivated in the palm oil waste media (POME) in a fed-batch culture. The purpose of this researchare study the effect of fed POME media in fed-batch culture on the growth of Chlorella sp., to calculate the specific growth rate of Chlorella sp. microalgae, determine the effect of fed-batch processes on the reduction of POME COD and carbohydrate content of Chlorella sp. Microalgae Chlorella sp. 600 ml with 4.8 x 106 cell density were cultivated for 12 days using bioreactors with addition of waste variations 0.45 L / day, 0.9 L / 2 days and 1.35 L / 3 days, and batch process with addition of 5.4 wastes L. POME COD analysis is carried out at the beginning and end of cultivation, cell density and carbohydrate calculation is performed at each waste addition. The best results were obtained with variations in the addition of POME 0.9 L every 2 days, POME COD of 750 mg / L, and density cel 4.432 x 106 with carbohydrates 190,51 mg / L. Keywords : Chlorella sp., fed-batch cultivation, POME, carbohydrate.
KOMUNITAS FITOPLANKTON DI SEKITAR SUNGAI UTAMA DI ZONA LITORAL DANAU SINGKARAK, PROVINSI SUMATERA BARAT Arifin, Serly Marselina; Izmiarti, Izmiarti; Chairul, Chairul
Natural Science: Journal of Science and Technology Vol 4, No 3 (2015): Volume 4 Number 3 (December 2015)
Publisher : Univ. Tadulako

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Abstract

Penelitian tentang komunitas fitoplankton di sekitar sungai utama di zona litoral Danau Singkarak telah dilakukan bulan April 2014. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui komposisi dan struktur komunitas fitoplankton di sekitar aliran masuk dan keluar zona litoral Danau Singkarak. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey pada 5 stasiun pengamatan yang ditetapkan secara porpusive sampling. Fitoplankton yang ditemukan sebanyak 56 jenis yang terdiri dari empat kelas yaitu Bacillariophyceae (23 jenis), Chlorophyceae (22 jenis), Cyanophyceae (6 jenis), dan Dinophyceae (5 jenis). Kepadatan total fitoplankton tertinggi (2.272,97 ind/l) ditemukan pada aliran masuk sungai Sumani (Stasiun III) dan terendah (305,88 ind./l) ditemukan pada aliran masuk sungai Paninggahan (Stasiun IV). Jenis fitoplankton yang dominan yaitu  Ceratium furca, Cosmarium contractum, Denticula sp., Peridinium sp., Staurastrum subsaltan dan Stauratrum playfairii. Indeks keanekaragaman berkisar dari 0,507-2,004 dengan keanekaragaman tertinggi pada aliran masuk sungai Paninggahan (Stasiun IV) dan terendah pada aliran keluar Intake PLTA (Stasiun V) . Indeks equitabilias berkisar dari 0,176-0,658, dan indeks similaritas fitoplankton berkisar dari 25,92%-61,54%.
Kesetimbangan Adsorpsi Logam Cu Menggunakan Karbon Aktif Dari Ampas Tebu Sebagai Adsorben Astrandana, Yudi; Chairul, Chairul; Yenti, Silvia Reni
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 3, No 1 (2016): Wisuda Februari Tahun 2016
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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Abstract

Bagasse is a by product of the extraction process (pressing) liquid sugar. One of the efforts to control the bagasse is processed into activated carbon. This research aims to study activated carbon manufacturing process of bagasse, study the effect of Cu concentration and temperature of Cu solution on activated carbon from bagasse as and determine of equilibrium models that used at Cu metal adsorption using activated carbon from bagasse. Processing bagasse into activated carbon carbonization process is carried out at a temperature of 320 ° C for 2 hours. After that is activated using KOH with comparison of activated carbon to KOH 1:3. As much as 1.5 grams of activated carbon was added to the beaker containing the solution of Cu at various concentration (20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm), the reaction temperature (40 ° C, 50 ° C and 60 ° C) at a volume of 500 ml solutions. The results showed that activated carbon adsorption for is 97.1%, followed equilibrium models Freundlich isotherm models.Keywords: Adsorption, Cu Metal, Carbonization, Activated Carbon
Pengaruh Jenis Pengaduk Dan Waktu Fermentasi Pada Pembuatan Bioetanol Dari Sari Nenas Reject Junuansyah, Muh Wawan; Chairul, Chairul; Drastinawati, Drastinawati
Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains Vol 2, No 2 (2015): Wisuda Oktober Tahun 2015
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Teknik dan Sains

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Abstract

Bioethanol is a liquid of fermentation of sugars from carbohydrate source that uses the help of microorganisms. Bioethanol is an energy source with good prospects as a substitute for liquid fuels renewable raw materials, friendly to the environment and the very favorable economic terms. One of the materials that can be used as raw material for bioethanol is pineapple. The fermentation process is influenced by several factors, among which the fermentation time and stirring in a liquid medium. Flow pattern and degree of turbulence is an important aspect which affects the quality of mixing that depends on several factors such as tank geometry, physical properties of fluids and type of impeller. Fermentation time very big influence on the activity of yeast because the longer the fermentation, the more number of increasingly active yeast or yeast to proliferate. The process of fermentation using yeast Sacharomyces cereviceae. Preparation starter made with yeast inoculum process Sacharomyces cereviceae at 10% glucose so that the yeast to multiply. Fermentation takes place in batch, variations in the type of agitator Paddle, pitched Blade Turbine, Turbine Disk and variations in the fermentation time 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours. Stirring speed of 200 rpm and the temperature of fermentation in temperature. Ethanol concentration was analyzed using Alkoholmeter. The optimum fermentation process is shown on the type of agitator pitched Turbine Blade fermentation time of 48 hours with the acquisition of bioethanol concentration of 8.5% (v / v).Keywords : Bioethanol, Reject Pineapple, Saccharomyces Cerevisie, Impeller Type, Flow Pattern
IDENTIFIKASI SECARA CEPAT BAHAN BIOAKTIF PADA TUMNUHAN DI LAPANGAN Chairul, Chairul
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 6, No 4 (2003)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (7809.006 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/beritabiologi.v6i4.3461

Abstract

New drug discovery from natural products (bio-prospecting) is not an easy works and takes time, big budget, human resources etc. some important approaches must be taken in order to get success. A preliminary observation of biologycally active components is impotant approach in order that more selective in collecting research materials in the field. This approach is purposed to pacilitate (make easier) the next step research process later in the laboratory level. Several Methods of preliminary observaton of biologyvcally active components had been carried out in the field, but the general guideline of fast observation had been used e.g. 1). Etno-botany (Etnomedicine and Etnopharmacology), 2). Chemotaxonomy, 3). Organoleptic, 4). Chemical (reagent kit) and 5).Simple bioassay in the field (fish posion test, insecticide). Besides that collecting the herbarium specimen as well as research materials for any scienfitic and laboratory works. This paper described these approaches in order to make useful methods to researchers, who go to the field and they could collect more selective research materials before bring them to laboratory.