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PRODUKSI GAS KARBON DIOKSIDA SELAMA PROSES BIOREMEDIASI LIMBAH HEAVY OIL DENGAN TEKNIK LANDFARMING Yani, Moh.; Setiadi, Yadi; Anas, Iswandi; Mas?ud, Zainal Alim; Charlena, Charlena
CHEMISTRY PROGRESS Vol 3, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Sam Ratulangi University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35799/cp.3.1.2010.66

Abstract

Bioremediation is defined as biological degradation process of organic or inorganic wastes in a controlledcondition to control and reduce their amount in the environment. In this study, the soil which had been polutedby heavy petroleum oil fractions, i.e. heavy oil waste (HOW), was used as sample. The bioremediationtechnique used in this study is an ex-situ technique. This study was conducted to determine the amount ofproduced CO2 gas during the HOW degaradation process. Treatment of heavy oil waste with biostimulation andbioaugmentation. Production of CO2 gas were placed in impiger and analysis with titrimetry method. The highestCO2 production mean was obtained from the bioaugmentation treatment with compost adding, i.e. 244,5 mg/m3.Generally, graphs CO2 gas production followed a similar sinusoidal pattern. From these results it can beinfered that the degradation process of HOW happened during the treatments in aerobic condition.
PENCIRIAN DAN UJI AKTIVITAS KATALITIK ZEOLIT ALAM TERAKTIVASI -, Charlena; Purwaningsih, Henny; Rosdiana, Tina
Jurnal Riset Kimia Vol 1, No 2 (2008): March
Publisher : Universitas Andalas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25077/jrk.v1i2.23

Abstract

  ABSTRACT Natural zeolite reserves are spread in Indonesia, but they are not yet used optimally. Generally, natural zeolite have poor crystalline, various pore size, low catalytic activity, and high contaminant. Natural zeolite need to be activated and modified before it can be used. The objectives of this research were to activite the natural zeolite that already got acid and thermal treatments and to characterize it and catalytic activity was tested in interesterification reaction. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that the structure of natural zeolite activated by acid and thermal  (NZAT) treatments were damaged. While, natural zeolite structure activated with acid (natural zeolite acid /NZA) did not show significant different to natural zeolite (NZ). Result of Si/Al ratio analysis showed that Si/Al ratio NZA higer than Si/Al ratio NZAT. The result of cation analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy shoed that the general content of Na, K, Fe and Ca in the catalyst decreased because of acid and thermal treatments. Surface area and pore volume increased by the treatments. Catalytic activity of NZA in interesterification reaction gave a white cork product and in yield 35.78 %. Keywords : natural zeolite activated, catalytic activity, FTIR. 
SINTESIS HIDROKSIAPATIT DARI CANGKANG KEONG SAWAH(Bellamya javanica) DENGAN METODE SIMULTAN PRESIPITASI PENGADUKAN BERGANDA Bambang Sugeng, Lestari Puji Astuti, Charlena,
SEMIRATA 2015 Prosiding Bidang Kimia
Publisher : SEMIRATA 2015

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (290.716 KB)

Abstract

Hidroksiapatit (HAp) disintesis menggunakan bahan dasar cangkang keong sawah sebagai sumber kalsium (Ca(OH)2) dan (NH4)2HPO4 sebagai sumber fosfat. Sintesis dilakukan dengan metode presipitasi pengadukan berganda dengan ragam waktu sonikasi 4 dan 6 jam serta ragam suhu 600, 800, 1000, dan 1100 ºC. Hasil sintesis dicirikan menggunakan difraksi sinar-X (XRD), mikroskop elektron payaran (SEM), dan penganalisis ukuran partikel (PSA). Hasil analisis difraksi sinar-X menunjukkan bahwa HAp yang terbentuk belum murni, karena terdapat fase lain seperti CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, dan CaO. Analisis morfologi menggunakan SEM menunjukkan bentuk partikel berupa granular-granular dengan permukaan kasar dan tidak seragam. Ukuran rerata partikel hasil PSA sampel A4 adalah 254.60 nm sedangkan ukuran sampel B4 adalah 226.46 nm. Semakin lama waktu sonikasi ukuran partikel semakin kecil. Kata kunci: Cangkang keong sawah, hidroksiapatit, metode presipitasi, pengadukan berganda
PROFIL KELARUTAN LIMBAH MINYAK BUMI DALAM AIR AKIBAT PENGARUH SURFAKTAN NONIONIK DAN LAJU PENGADUKAN Charlena, Charlena
CHEMISTRY PROGRESS Vol 2, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Sam Ratulangi University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35799/cp.2.2.2009.4964

Abstract

Petroleum waste is classified as a dangerous waste that cause pollution and damage the environtment.The remediation of petroleum polluted soil could be done by microorganism capability. Additional ofnonionic surfactant and stirring rate would make soil dispersed well in water, facilitating good contactbetween microorganism and petroleum carbon as its feed. In this research, Tween 80 and Brij 35 wereused as surfactants. The observed parameters were concentrations and stirring rates. Surfactantconcentration was selected based on surface tension value and emulsion stability. The highest emulsionstability for Tween 80 observed was 0.24% at concentration 0.0175%, while for Brij 35 equal to 0.22% atconcentration 0.0150%. Stirring rates were applied 100, 120, and 140 rpm, successively based on liquidTotal Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) value. Liquid TPH value at 100, 120, and 140 rpm for Tween 80 andBrij 35 were 0.25, 0.32, 0.40 and 0.36, 0.55, 0.74%, successively. Liquid TPH depicted amount of oil thatwas dispersed into the water. The other parameters such as solid TPH and Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD) obtained for 140 rpm were 15.56% and 41235 mg/L for Tween 80 while for Brij 35 equal to 16.55%and 41717 mg/L Keywords : petroleum waste, nonionic surfactant, stirring rate
Cadmium Adsorption Capacity on Inceptisols Brebes and its Uptake by Shallot as Plant Indicator LADY R. WIDOWATI; L.I NURHAYATI; . CHARLENA; S. SRI DWININGSIH; J. SRI ADININGSIH
Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim (Indonesian Soil and Climate Journal) No 21 (2003): Desember 2003
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jti.v0n21.2003.%p

Abstract

A research had been done in the laboratory and greenhouse of the Indonesian Center for Soil and Agroclimate Research and Developmant to study cadmium adsorption capacity, availability, and its uptake by shallot as plant indicator in order to antisipate Cd pollution in soil and plant in the future. The steps of the research were adsorption study in the laboratoryand followed by greenhouse trial. Cadmium adsorption study was using the rate of 0; 10; 30; 40; 50; 60; 70; 80; 90; and 100 ppm. The trial on response and plant uptake on cadmium used 2 kg soil pot-1 then planted with shallot var. Bima for 2 months. The experiment utilized completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates. The rates of Cd were 0; 25; 50; 100; 200; and 400 ppm Cd (Cd(NO3)2). The results showed that Inceptisols Brebes adsorption, maximum adsorption, andbuffering capacity are 14.78 ml μg-1; 879 μg g-1 and 12,987 ml μg-1, respectively. The cadmium availability in the soil could be calculated by using the equation: Cdexchangeable = 0.0532(Cdapplied) – 1.6757, r2 = 0.9686 (after treatment); Cdexchangeable = 0.0671(Cdapplied) + 0.924, r2 = 0.9903 (after harvest). Application of 50 ppm Cd reduced shallot production up to 31% significant with total uptake of 4.57 ppm Cd. The Cd uptake increased significantly for treatment 25 ppm, Cd in shallot tuber(2.36 mg Cd per kg dry weight), and at 200 ppm Cd in leaves (7.16 mg kg-1). The cadmium content in tuber at treatment 2 ppm Cd (2.36 ppm Cd) exceeds critical value/permissible limit of vegetable for consumption.
Isolation, Selection and Identification of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Degrading Bacteria from Heavy Oil Waste (HOW)-Contaminated Soil Yani, Mohamad; Charlena, Charlena; Mas?ud, Zainal Alim; Anas, Iswandi; Setiadi, Yadi; Syakti, Agung Dhamar
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol. 27 No. 2 (2020): April 2020
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (415.935 KB) | DOI: 10.4308/hjb.27.2.142

Abstract

The heavy oil waste (HOW) containing polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) is a persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that difficult to degrade. The new PAH degrading consortium was investigated from HOW contaminated soil in North Sumatera of Indonesia. The isolation, selection and identification of polyaromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from soil contaminated by HOW was conducted to solve a bioremediation process. The isolation microbes from soil contaminated by HOW was performed using a minimum ONR7a media and followed on marine agar media for purification purposes. From the performed isolation results, 11 isolates were able to degrade PAHs compounds, such as phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, or fluorene compounds. They grew at pH range of 4.8-8.2 and performed on emulsification activity in paraffin from 0.150-0.662. Three of them showed the best performance on HOW biodegradation capability and then successfully selected and identified as Salipiger sp., Bacillus altitudinis, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. using 16S rDNA. The HOW biodegradation as TPH-degradation were 38.66%, 59.60%, and 47.16%, respectively. Those isolated bacteria could potentially be as bioremediation agents to develop on bioremediation process for soils contaminated by HOW.
Deodorisasi Sludge Limbah Industri Makanan untuk Pakan Maggot BSF (Black Soldier Fly) dengan Teknik Biosorpsi Sulistia, Susi; Charlena; Ambarsari, Hanies
Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol. 22 No. 2 (2021)
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29122/jtl.v22i2.4837

Abstract

ABSTRACT Organic waste from food and beverage can be degraded by microbes. The sludge from food industries still contains nutrition such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. One attempt to process and utilize the sludge is to reuse it as the growth medium for Black Soldier Fly (BSF) maggot, which is known to have high nutritional value for fish or livestock feed. This research used ice cream industrial sludge as maggot feed. The problem of using the ice cream industrial sludge for maggot feed is the odour that pollutes the environment. Biosorption is a technique for deodorizing waste sludge using organic materials. This research was conducted to obtain the most effective ratio of biosorbents from fermented manure (PKN), compost (K), and calcium carbonate animal shells (Ca) to remove odours by reducing N-ammonia and sulfide in ice cream industrial sludge using biosorption techniques. The effect of biosorbent used for BSF (Black Soldier Fly) maggot feed on maggot growth was also observed. The most effective biosorbent composition in reducing odor, N-ammonia, and sulfide of the sludge was K:Ca:Sludge (1:1:3) with adsorption time of 48 hours and the percentage reduction of 85.0%. However, the number and size of maggot with PKN:K:Sludge (1:1:3) growth media were higher than K:Ca:Sludge (1:1:3). The ratio of PKN:K:Sludge (1:1:3) was proven to increase maggots' growth to provide benefits for farmers in increasing maggot production both in number and size. Keywords: Black Soldier Fly maggot, biosorbent, biosorption, organic waste, waste deodorization   ABSTRAK Limbah organik dari industri makanan dan minuman dapat didegradasi oleh mikroba. Sludge dari limbah industri makanan masih mengandung bahan-bahan nutrisi seperti karbohidrat, protein, dan lemak. Salah satu usaha untuk mengolah dan memanfaatkan sludge tersebut adalah dengan menggunakannya kembali sebagai media pertumbuhan maggot Black Soldier Fly (BSF) yang diketahui sangat tinggi kandungan nutrisinya untuk bahan pakan ikan atau ternak. Penelitian ini menggunakan limbah organik dari industri es krim sebagai pakan maggot. Masalah yang ditimbulkan dari pemanfaatan limbah sludge industri es krim untuk pakan maggot adalah bau yang mengganggu dan mencemari lingkungan. Biosorpsi merupakan salah satu cara untuk menghilangkan bau (deodorisasi) pada limbah sludge. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan rasio biosorben pupuk kandang fermentasi (PKN), kompos (K) dan kalsium karbonat dari cangkang hewan (Ca) yang paling efektif dalam menghilangkan bau dengan menurunkan N-amonia dan sulfida pada limbah sludge industri es krim melalui teknik biosorpsi. Pengaruh biosorben yang digunakan untuk pakan maggot BSF juga diamati terhadap pertumbuhan maggot. Rasio K:Ca:Sludge (1:1:3) dengan waktu adsorpsi 48 jam merupakan rasio yang lebih efektif untuk menurunkan bau, N-amonia, dan sulfida pada sludge dengan presentase penurunan 85,0%. Akan tetapi, jumlah dan ukuran maggot hasil panen dengan media pertumbuhan PKN:K:Sludge (1:1:3) lebih besar dibandingkan dengan K:Ca:Sludge (1:1:3). Rasio PKN:K:Sludge (1:1:3) terbukti dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan maggot sehingga memberi manfaat bagi peternak dalam meningkatkan produksi maggot baik secara jumlah dan ukurannya. Kata kunci: maggot Black Soldier Fly, biosorben, biosorpsi, limbah organik, deodorisasi limbah
Utilization of Electrolyte Solution in Nanotube Formation on Ti-6Al-4V Metal Alloy Charlena Charlena; Tetty Kemala; Armi Wulanawati
IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry) Vol 3, No 1 (2018): February 2018
Publisher : IJFAC (Indonesian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Chemistry)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24845/ijfac.v3.i1.01

Abstract

Formation of nanotube morphology on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V metal did not occur homogeneously, so when it was coated with hydroxyapatite, it did not merge well. One of the factor that affected the inhomogeneously formed nanotube was the utilization of electrolyte solution. The research has been done to observe the effect of electrolyte solution in the formation of nanotube morphology on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V metal alloy. Electrolyte solution that was used was ethylene glycol, HF, and NH4F with time variation of an hour, 2 hour, and 3 hour. Formation of nanotube morphology on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V metal alloy was done using anodization process. The result showed that in HF electrolyte solution which was anodized for an hour ɑ and β phase that composed Ti-6Al-4V metal alloy was formed, meanwhile when using electrolyte solution of ethylene glycol  + NH4F for 2 hours showed that there were pores that opened on Ti-6Al-4V metal alloy surface. Nanotube morphology on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V metal alloy was formed using electrolyte solution of ethylene glycol + NH4F which was anodized for 3 hours.
Hydroxyapatite-Chitosan Composite Coating on TiAl Alloy Electrophoretic Deposition Method Charlena Charlena; Irma Herawati Suparto; Chonny Damayanti
IPTEK Journal of Proceedings Series No 4 (2017): 2nd International Seminar on Chemistry 2016
Publisher : Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.12962/j23546026.y2017i4.3071

Abstract

TiAl alloys is commonly used for bone implant applications because it has good biocompatibility. However, in long term usage of metal implants, metal release, which can harm the body, may occured. The metal release can be inhibited by hydroxyapatite-chitosan composite coating on the metal surface using Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) method. EPD method carried out with 200 v for 40 and 60 minutes, to compare the impact of different interval time in producing the best product. The coated alloy was observed physically by SEM and showed that 60 minute-treatment produced better result. The XRD and FTIR analysis shows that the composite of hydroxyapatite-chitosan has successfully coated on TiAl alloy. The coated TiAl alloy also has low corrosion rate and could potentially be used as bone implants.
PROFIL KELARUTAN LIMBAH MINYAK BERAT AKIBAT PENAMBAHAN BAHAN PENCAMPUR Charlena Charlena; Iswandi Anas; Zainal Alim Mas'ud; Ahmad Syahreza; Niken Dyah Wanodyanti
Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan Vol 12 No 1 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Tanah dan Lingkungan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu Tanah dan Sumberdaya Lahan, Fakultas Pertanian, IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (251.946 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitl.12.1.31-35

Abstract

Heavy Oil Waste (HOW) is on of the most important petroeum waste. In the recent years, many contamination of soil or water by HOW have been reported. Bioremediation is one of the alternative technology to clean the HOW contaminated soil since it is enviromentally friendly, effective, efficient and low cost. The contaminated soil is diluted in water to form bioslurry. However, the solubility of HOW in water is very low. To increase HOW solubility in water, addition of four mixing agents were tested namely: Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP), Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), quart sand and pumice stone. The main characteristics of HOW were solid TPH was 17.2%, water content was 1.96% and Cu and Hg content was 1.49 ppm and 3.33 ppb, respectively. The parameters determined were turbidity, solid TPH, liquid TPH pH and COD. The results showed that (1) the highest turbidity was in the STPP addition; (2) the lowest solid TPH was in the addition of pumice stone; (3) the highest liquid TPH was in the STPP addition;(4) the pH varied from 3.6 to 7.9; (5) the ghigest COD was in the addition of STPP. From these results it can be concluded that the best mixing agent to increase the solubility of HOW in soil slurry was STPP. Keywords: heavy oil waste (HOW), mixing agents, solubility of HOW