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ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L.) FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK Krisdianto, Krisdianto; Damayanti, Ratih
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 4, No 2 (2007): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.
FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper) BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER Fatriasari, Widya; Damayanti, Ratih; Anita, Sita Heris
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung) bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper) using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control). Fresh and barkless large (betung) bamboo chips of 2 years old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO); P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC); P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV); and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO).After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I) based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report) requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for 45 days produced the best fiber dimension and its derived value properties. The fungi hypae colonized on the surface area of  bamboo followed by mycelium penetration into substrate (bamboo-inner structure). The partial degradation caused by delignification indicatively attributed to the fungi activity was shown in the macroscopic images.
ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA Damayanti, Ratih; Rulliaty, Sri
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 1 (2010): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae); Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae); Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae); Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae) and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae). Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.
SIFAT ANATOMI, SIFAT FISIS DAN MEKANIS PADA KAYU KEMENYAN TOBA (Styrax sumatrana) DAN KEMENYAN BULU (Styrax paralleloneurus) Pasaribu, Gunawan; Jasni, Jasni; Damayanti, Ratih; Wibowo, Santiyo
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 31, No 2 (2013):
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Kemenyan (Styraxsp.) merupakan pohon penghasil getah bernilai ekonomis cukup tinggi yang khas propinsi Sumatera Utara. Pohon yang sudah tua (kurang produktif) ditebang oleh masyarakat dan kayunya umumnya digunakan sebagai kayu bakar saja. Tulisan ini menyajikan tentang perbedaan karakteristik dua jenis kemenyan yaitu kemenyan toba (Styrax sumatrana) dan kemenyan bulu (Styrax paralleloneurus) dari segi anatomi, dan fisik mekanik dalam rangka pemanfaatannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kayu kemenyan toba (Styrax sumatrana) dan kemenyan bulu (Styrax paralleloneurus, memiliki sifat struktur anatomi yang khas, mempunyai kualitas serat sebagai bahan baku pulp karena termasuk kualitas I. Berdasarkan berat jenis kedua kayu ini tergolong kayu dengan berat sedang, sedangkan penyusutan sedang dan berat. Kedua jenis kayu ini sesuai untuk konstruksi ringan, mebel dan barang kerajinan.
ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE BRANCH-WOOD OF Schizolobium amazonicum DUCKE SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL USES Amin, Yusup; Adi, Danang S.; Wahyuni, Ika; Kusumah, Sukma S.; Damayanti, Ratih
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

The scale of forest degradation and deforestation in Indonesia has inspired the use of lesser-known wood species, which are potentially abundant and so far has not much been utilized. Utilization of these woods should be imposed not only of the stem wood but also of the branch-wood portions. Schizolobiumamazonicum Ducke treeis one of those lesser-known species, and growing fast with an MAIof3.68 cm/year.In Indonesia this species is only found in the Purwodadi Botanical Garden. A research was conducted to study the basic characteristics (anatomical aspects and chemical properties) of the branch-wood portion of this species. The branch-wood materials were obtained from the Purwodadi Botanical Garden situated in Pasuruan (East Java). The specimens used were the first branch of the trunk (stem) of nine-year old S. amazonicum tree (= 29.46 cm). The branch-wood samples were then examined for the anatomical aspects (macroscopic and microscopic characteristics) and chemical properties (chemical composition). Results revealed that the anatomical properties of S.amazonicum branch-wood exhibited close similarities to those of sengon wood; it was light in appearance and white in color. Its fiber averaged about 1500 μm, and based on the fiber dimensions derived values the branch- wood fiber of this species was categorized into first-class quality for pulp and paper manufacture. Further, the chemical composition of this branch-wood compared favorably with that of sengon and mangium wood. The composition of extractive content thatsoluble in alcohol-benzene; lignin; holocellulose; and α-cellulose of this branch-wood were 2.46; 28.71; 80.64; and 50.47%, respectively. The overall assessment implied that the branch-wood portion of S.amazonicum tree affords favorable potential to be developed as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture. Also, considering that both sengon and mangium woods were already used in the pulp and paper industries as well as the trees are used for the establishment of industrial plantation forests (HTI), therefore S.amazonicum trees, as fast- growing species,are also promising for the establishment of pulp/paper-HTI for their branch-wood.
ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER QUALITY OF FIVE POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL WOOD SPECIES FROM CIANJUR, WEST JAVA Damayanti, Ratih; Rulliaty, Sri
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 1 (2010): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2010.7.1.53-69

Abstract

A detailed description of wood anatomy is essential for assessing the use of a wood species for processing , and also beneficial for the identification of wood samples. Computerized keys are available that allow the identification of wood samples until the genus level; however, it is not easy to use these keys to identif y unknown species. Therefore, a database of anatomical characteristics and the computerized keys need to be completed up to species level. As the relevance, this study has examined the wood anatomical properties of the five corresponding tree species originated from Cianjur, West Java, which are commercially potential for their exploitation, i.e Castanopsis acuminatissima ADC. (Fagaceae); Castanopsistungurrut ADC. (Fagaceae); Cinnamomum inners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae); Ficus nervosa Heyne (Moraceae) and Horsfieldia glabra Warb. (Myristicaceae). Expectedly the results would be beneficial for wood identification purposes and evaluation for other possible uses. Obser vations on anatomical structures covered macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were carried out through the sectioned and macerated wood samples. The obser ved characteristics of the anatomical features were defined conforming to the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood  Identification.  Based on the scrutiny on those obser ved characteristics and linked to the fiber quality, it was judged that the fiber in all the five wood species could be classified as class I for pulp and paper processing.
ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE BRANCH-WOOD OF Schizolobium amazonicum DUCKE SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL USES Amin, Yusup; Adi, Danang S.; Wahyuni, Ika; Kusumah, Sukma S.; Damayanti, Ratih
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2013.10.2.119-125

Abstract

The scale of forest degradation and deforestation in Indonesia has inspired the use of lesser-known wood species, which are potentially abundant and so far has not much been utilized. Utilization of these woods should be imposed not only of the stem wood but also of the branch-wood portions. Schizolobiumamazonicum Ducke treeis one of those lesser-known species, and growing fast with an MAIof3.68 cm/year.In Indonesia this species is only found in the Purwodadi Botanical Garden. A research was conducted to study the basic characteristics (anatomical aspects and chemical properties) of the branch-wood portion of this species. The branch-wood materials were obtained from the Purwodadi Botanical Garden situated in Pasuruan (East Java). The specimens used were the first branch of the trunk (stem) of nine-year old S. amazonicum tree (= 29.46 cm). The branch-wood samples were then examined for the anatomical aspects (macroscopic and microscopic characteristics) and chemical properties (chemical composition). Results revealed that the anatomical properties of S.amazonicum branch-wood exhibited close similarities to those of sengon wood; it was light in appearance and white in color. Its fiber averaged about 1500 μm, and based on the fiber dimensions derived values the branch- wood fiber of this species was categorized into first-class quality for pulp and paper manufacture. Further, the chemical composition of this branch-wood compared favorably with that of sengon and mangium wood. The composition of extractive content thatsoluble in alcohol-benzene; lignin; holocellulose; and α-cellulose of this branch-wood were 2.46; 28.71; 80.64; and 50.47%, respectively. The overall assessment implied that the branch-wood portion of S.amazonicum tree affords favorable potential to be developed as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture. Also, considering that both sengon and mangium woods were already used in the pulp and paper industries as well as the trees are used for the establishment of industrial plantation forests (HTI), therefore S.amazonicum trees, as fast- growing species,are also promising for the establishment of pulp/paper-HTI for their branch-wood.
ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L.) FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK Krisdianto, Krisdianto; Damayanti, Ratih
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 4, No 2 (2007): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2007.4.2.93-103

Abstract

Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.
FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper) BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER Fatriasari, Widya; Damayanti, Ratih; Anita, Sita Heris
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2013.10.2.89-99

Abstract

Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung) bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper) using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control). Fresh and barkless large (betung) bamboo chips of 2 years old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO); P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC); P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV); and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO).After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I) based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report) requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for 45 days produced the best fiber dimension and its derived value properties. The fungi hypae colonized on the surface area of  bamboo followed by mycelium penetration into substrate (bamboo-inner structure). The partial degradation caused by delignification indicatively attributed to the fungi activity was shown in the macroscopic images.
PENGARUH ASAS KERAHASIAAN DATA DAN INFORMASI WAJIB PAJAK PADA PENGAMPUNAN PAJAK (TAX AMNESTY) TERHADAP PENEGAK HUKUM DI INDONESIA Damayanti, Ratih
Indonesian State Law Review (ISLRev) Vol 2 No 1 (2019): ISLRev 2(1) Oktober 2019
Publisher : Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law, Faculty of Law Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES).

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Abstract

The purpose of this article is to find out the implementation and issues of confidentiality principle in Act No. 11 of 2016 concerning Tax Amnesty and to determine the effect of the principle of confidentiality of data and information on taxpayers in Act No 11 of 2016 concerning Tax Amnesty for law enforcement in Indonesia. The principle of confidentiality in Tax Amnesty provides a potential moral hazard. A moral hazard occurs because of the opportunities that enable these actions to materialize. Opportunities for Fiscus and Taxpayers to meet in person. This has the potential to cause a gray area between the Taxpayer and the Fiscus which can cause a moral hazard to the Taxpayer. The authority of the Fiscus is prone to be misused so that it can lead to several criminal actions that can be carried out, namely embezzlement or corruption that can harm the country's finances. When the crime occurs at a Tax Amnesty Taxpayer, it will be difficult to enforce the law because the data and information sourced from the Statement and the attachments that are administered cannot be used as a basis for investigation, investigation, and/or criminal prosecution of the Taxpayer cannot be used as a basic investigation, investigation and/or criminal prosecution of taxpayers.