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Studi Variabilitas Isotop Airhujan Sebagai Fungsi Elevasi untuk Mendapatkan Merapi Meteoric Water Line MMWL Agus Budhie Wijatna; S Sudarmadji; S Sunarno; Heru Hendrayana
Forum Teknik Vol 35, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Theoretically environmental isotopic compositions ofprecipitation decrease with increasing altitude. Linear regression analysis was applied to environmental isotopic compositions (δ18O, δ2H) data on 15 precipitation samples collected along an altitudinal 126 to 1260 m.asl from November 2011 to February 2012 to determine the local meteoric water line for southern slope of mount Merapi. Merapi meteoric water line (MMWL) is an equation that describes the relationship between isotopic compositions of precipitation with altitude. This study was completed as part of a larger research of the groundwater dynamics studies using natural isotopes for southern slope of mount Merapi.Isotopic compositions of precipitation samples were measured using Liquid-Water Stable Isotope Analyzer LGR DLT-100 at the Center for the Application of Isotopes & Radiation Technology Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jakarta. Regression results for the precipitation samples for southern slope of mount Merapi yielded a MMWL defined by the equation δ2H=8.332 δ18O+15.068(r2 =0,998); the change of isotopic compositions in precipitation with altitude of about -1.2%d100m for deuterium and -0. 1 %dl 00m for oxygen-18.This equation will be useful as reference for hydrological dynamics studies on the southern slope of mount Merapi that use isotopes of 2H and 18O to trace sources of ground-water recharge, to evaluate mixing of sea-water and groundwater, to analyze groundwater-mineral exchange, and to analyze many other groundwater contamination problems.Keywords: precipitation, isotope ratio, isotopic composition, m.asl, MML .
Kualitas Air Tanah di Tiga Ibu Kota Kecamatan (Kutowinangun, Prembun dan Kutoarjo) dan Kaitannya dengan Sanitasi Lingkungan Sekitar Sudarmadji, S; Suyono, S
Forum Geografi Vol 7, No 2 (1993): December 1993
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v7i2.4803

Abstract

Air tanah masih merupakan sumber air untuk keperluan sehari-hari bagi penduduk perkotaan, lebih-lebih kota kecil pada umumnya. Sumber daya air menunjukkan gejala penurunan kualitas yang disebabkan oleh dampak berbagai macam kegiatan yang menghasilkan limbah dan sistem sanitasi lingkungan yang kurang baik. Daerah-daerah perkotaan yang terletak di dataran alluvial pantai dapat merupakan daerah yang rawan terhadap pencemaran air tanah. Tiga ibu kota kecamatan, yaitu Kutowinangun dan Prembun, Kabupaten Kebumen dan Kutoarjo Kabupaten Purworejo yang terletak saling berdekatan diteliti untuk mengetahui kualitas air tanah yang merupakan sumber air domestik penduduknya dalam kaitannya dengan kondisi sanitasi lingkungan serta persepsi masyarakat terhadap pencemaran sumber air tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengadakan pengamatan di lapangan wawancara dengan penduduk serta analisis laboratorium terhadap sampel air tanah yang diambil. Hasil analisis laboratorium menunjukkan gejala kualitas air di tiga kota tersebut sudah memperlihatkan gejala penurunan, walaupun belum sampai melampaui ambang batas baku mutu air Golongan B. Penurunan tersebut terlibat dengan tingginya kadar NO2, SO4, Cl, COD dan bakteri coli. Diperkirakan bahwa tingginya kadar zat tersebut terkait dengan masalah limbah yang dibuang, yang didukung oleh sanitasi lingkungan yang masih belum baik. Kadar NO2 dan NO3 cenderung lebih tinggi di daerah pusat kota yang merupakan pusat aktivitas penduduk, dibandingkan dengan daerah pinggir kota. Limbah dari aktivitas kegiatan penduduk di pusat-pusat pelayanan umum, termasuk juga dari sarana transportasi di jalan raya dapat merupakan sumber pencemar air tanah. Bakteri coli pada umumnya tinggi di ketiga kota yang diteliti, melebihi 2400 MPN/100ml. Angka COD yang tinggi teramati didalam air tanah Kutowinangun dan Prembun, lebih dari 25% sampel di kedua kota ini memiliki COD diatas 10 mg/l, sedangkan di Kutoarjo relatif lebih rendah. Hal yang mirip didapatkan pada BOD. Persepsi penduduk terhadap masalah lingkungan umumnya beragam, namun terlihat bahwa penduduk dengan pendidikan di bawah SLTP masih belum mengerti atau kurang memperhatikan hal-hal yang terkait dengan pencemaran lingkungan.
Review of Overlandflow Quality in Densely Settled Sub-Urban Areas Sudarmadji, S
Forum Geografi Vol 11, No 2 (1997)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v11i2.491

Abstract

The study aims to analyse quality of water from overlandflow in the sub-urban area having high of to houses, in the Sinduharjo, Sleman regency. In the sub urban area, the run off originated from paved and impermeable are which is not uniformaly distributed over the area. Run off is iniated from detention storage and overlandflow. Therefore any water pollution of the runoof begin from overlandflow which dissolves constituent within the soil and rock materials. Land cover also determines the dispersion agent of rain water thus the affect the material dissolved in the water. As an input into the catchment system, rainfall affects overlandflow, quantitative, and qualitatively. Overlandflow from open space in the sub-urban area was evaluated based on physical and chemical characteristics. Overlandflow from urban area has chemical parameters such as C, NO2, NO3, and PO4 are higher than those in overlandflow from rural area which is covered by forest and garden. Overlandflow shows BOD and COD in relatively high concentration. Overlandflow is not recomended to be discharge into infiltration wells, unless it is free from parts having high significant contamination.
Penelitian Pendahuluan Mutu Air Hujan Di Kotamadya Yogyakarta = Rain Water Quality in Yogyakarta Municipality A Preliminary Study ., Sudarmadji
Majalah Geografi Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1988)
Publisher : Majalah Geografi Indonesia

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Abstract

A preliminar study on rainwater quality was conducted in the municipal area of Yogyakarta (Central Java) to reveal its chemical characteristics and spatial variation within the municipality. Seven rainwater samples were collected within the municipality and one sample to the north of Yogyakarta. The samples have been analyzed on major chemical elements and the general physical characteristics. The analysis shows that rainwater in the municipal area contains relatively high concentrations of some specific chemical elements. In the central part of the city HCO3 , Ca, Mg, and SiO2 and the electrical conductivity appear to be substantially higher than in the suburban areas. The relatively high concentrations are thought to be the result of urban activities, in particular combustion waste from motorised traffic and dust production which dissolves in rainwater. INTISARI Penelitian pendahuluan tentang mutu air hujan ini dilakukan di daerah Kotamadya Yogyakarta, untuk mengetahui mutu air hujan dan agihannya menurut ruang di kola tersebut. Sampel air hujan dikumpulkan selama bulan Januari 1986 sampai bulan Maret 1986 dan delapan lokasi, tujuh lokasi terletak di dalam Kotamadya Yogyakarta dan scbuah lagi terletak di sebelah utara Kotamadya Yogyakarta. Sampel air yang dikumpulkan telah dianalisis untuk mengetahui konsentrasi beberapa unsur/zat kimia dan beberapa sifat fisik air tersebut. Dari hasil analisis telah diketahui bahwa air hujan di daerah tersebut telah mengandung beberapa unsur kimia dalam konsentrasi yang relatif tinggi. Di daerah pusat kola, HCO3 , Ca, Mg dan SiO2 dan sifat fisik berupa daya hantar listrik menunjukkan angka yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan yang ada di daerah-daerah yang terletak di pinggiran kota. Konsentrasi zat kimia yang tinggi diperkirakan sebagai akibat pengaruh aktivitas kota, terutama lalu lintas kendaraan yang menghasilkan sisa pembakaran dan debu yang Iarut dalarn air hujan tersebut.
DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN DAN RISIKO BENCANA PENGEMBANGAN DESA WISATA STUDI KASUS DI DESA WISATA SAMBI Darmakusuma Darmanto, Sudarmadji
Jurnal Kawistara Vol 4, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Sekolah Pascasarjana UGM

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Abstract

Merapivolcano has a lot of tourism potential objects. Local people’s traditions and the local panoramacaused many tourism villages to develope. Development of the tourismvillages in volcanic areas havepositive and negative impactsto the environment including to the local community. It also has somedisaster risks. This research was conducted at the Sambi Tourism Village located in the Southern Slopeof Merapi Volcano, to study the environmental impacts and disaster risks. The study was conductedby collecting primary and secondary data. Primary data collected by field observations and interviewswith local people and tourists. Data analyses was done by descriptive method. The results showedthat the Sambi Tourism Village has good tourism potential to be developed. Tourism developmenthas some positive impacts on economy of the local community, though there are some conflicts ofinterest among stakeholder. Negative impacts also occur, such as social tension and the degradation oflocal culture, especially “gotong royong”.Sambi Tourism Village has some risk disaster due to MerapiVolcano activities, such as lahar floods and hot clouds.Environmental impacts and disaster risks shouldbe considered in the further development of Sambi Tourism Village
Penelitian Pendahuluan Mutu Air Hujan Di Kotamadya Yogyakarta = Rain Water Quality in Yogyakarta Municipality A Preliminary Study Sudarmadji .
Majalah Geografi Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1988): Majalah Geografi Indonesia
Publisher : Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (369.73 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/mgi.5263

Abstract

A preliminar study on rainwater quality was conducted in the municipal area of Yogyakarta (Central Java) to reveal its chemical characteristics and spatial variation within the municipality. Seven rainwater samples were collected within the municipality and one sample to the north of Yogyakarta. The samples have been analyzed on major chemical elements and the general physical characteristics. The analysis shows that rainwater in the municipal area contains relatively high concentrations of some specific chemical elements. In the central part of the city HCO3 , Ca, Mg, and SiO2 and the electrical conductivity appear to be substantially higher than in the suburban areas. The relatively high concentrations are thought to be the result of urban activities, in particular combustion waste from motorised traffic and dust production which dissolves in rainwater. INTISARI Penelitian pendahuluan tentang mutu air hujan ini dilakukan di daerah Kotamadya Yogyakarta, untuk mengetahui mutu air hujan dan agihannya menurut ruang di kola tersebut. Sampel air hujan dikumpulkan selama bulan Januari 1986 sampai bulan Maret 1986 dan delapan lokasi, tujuh lokasi terletak di dalam Kotamadya Yogyakarta dan scbuah lagi terletak di sebelah utara Kotamadya Yogyakarta. Sampel air yang dikumpulkan telah dianalisis untuk mengetahui konsentrasi beberapa unsur/zat kimia dan beberapa sifat fisik air tersebut. Dari hasil analisis telah diketahui bahwa air hujan di daerah tersebut telah mengandung beberapa unsur kimia dalam konsentrasi yang relatif tinggi. Di daerah pusat kola, HCO3 , Ca, Mg dan SiO2 dan sifat fisik berupa daya hantar listrik menunjukkan angka yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan yang ada di daerah-daerah yang terletak di pinggiran kota. Konsentrasi zat kimia yang tinggi diperkirakan sebagai akibat pengaruh aktivitas kota, terutama lalu lintas kendaraan yang menghasilkan sisa pembakaran dan debu yang Iarut dalarn air hujan tersebut.
Review of Overlandflow Quality in Densely Settled Sub-Urban Areas Sudarmadji, S
Forum Geografi Vol 11, No 2 (1997)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The study aims to analyse quality of water from overlandflow in the sub-urban area having high of to houses, in the Sinduharjo, Sleman regency. In the sub urban area, the run off originated from paved and impermeable are which is not uniformaly distributed over the area. Run off is iniated from detention storage and overlandflow. Therefore any water pollution of the runoof begin from overlandflow which dissolves constituent within the soil and rock materials. Land cover also determines the dispersion agent of rain water thus the affect the material dissolved in the water. As an input into the catchment system, rainfall affects overlandflow, quantitative, and qualitatively. Overlandflow from open space in the sub-urban area was evaluated based on physical and chemical characteristics. Overlandflow from urban area has chemical parameters such as C, NO2, NO3, and PO4 are higher than those in overlandflow from rural area which is covered by forest and garden. Overlandflow shows BOD and COD in relatively high concentration. Overlandflow is not recomended to be discharge into infiltration wells, unless it is free from parts having high significant contamination.
Perkembangan Daerah Perkotaan Ditinjau dari Aspek Hidrologi Sudarmadji, S
Forum Geografi Vol 9, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

Perkembangan daerah kota secara fisik ditandai dengan meluasnya wilayah kota dan bertambahnya daerah permukiman baru di sekitarnya. Di sisi lain perkembangan kota menyebabkan dampak negatif pada kondisi hidrologi, baik yang kuantitas maupun kualitas. Perluaasan daerah kota sering menyebabkan banjir dan genangan di daerah kota itu sendiri, yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya koefisien aliran serta tidak mempunyai saluran drainase untuk menampung limpasan yang terjadi. Perkembangan kota menyebabkan kebutuhan air meningkat untuk penyediaan air di daerah kota tersebut. Air yang digunakan berasal dari berbagai sumber air, baik air permukaan maupun airtanah, yang sifatnya terbatas. Aktivitas penduduk kota menghasilkan limbah yang dibuang ke dalam lingkungan, yang dapat menemari air permukaan maupun airtanah. Di pihak lain airtanah masih merupakan sumber yang utama untuk penyediaan air di daerah kota. Perkembangan daerah kota dapat mempengaruhi kondisi hidrologi baik kuantitas dan kualitasnya, yang hal ini dapat dijadikan pertimbangan dalam perkembangan dan pengembangan kota.
Comparison of Stream Characteristics of Forested Subwatershed and Deforested Watershed in Mangunan Area, DIY Sudarmadji, S
Forum Geografi Vol 5, No 1 (1991)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

Land use changes from forested  into unforest catchment result negative effects to the environment, including to the hydrological and soil condition of the area. To improve the hydrological and soil conditions serious attemps are required, and they take a long period to realize. The Mangunan Girirejo area (which is located in the Bantul regency, Yogyakarta Special Province) is one of pilot projects managed by the Gadjah Mada University. Among it’s activities the project tried to improve critical land by reforesting the area with  some kinds of plant. From the hydrological points of view this attemps should be evaluated, by comparing runoff from two adjacent catchments having similar conditions expect those on the land use. One of them is forested catchment, while the other is unforest catchment. The study  was conducted in the Mangunan Girirejo area using two small subcatchments. The forested subccatchment used for the study having an area 2.225 hectares. The forested subcatchment in now mostly covered by the pinus mercusii, acacia auliculiformis and malaleuca leucacendra, while the unforested subcatchment is used for the dry field ultivation, and dominantly casava, beam, and corn were planted in the subcatchment. About three month was needed for observing hydrological parameters (from January to March 1993). During the research some hydrological component such as rainfall, overlandflow, seepages, and runoff were observed. Rainfall in the study area generally  having less than 100 mm depth, falling in shorter than 4 hours duration. As an input in the hydrological system of the subcatchment, the rainfall did not always result runoff. In the forested subcatchment rainfall did not always result runoff. In the forested subcatchment rainfall higher than 10 mm depth result runoff, while in the unforested subcatchment the 5 mm rainfall is concidered as minimum rainfall to result runoff. The runoff hydrolographs of the two subcatchment having different characteristics. Although they have quick rise, the time of rise in the unforested subcatchment is shorter that those to the forested subcatchment. The hydrographs of the forested subcatchment have lower peaks than the unforested subcatchment, however the time base of hydrographs in the unforested subcatchment are longer. Chemical substances those which dominated the rock forming minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, SO4, and SiO2) significantly increased from rainfall to runoff. The highest concentration found in the surface runoffand seepages. However if the one compared the concentration of the chemicals in the water originated from forestsed and underforested watershed he may say that the concentration of the chemical in water from unforested subcatchment is generaly higher than those from the forested subcatchment is generaly higher than those from the forested subcatchment. Runoff draining from unforested subcatchment having a higher SO4 and PO4 concentration sompared to those originated from forested subcatchment. The high concentration of the substances may bee caused by use of fertilizer by farmers in the unforested subcatchment.
System Dynamic Approach to Support Decision in Maintaining Water Availability (Case Study in Aek Silang Sub-Watershed, the Lake of Toba) Sihotang, Irwan Valentinus; Sudarmadji, S; Purnama, Ig.L. Setyawan; Baiquni, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 30, No 2 (2016): December 2016
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v30i2.2719

Abstract

Water availability is immensely affected by the correlation among land use change, rainfall change, and population growth. One of analysis tools to discover how the correlation goes on in a hydrological process is by dynamic modelling approaching. The dynamic modelling result can be used for a substructure in decisions making as supports to maintain water availability for fulfilling domestic needs, agriculture, and Micro-Hydro Power (MHP). The aims of this study are to evaluate water availability as a long-term impact on land use change, rainfall change, and population growth with dynamic modelling and as a scenario which is required as basic information to make decisions in maintaining water availability. Analysis method which is applied in this study is dynamic modelling to long term evaluate water availability and validate using Mean Average Percentage Error method (MAPE). The analysis showed that the combination of rainfall of 2312.09 mm/yr, rainfall intensity of 0.340 mm/h, population growth rate of 7.23%, declined forest area of 1.513 ha/yr, declined shrub/unproductive land of 318.113 ha/yr, increased agricultural land of 7.627 ha/yr, and increased settlement area of 0.473 ha/yr, yielded the estimation of the fail in sustaining water sources in 2090 or the next 79 years from 2011 since the water deficit has reached approximately 3,249,881.02 m3. The value of validation modelling with MAPE method is 8.90, it is a dynamic modelling which is managed nearly the same with actual condition.