Abdul Kadir Riyadi
Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya

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Dinamika Kemunculan dan Persinggungan Paradigmatik Tasawuf al-Ḥârith al-Muḥâsibî Abdul Kadir Riyadi
Islamica: Jurnal Studi Keislaman Vol. 8 No. 2 (2014): Maret
Publisher : Postgraduate Studies of Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (282.766 KB) | DOI: 10.15642/islamica.2014.8.2.447-474

Abstract

This paper tries to expose critically and analitically the historical dimension of tasawuf as far as its epistemological development is concerned. It argues that as a system of knowledge, tasawuf constitutes part and parcel of the larger Islamic epistemological system and shares with other forms of knowledge in its historical dimension. By referring in particular to the evolution of sufistic ideas in its early period as represented by the thought of al-Ḥârith al-Muḥâsibî, the paper tries to show that tasawuf cannot be discussed in isolation from such knowledge as fiqh, kalam, and philosophy. All these are related to one another historically and may be understood as influencing each other in such a way that they?at some level?share the same epistemological roots. The paper, however, is not very much concerned with this similarity, as much as it is interested in finding out the dynamic tension between tasawuf and other forms of knowledge; tension that inevitably contributed in the very development and progress of this spiritual dimension of Islam.
Tasawuf antara Penafsiran Normatif dan Sosiologis dalam Pemikiran Ibn Khaldūn Abdul Kadir Riyadi
Islamica: Jurnal Studi Keislaman Vol. 12 No. 1 (2017): September
Publisher : Postgraduate Studies of Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (393.148 KB) | DOI: 10.15642/islamica.2017.12.1.80-166

Abstract

This study takes up the challenge of investigating Ibn Khaldūn’s concept of tasawuf by relating it to his overwhelming idea of al-‘Umrān. The man has been widely known for his innovative assessment on various issues relating to society, organization, civilization and above all, forms of knowledge. He has been acknowledged as a pioneer and father of modern sociology. Nonetheless, little has been done to study his thought on Sufism and how this form of knowledge works in social context. Ibn Khaldūn himself has not worked out to explain this problem. But one may reconstruct it within his comprehensive concept of al-‘Umrān, which is understood by some as a form of theories on social organization. It is toward this aim that this study is carried out. It argues that in Ibn Khaldūn’s mind, tasawuf a) is part and parcel of his notion of social organization without which a society may not emerge; and b) society has its roots not only in material, civilisational and biological needs of both man and society, but also in their spiritual needs. This spiritual need in its turns is the very motives why many undertakes spiritual quest. It is also, socially speaking, the raison de’etre for social cohesion to emerge. Hence, Ibn Khaldūn’s sociology of tasawuf as it were, has its epistemo-logical underpinning in his implicit idea of spiritual cohesion in society.
Kajian atas Wacana Tasawuf dan Keutuhan Sosial Ernest Gellner Abdul Kadir Riyadi
Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam Vol. 8 No. 2 (2018): December
Publisher : Department of Aqidah and Islamic Philosophy, Faculty of Ushuluddin and Philosophy, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University Surabaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (383.745 KB) | DOI: 10.15642/teosofi.2018.8.2.366-402

Abstract

This article seeks to scrutinize the thought of Ernest Gellner particularly his idea of tasawuf and its relation to social cohesion. He has raised a number of questions concerning the relation of Islam and tasawuf with modernity, which attract the attention of other scholars in the field. By modernity he means secularism, industrialism and national-ism. Motivated by secular and orientalist ideals, Gellner seems to have no ground in the “normative” aspect of Islam. This study finds that he is equally not consistent. In the first instance, he tends to argue that Islam must be excluded from modernity because it is not in conformity with it. Then he speaks of what he calls higher Islam and lower Islam, the former being in line with modernity while the latter is not. With regard to this distinction, he urges that Muslim society undergoes what he calls a “transition” from the lower to the higher Islam if it is to join the modern society and be part of the “cohesive world”. The lower Islam should be left out because it teaches magic and encourages poverty. By bringing up this distinction, and not sticking to the consistent paradigm, Gellner’s thought on Islam and tasawuf vis-à-vis modernity is—it may be judged—dichotomous and even perplexed.
Abû Naṣr al-Sarrâj dan Wacana Sufistik Lintas Disiplin Keilmuan Abdul Kadir Riyadi
Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam Vol. 4 No. 2 (2014): December
Publisher : Department of Aqidah and Islamic Philosophy, Faculty of Ushuluddin and Philosophy, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University Surabaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (605.785 KB) | DOI: 10.15642/teosofi.2014.4.2.285-308

Abstract

This paper traces back the origin of tasawuf to the early period of Islam by investigating the ideas propagated by one of its best scholars named Abû Naṣr al-Sarrâj. The paper tries to find the link between his thought and that of the earlier sufis on the one hand, and his response to the social and epistemological contexts that shape it on the other. In doing so, it discusses first the debate and the so-called dynamic tension in which the sufis and their opponents were involved. The paper shows that the development of tasawuf cannot be separated from this tension as well as from what the sociologists of knowledge have taught us to call falsification. Tasawuf was dubbed the distorted version of Islam and was falsified in such a way that many sufis ended up in being alleged apostate. However, having succeeded in going through this phase of history made tasawuf an objective and paradigmatic kind of knowledge. The thought of al-Sarrâj—the paper argues—is reminiscent of this form of knowledge. His is a kind of thought that brings forth not only new ideas and concepts, but also strategies of survival and method of thinking quite new for its context; method that may be deemed multidisciplinary in its form and objective.
Tasawuf dalam Cengkeraman Materialisme Historis: Kajian Pemikiran Husein Muruwwa Abdul Kadir Riyadi
Jurnal Theologia Vol 31, No 2 (2020)
Publisher : Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Humaniora, Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21580/teo.2020.31.2.6746

Abstract

By referring to the thought of Husain Muruwwa, this study looks at the spiritual dimension of Islam, namely Tasawuf, and how it is being interpreted in terms of a continuous social change. Muruwwa –the paper tries to show- is confident that the only authentic approach to interpreting Islam and Tasawuf in terms of social change is historical materialism, which he often calls intellectual Marxism or Realist Socialism. The advantage of this approach, he argues, lies in its ability to rejuvenate the missing intellectual dimension of Islam, but also in its capacity to produce knowledge as well as in establishing the link between the past and the present. The whole idea of the link between the past and the present is associated with his project to formulate what he calls, a new national culture. While believing that Islam can be a vibrant source of the new culture, he treats this religion as a form of culture as such. Hence –this paper shows- Muruwwa’s notion of Islam is quite heterodox since he tries to drag out its theological dimension in order to dig up its social aspects. His view of Tasawuf is equally uncommon. His is the idea that Tasawuf has nothing to do with Islam. It is rather the product of social interaction in a particular society. Being Marxist Moreover, he maintains that the central teaching of the Sufis is not to encourage men to know God but to become God as such.