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Optimizing the Synthesis of Lignin Derivatives from Acacia mangium to Improve the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Kraft Pulp Sorghum Bagasse Fatriasari, Widya; Hamzah, Fajar Nur; Pratomo, Bagas Ikhasan; Fajriutami, Triyani; Ermawar, Riksfardini Annisa; Falah, Faizatul; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Ghozali, Muhammad; Iswanto, Apri Heri; Hermiati, Euis; Winarni, Ina
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 9, No 2 (2020): July 2020
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.9.2.227-235

Abstract

The present study is aimed at optimizing the synthesis of Amphipilic lignin derivatives (A-LD) from the isolated lignin of A.mangium black liquor (BL), using the one and two step acid isolation method, and commercial lignin (LS) was used as comparison. The experimental design was conducted using Taguchi method, which consisted of four parameters and two level factors, with reference to the matrix orthogonal array, L8, including temperature, reaction time, amount of polyethylene glycol diglycidylethers (PEGDE) and Kraft lignin (KL). Furthermore, the kraft pulp of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was used as substrate in the enzymatic hydrolysis (NREL method), with addition of A-LD, whose functional group and surface tension were then characterised using ATR-FTIR and surface tension equipment. Conversely, an improvement in the reducing sugar yield (RSY) compared to the control was observed after adding various A-LDs to the substrate during enzymatic hydrolysis. This product was more prospective for L2S than others products under milder circumstances, due to the fact that it possesses the lowest surface tension. Also, Taguchi analysis demonstrated the treatment at 60 °C for 1 h with 3.0 g and 1.0 g of PEDGE and lignin, respectively as the optimum condition, while the amount of lignin present was included as a factor with the propensity to significantly affect A-LD L1S and LS. Therefore, it was established that the A-LDs from A. mangium kraft lignin require milder synthesis conditions, compared to other existing methods and despite the differences in optimum experimental condition for L2S and LS, the functional groups in the IR spectra possessed very identical characteristics. 
Effect of Corn Steep Liquor on Bamboo Biochemical Pulping Using Phanerochaete chrysosporium Faizatul Falah; Widya Fatrisari; Riksfardini A Ermawar; Dedi TA Nugroho; Euis Hermiati
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 9, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (478.68 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v9i2.132

Abstract

The effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) loading on white rot fungi inoculums in the biochemical pulping of betung bamboo was investigated. The best condition of the pretreatment was also determined. There were two conditions of CSL amount used i.e. 1% (v/w) and 10 % (v/w) of CSL used in 100 ml of inoculums. In short, fresh bamboo chips without bark was incubated with Phanaerochaete chrysosporium inoculum stocks for 30 and 45 days at room temperature and followed by Kraft and Soda pulpings. SEM images of pretreated chips were taken after incubation. The pulp yield, Kappa number, freeness, delignification selectivity, and brightness were analyzed. The more CSL amount added with Kraft process gave better results on pulp yield. Increasing incubation time increased pulp yields and decreased the Kappa numbers. On the other hand, freeness and brightness of pulp increased especially for Kraft process. The SEM images showed that there were cell walls degradation activities. The best properties of pulp were obtained by the Kraft process for the treatment of 10% CSL with 30 days of incubation time.Key words: betung bamboo, biochemical pulping, corn steep liquor, Phanaerochaete chrysosporium
Pretreatment of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) at Bench-Scale High Temperature-Pressure Steam Reactor for Enhancement of Enzymatic Saccharification Sari, Fahriya Puspita; Falah, Faizatul; Anita, Sita Heris; Ramadhan, Kharisma Panji; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 10, No 2 (2021): May 2021
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.2021.32343

Abstract

Upscaling of biomass pretreatment from laboratory scale to a bench-scale reactor is one of the important steps in the application of the pretreatment for pilot or commercial scale. This study reports the optimization of pretreatment conditions, namely reaction temperature and time, by one factor at a time (OFAT) method for the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). OPEFB was pretreated using high temperature-pressure steam reactor with different reaction temperatures (160, 170, 180, 190, 200 °C) and times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 min). The effectiveness of the pretreatment was determined based on chemical compositions of raw OPEFB and OPEFB pulp and sugar production from enzymatic saccharification of the OPEFB pulp.  Solubilized components from OPEFB, such as glucose, xylose, formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and furfural in the hydrolysate that generated during steam pretreatment were also determined. Pretreatment at 180°C for 20 min provides the highest sugar yields (97.30% of glucose yield per initial cellulose and 88.86% of xylose yield per initial hemicellulose). At the optimum condition, 34.9% of lignin and 30.75% of hemicellulose are successfully removed from the OPEFB and resulted in 3.43 delignification selectivity. The relationship between severity factor and by-products generated and the sugars obtained after enzymatic saccharification are discussed. The pulp of OPEFB at the optimum condition was also characterized for its morphological characteristic by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and crystallinity by X-ray diffractometry (XRD).  These pulp characteristics are then compared with those of the raw OPEFB. The steam pretreatment causes some fiber disruptions with more defined and opened structures and increases the crystallinity index (CrI) by 2.9% compared to the raw OPEFB.
This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open ho Widya FATRIASARI; Riksfardini Annisa ERMAWAR; Faizatul FALAH; Dede Heri Yuli YANTO; Euis HERMIATI
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol. 2 No. 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open hot soda process. The cooked bamboo chips were then fibrillated using beater hollander and stone refiner. Yield, kappa numbers (TAPPI 236 cm-85) and freeness (CSF) of the pulp were then analyzed. Pulp yield pretreated with P.ostreatus and incubated for 30 days was the highest (increased by control 22.31%), while that pretreated with T.versicolor was the lowest (decreased by control 22.20%). The increasing of incubation time had positive correlation with the reduction of kappa number. Statistic test (ANOVA) at 95% level of confidence show that fungi give significant effect on kappa number, freeness, and kappa number degradation. Besides that fungi, the interaction between fungi and incubation times give significant effect on the yield changes and pulp yield. T. versicolor had better activity in 45 days of incubation. Pulp freeness resulted              from this study were still lower than the desired value. Pretreatment of betung bamboo using T. versicolor with               45 days of incubation was considered better than the other treatments.   Keywords : Betung bamboo, biopulping, pulp yield, kappa number, degree of freeness
Effects of Several Synthesis Conditions on Bond Strength of Plywood Adhered with Natural Rubber Latex – Styrene Adhesive Euis Hermiati; Widya Fatriasari; Faizatul Falah
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 4, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (265.184 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v4i1.287

Abstract

This report discusses the effects of synthesis conditions on bond strength of plywood adhered with natural rubber latex - styrene adhesive.  Synthesis variables observed were catalyst (with and without catalyst), pre-stirring (0 and 3 hours) and heating time (1 and 2 hours).  Three-ply plywood samples were prepared from Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Red meranti (Shorea, sp.) veneers and their gluability were evaluated in accordance to Indonesian Standard (SNI 01-2704-1992).  The results revealed that synthesis conditions (i.e. catalyst, pre-stirring and heating time) did not significantly influence the bond strength of plywood.  Natural rubber latex – styrene adhesive is very appropriate as adhesive for Red meranti plywood.  Nevertheless, it can be used as limited interior application for Albizia plywood.  An addition of 10% phenol formaldehyde (PF) in natural rubber latex - styrene adhesive slightly improved the exterior type bond strength of Red meranti plywood
Synthesis of Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate for Plywood Adhesive Euis Hermiati; Dede Heri Yuli Yanto; Faizatul Falah
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 7, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (548.865 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v7i1.241

Abstract

The aim of this research was to produce natural rubber-based Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate (API) adhesives that could meet standard for exterior grade plywood adhesive.  Base polymers used were Natural Rubber Latex (NRL), Natural Rubber Latex - Styrene (NRL-St), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH).There were two kinds of adhesives produced; one was using NRL and PVOH as base polymers, and the other one was using NRL-St and PVOH as base polymers.  Isocyanate crosslinking agent was added to each kind of adhesives at 2.5; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of the weight of the base polymers.  They were measured for their total solid content (gravimetric method), pH (using pH meter), specific gravity (using picnometer) and viscosity (using Brookfield viscometer). Thermal analyses using TG/DTA was conducted at the addition of 0, 5 and 15% cross-linking agent. The adhesives were spread on the surface of Red Meranti  (Shorea sp.) veneers (250 x 250 x 2.1 mm core; 250 x 250 x 1.5 mm face and back) at the glue spread rate 400 g/m2 DGL (double glue line). The veneers with adhesives were cold pressed at 10 kg/cm2 for 10 minutes and then hot pressed at 10 kg/cm2, 110ºC for 5 minutes.  The plywood produced was conditioned for 2 weeks, then they were measured for their bond strength, delamintaion ratio, water absorption, and thickness swelling. Results of this study showed that either NRL or NRL-St could be used as one of base polymers in preparing API adhesive.  Bond strength of plywood adhered with API adhesives made of NRL-St at all levels of isocyanate crosslinking agent addition were higher than those made from NRL. The addition of 10% or more isocyanate croslinkers to NRL/PVOH (50:50) or to NRL-St/PVOH (50:50) could produce plywood having bond strength that could meet interior grade standard.  Plywood having bond strength of exterior grade standard were produced when 15% or more isocyanate crosslinkers were added to NRL-St/PVOH (50:50) or when 20% or more isocyanate crosslinkers were added NRL/PVOH (50:50).
Kraft and Soda Pulping of White Rot Pretreated Betung Bamboo Widya Fatriasari; Riksfardini A Ermawar; Faizatul Falah; Dede HY Yanto; Deddy TN Adi; Sita H Anita; Euis Hermiati
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 9, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (391.712 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v9i1.145

Abstract

This research was conducted to study the effects of pre-treatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybags contained barkless fresh bamboo chips. Each polybag contained 214.9–286.8 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days at room temperature. Bamboo chips were cooked using soda and Kraft processes. The cooked bamboo chips were then defiberize using disc refiner for 3 times. Pulp yield, kappa number and degree of freeness of the pulp were then analyzed. The treatment of two white rot fungi, gave different effects on the characteristic of betung bamboo pulp. The effects of fungi treatment on kappa number and degree of freeness can be seen only at samples cooked using kraft process. Incubation time did not affect pulp yield of bamboo treated with both fungi, but it affected kappa number and degree of freeness of bamboo pulp cooked using kraft process. Bamboo treated with T. versicolor incubated for 45 days and cooked using kraft process produced the best pulp quality with high pulp yield.Key words: betung bamboo, biopulping, degree of freeness, kappa number, pulp yield.
BIOPULPING BAMBU BETUNG MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR CAMPUR JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH (Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus dan Phanerochaete crysosporium) Widya Fatriasari; Sita Heris Anita; Faizatul Falah; Triyono Nugroho Adi; Euis Hermiati
JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 45, No 02 (2010): BERITA SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1725.643 KB)

Abstract

This research was to study the pretreatment effect of mixed culture fungi (T.versicolor, P.ostreatus and P.crysosporium) of betung bamboo on quality of pulp kraft and to determine the effect of pretreatment compared to monoculture. Bamboo chips were inoculated at room temperature and analysed by SEM. Bamboo chips was cooked by kraft process and analysed its properties i.e yield, kappa number, delignification selectivity, freeness and pulp brightness. Results showed that mixed culture pretreatment of T.versicolor, P.ostreatus, dan P.crysosporium gave better pulp quality compared to monoculture. Each fungi treatment gives different effect on pulp properties. Pulp yield was increased which compare to without fungi treatment. If three fungi species were mixed, it showed little positive effect on pulp properties. Mixed culture pretreatment can increased freeness. Meanwhile, pulp yield and delignification selectivity were increased, and kappa number was decreased. Fungi pretreatment can increase pulp brightness level compare to control. SEM image indicated a degradation of bamboo cell wall caused by fungi activity. The longer incubation time reduced kappa number and improved pulp yield and delignification selectivity. The highest pulp quality is by a co-culturing T.versicolor and P.crysosoporium on 30 days incubation.Key words : white rot fungi, mixed culture, kraft pulping, betung bamboo, pulp quality INTISARIPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh perlakuan kultur campur jamur T. versicolor, P.ostreatus dan P. crysosporium pada bambu betung dengan proses pemasakan kraft terhadap kualitas pulp. Selain itu, untuk mengetahui perbedaan pengaruhnya terhadap kualitas pulp yang dihasilkan dari perlakuan kultur tunggal. Bambu diinokulasi pada suhu ruang dan dianalisa dengan SEM. Bambu dimasak dengan proses kraft dan dianalisa kualitas pulp berupa rendemen pulp, bilangan kappa, selektifitas delignifikasi, derajat giling, dan derajat putih. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa perlakuan awal kultur campur T.versicolor, P.ostreatus, dan P.crysosporiummemberikan kualitas pulp yang lebih baik dibandingkan kultur tunggal ditinjau dari bilangan kappa, selektifitas delignifikasi dan rendemen. Masing-masing kombinasi perlakuan jamur memberikan respon yang berbeda. Terjadi peningkatan rendemen dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Jika ketiga spesies jamur dicampur maka kurang berpengaruh positif terhadap kualitas pulp. Perlakuan kultur campur menyebabkan pulp lebih kasar yaitu terjadi peningkatan derajat giling. Sedangkan rendemen dan selektifitas delignifikasi meningkat, serta bilangan kappa menurun. Perlakuan jamur meningkatkan derajat giling pulp dibandingkan kontrol. Pencitraan SEM menunjukkan perlakuan kultur campur menyebabkan degradasi dinding sel bambu. Bertambahnya lama inkubasi menyebabkan penurunan bilangan kappa, peningkatan selektifitas delignifikasi dan rendemen. Perlakuan terbaik adalah inokulasi secara bersamaan T.versicolor and P.crysosoporium dengan lama inkubasi 30 hari.Kata kunci : jamur pelapuk putih, kultur campur, kraft pulping, bambu betung, kualitas pulp