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The Correlation of Regulatory T (TReg) and Vitamin D3 in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome Nurtyas, Yunika; Subandiyah, Krisni; Fitri, Loeki Enggar
Journal of Tropical Life Science Vol 8, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Life Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.11594/jtls.08.01.08

Abstract

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is an autoimmune disease that correlates to the imbalance of regulatory T cells (TReg). This study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D as adjuvant therapy of TReg population in pediatric nephrotic syndrome. This study was designed randomized clinical trial, double blind, with pre- and post-test control groups involving 15 subjects newly diagnosed with NS. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, namely K1 for group treated with prednisone+vitamin D and K2 group for prednisone treatment only. The population of TReg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed using flowcytometry. Vitamin D serum level was measured through ELISA method. Results showed that there was a significant elevation of TReg (independent t-test, p = 0.010) in K1 group, which was higher than in K2 group. The Pearson test in the K1 group showed that vitamin D level was positively correlated with TReg (p = 0.039, r = 0.779).
Ovitrap Index and Transovarial Transmission Rate of Dengue Virus of Male and Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia Juhdi, Isnadiyah; Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Zuhriyah, Lilik; Arasy, Andi Arahmadani
Journal of Tropical Life Science Vol 9, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Life Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (264.524 KB) | DOI: 10.11594/jtls.09.01.13

Abstract

The incidence rate (IR) of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Indonesia has increased in recent years and still causes a health problem. Makassar, as one of the big cities in Indonesia, is also experiencing of DHF cases. According to the Health Office of Makassar City, DHF cases during 2014 – 2016 has increased from 139 to 250 cases. The defense mechanism of dengue virus in transovarial transmission from female mosquitoes to eggs is estimated to be one of the factors that increase the rate of DHF. In addition, the circulation of the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can also affect the increase of the rate. This study aims are to identify ovitrap index and to find out how much the vertical transmission of dengue virus by measuring the minimum infection rate (MIR) and the distribution of four dengue virus serotype in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the city of Makassar, South Sulawesi, as well as their association with the incidence rate (IR) in the area. This observational research uses ecological study with cross-sectional approach. The samples of the study are male and female mosquitoes from Ae.aegypti eggs obtained from the installation of ovitrap  in 30 urban villages in Makassar. Dengue virus identification was performed using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These results showed that the ovitrap index (IO) was in the range of 0 - 66.7%. The average value of the ovitrap index outside the house (44.44%) was greater than inside house (37.22%). The results of identification of dengue virus using RT-PCR showed negative results as indicated by the non-formation of a band on 75 pools male and 78 pools female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes after electrophoresis. The results of this study indicated that the Ae. aegypti mosquito in Makassar City showed a tendency to lay eggs outside the house due to the habit of the people who put rain water shelters outside the house which could become breeding place for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. This study also showed that there was no transovarial transmission of DENV found in male and female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in Makassar City during November 2017 until January 2018.
Difference of Vitamin D and Interleukin-6 Levels in Children with Steroid- Resistant, Steroid-Sensitive and Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome Subandiyah, Krisni; Ghofar, Hervin Febrina; Fitri, Loeki Enggar
Journal of Tropical Life Science Vol 9, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Life Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (209.072 KB) | DOI: 10.11594/jtls.09.02.07

Abstract

Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is the most prevalent autoimmune glomerular disease in children and its pathogenesis is correlated with high level of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and low level of vitamin D. This study was aimed to investigate the difference of vitamin D and IL-6 level in steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), steroid sensitive (SSNS), and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). This research was designed as cross sectional involving 45 subjects which then divided into 3 groups as follows: SRNS, SSNS, and INS. A level of serum 25 (OH)D was measured by Enzyme-linked Immuno Assay Method then categorized as sufficiency, insufficiency, and deficiency. Level of IL-6 serum was measured by ELISA method. Results showed that IL-6 level was significantly different among three groups, in which SRNS had the highest value (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Further analysis demonstrated that IL-6 level correlated with steroid resistance (Spearman correlation test, p = 0.000, r = 0.692). Vitamin D status was significantly different among three groups (Chi square, p = 0.03) and associated with steroid resistance (Spearman correlation test, p = 0.000, r = 0.568). Moreover, IL-6 level associated with 25 (OH) D level in SRNS group (Pearson correlation test, p = 0.020, r = 0.591) but not in the SSNS and INS group. We conclude that IL-6 levels were significantly higher in SRNS group as compared to other groups. Otherwise, vitamin D status were significantly lower in SRNS compared with other groups. An IL-6 level was negatively correlated with vitamin D status in patients with NS, specifically in SRNS group.
Kombinasi Artesunat Injeksi dan Ekstrak Brotowali (Tinospora crispa (L) Miers) Menurunkan Derajat Parasitemia serta Meningkatkan Ekspresi HSP70 dan Endoglin pada Mencit C57BL/6J yang Diinfeksi Plasmodium berghei Swastomo, Rahadi; Budiarti, Niniek; Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Poeranto, Sri
Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya Vol 29, No. 4 (2017)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jkb.2017.029.04.3

Abstract

Penemuan kombinasi terapi baru untuk malaria dianggap penting karena kemampuan resistensi dari Plasmodium terhadap pengobatan terdahulu. Sebanyak 18 mencit dibagi ke dalam kelompok kontrol negatif, kontrol positif, kelompok artesunat, serta kelompok kombinasi artesunat dengan brotowali (dosis 50 mg, 60 mg dan 70 mg). Selain kontrol negatif, semua mencit diinfeksi Plasmodium berghei. Selanjutnya diamati derajat parasitemianya sampai hari ke-7, kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaaan imunohistokimia guna mengetahui ekspresi HSP70 dan endoglin pada otak mencit. Kombinasi artesunat injeksi dan ekstrak brotowali terbukti dapat menurunkan derajat parasitemia lebih baik dari pemberian terapi tunggal artesunat dan meningkatkan ekspresi HSP70 dan endoglin. Kesimpulannya, kombinasi terapi malaria menggunakan artesunat dan brotowali terbukti berpotensi sebagai terapi kombinasi yang efektif terhadap malaria karena mampu menurunkan derajat parasitemia sampai 0% dan meningkatkan ekspresi HSP70 dan endoglin pada otak mencit C57BL/6J secara signifikan. 
Uji Knockdown Effect Ekstrak Bunga Syzygium aromaticum L. terhadap Nyamuk Culex Sp. Dewasa Nopitasari, Hayu Sukowati; Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Nurdiana, Nurdiana
Mutiara Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Vol 14, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/mmjkk.v14i1.2473

Abstract

Nyamuk Culex sp. merupakan vektor penyakit Filariasis, Japanese encephalitis dan demam chikungunya. Insektisida dipilih untuk mengontrol populasi Culex sp. namun, penggunaan insektisida menimbulkan resistensi nyamuk dan efek toksik pada manusia. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan adanya insektisida yang lebih aman bagi lingkungan. Salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan ekstrak bunga cengkeh (Syzygium aromaticum L.) yang mengandung carvone, terpinen-4-ol, fenchone, eugenol dan quercetine yang berpotensi sebagai insektisida. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuktikan bahwa ekstrak bunga S. aromaticum L. memiliki knockdown effect terhadap nyamuk Culex sp. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratoris dengan rancangan true experimental-post test only con­trol group design. Sampel yang digunakan adalah 25 ekor nyamuk Culex sp. pada setiap perlakuan. Konsentrasi ekstrak bunga S. aromaticum L. yang digunakan adalah 1,25%, 2,5%, 5% dan sebagai kontrol negatif digunakan larutan aseton 1% serta malathion 0,28% sebagai kontrol positif. Dari uji Kruskal-Wallis diketahui bahwa ekstrak bunga S. aromaticum L. pada menit ke-5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 dan 60 memberikan perbedaan yang signifikan diantara konsentrasi 1,25%, 2,5%, 5% dan malathion 0,28% (p 0,05). Uji korelasi Spearman membuktikan adanya hubungan yang kuat antara knockdown effect dengan besarnya konsentrasi ekstrak bunga S. aromaticum L. (p=0,000 dan r=0,907). Disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak bunga S. aromaticum L. memiliki knockdown effect terhadap nyamuk Culex sp. dewasa.Culex is vector for Filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya fever. Insecticide is chosen to control Culex sp. population. However, the usage of chemical insecticides make insecticide resistant and toxic effect. Therefore, safer alternative insecticide for environment is needed. One of them is by using clove bud extract. Previous studies has proved that clove bud extract (Syzygium aromaticum L.) has containing carvone, terpinen-4-ol, fenchone, eugenol and quercetine a potency to be insecticide on Culex sp. The purpose of this experiment is to prove whether S. aromaticum L. bud extract has knokdown effect on Culex sp. This research was a laboratorial experimental research using true experimental post test only control group design. The samples were 25 Culex sp. in every group which treated by S. aromaticum L. bud extract (1,25%, 2,5%, 5%) and aceton preparation (1%) as a negative control, malathion preparation (0,28%) as a positive control. Kruskal-Wallis test showed that S. aromaticum L. bud extract in 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minute gave significant difference among concentration 1,25%, 2,5% and 5% (p 0,05). Spearman corelation test prove that there was a significant relationship between knockdown effect produced and the concentration of the S. aromaticum L. bud extract (p=0,000 and r=0,907). It can be concluded that S. aromaticum L. bud extract has knockdown effect against adult Culex sp.
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MINYAK BUAH MERAH (Pandanus conoideus) TERHADAP STRES OKSIDATIF SEL ENDOTEL YANG DIPAPAR DENGAN SERUM PENDERITA MALARIA FALCIPARUM DAN NETROFIL INDIVIDU SEHAT Armiyanti, Yunita; Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Widjajanto, Edi
Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya Vol 23, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1699.473 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jkb.2007.023.01.2

Abstract

Complication in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with endothelial damage and overproductionof free radicals (oxidative stress) by activated neutrophils and endothelial cells. Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus) oil  has a very high antioxidant content, therefore it may neutralize free radicals and prevent endothelial damage. The aim of this research is to prove that red fruit (Pandanus conoideus) oil reduce Reactive Oxygen Intermediate (ROI) production  of endothelial cells exposed to severe malaria patient serum and neutrophils from healthy donor. Endothelial cells from human umbilical veins were coincubated with serum from severe malaria patient and with neutrophils from healthy donor  (positive control group). HUVEC’s normal was used as negative control,  where as  the experimental groups were given with red fruit oil in different concentrations (2.8%, 5.7% dan 11.3% ). The Reactive Oxygen Intermediate (ROI) production of  endothelial cells was semiquantitatively measured by using NBT-reduction assay and the score of ROI was counted. The results were statistically analyzed with ANNOVA (p<0.01). The rate of ROI production of endothelial cells was markedly increased after incubation with patient serum and neutrophils.
RESISTENSI OBAT MALARIA: MEKANISME DAN PERAN OBAT KOMBINASI OBAT ANTIMALARIA UNTUK MENCEGAH Simamora, Dorta; Fitri, Loeki Enggar
Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya Vol 23, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1046.929 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jkb.2007.023.02.4

Abstract

Multi drug resistance (MDR) of malariae parasite iscaused by decreasing ability of some antimalarial  drugs examples chloroquine, mefloquine, antifolate and atovaquone  to Plasmodium. Resistance to artemisin has not beenfound yet. Antimalaria drug resistance happened because some factors especially : genetic factor (gene mutation)  of the Plasmodium. Mechanism pathway of resistance differsin location, because the different target drug action. Resistance migh be reduce by using combination therapy. Key words: resistance, Plasmodium falciparum, antimalaria combination
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN KALSIUM TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM IN VITRO Asfirizal, Verry; Soebaktiningsih, Soebaktiningsih; Sudjari, Sudjari; Sumarno, Sumarno; Fitri, Loeki Enggar
The Journal of Experimental Life Science Vol 1, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Graduate School, University of Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (735.63 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.jels.2011.001.01.03

Abstract

Peningkatan permeabilitas sel eritrosit yang terinfeksi Plasmodium falciparum terhadap ion dan makromolekul diketahui sebagai mekanisme parasit untuk memenuhi nutrisi dalam proses pertumbuhan. Peningkatan permeabilitas terhadap kalsium masih merupakan hal yang kontradiktif dalam peranannya meningkatkan pertumbuhan Plasmodium falciparum dalam sel eritrosit. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui peningkatan pertumbuhan Plasmodium falciparum dalam sel eritrosit pasca pemberian kalsium. Biakan primer Plasmodium falciparum dalam medium biakan RPMI 1640 yang menghasilkan parasitemia 15%, dilakukan inokulasi untuk pembuatan subkultur yang menghasilkan parasitemia 2% dan dilakukan pembagian untuk kelompok perlakuan pemberian kalsium dan kontrol (ML 10%) dengan replikasi 3 kali. Pengamatan dilakukan hari pertama sampai hari ke-6 setelah perlakuan. Pengamatan pertumbuhan dilakukan dengan parameter parasitemia, bentuk skizon, hemolisis dan kalsium intraseluler. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian kalsium menghasilkan peningkatan tertinggi jumlah total rerata parasitemia (11,09 ± 4,01) (Rerata ± SD), bentuk skizon (23,52 ± 10,83), hemolisis (0,278 ± 0,03) dan kalsium intraseluler (6,55 ± 1,88), dibandingkan dengan media biakan kontrol (ML 10%). Analisis T-test (?= 0,05) menghasilkan perbedaan yang signifikan pada parameter parasitemia, bentuk skizon, hemolisis tetapi tidak memberikan perberbedaan yang signifikan pada parameter kalsium intraseluler.Kata kunci: glukosa, hemolisis, kalsium, kalsium intraseluler, parasitemia, skizon
Imunogenic Protein of Salivary Gland from Anopheles sundaicus Armiyanti, Yunita; Nuryady, Moh Mirza; Utomo, Sugeng Setyo; Sardjono, Teguh Wahju; Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Senjarini, Kartika
UNEJ e-Proceeding Indonesian Protein Society (IPS), International Seminar and Workshop 2014
Publisher : UNEJ e-Proceeding

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Malaria is still a major problem for developing countries, including Indonesia. One approach to overcome this disease is prevention by vaccination. However, there is still no effective malaria vaccine that is applicable. The ideal malaria vaccine is a combination vaccine that can prevent the pre-erythrocytic cycle, the erythrocytic cycle and transmission process. Salivary vector-based vaccine has the potential to be developed as a malaria vaccine because it can prevent transmission process and also decrease the morbidity of the disease. Saliva from Anopheles contains vasomodulator and immunomodulatory components, that are required in the blood feeding process, but in the same time it could enhance the transmission of the malaria parasite. If the component in the salivary vector can increase pathogen infection, then vaccinating the host with its anti-substances can control the transmission of pathogens (Transmision Blocking Vaccine). Anopheles sundaicus is an important vector of malaria in coastal areas of Java, Bali, Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Nusa Tenggara islands. Repeated exposures of Salivary Gland Extract (SGE) from this vector have been proven to be able to decrease parasitemic rates in mouse model for malaria in our study. The objective of this research is to determine and localize the immunogenic protein from SGE of An. sundaicus as the first step for the characterization of its immunomodulatory component. Mosquito salivary gland protein profile of An.sundaicus was determine by SDS-PAGE. Determination of salivary glands immunogenic proteins was conducted by Western Blotting with IgG from people living from endemic area as primary antibody. Out of 15 bands appeared in SDS PAGE ranging from 24 kD to 138 kD, only two protein bands with  molecular weights of 68 and 37 kDa were the most immunogenic. Those immunogenic proteins were consistent recognized by pooled serum of people as well as by individual response. Keywords: malaria, saliva, vector, immunogenic protein, vaccine
Specific sequence of Plasmodium falciparum DBL domains associated with severe malaria outcome Sulistyaningsih, Erma; Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Loescher, Thomas; Berens-Riha, Nicole
UNEJ e-Proceeding Indonesian Protein Society (IPS), International Seminar and Workshop 2014
Publisher : UNEJ e-Proceeding

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Duffy-binding like (DBL) domains of Plasmodium falciparum are believed to be involved in erythrocytes invasion and infected erythrocytes cytoadhesion during the blood stage of malaria infection. In Plasmodium falciparum, DBL domains found in the two different protein families; Erythrocyte Binding Ligand (EBL) including EBA-175, EBA-140, EBA-181 and EBL-1, and Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein-1. The study aimed at investigating the specific sequence of Plasmodium falciparum involved in severe malaria outcome.Blood samples from severe and uncomplicated falciparum malaria cases from Papua and South Kalimantan province, Indonesia, were collected for DNA extraction. A dried blood on filter paper were used for RNA extraction. PCR was performed using UNIEBP primers and directly sequenced. Internal var D primers were designed according to the sequencing of the ~550 bp band produced by UNIEBP primers. The nucleotide sequences were analyzed by NCBI BLAST. Multiple bands ranging from nearly 250 bp to 1 kb were resulted from gDNA in all samples. Two isolates yielded bands of 450 and 525 bp, three isolates showed three bands additionally 250 bp, one isolate presented four bands additionally 800 bp and one isolate resulted one band additionally 1 kb.Amplification of cDNA from severe malaria cases produced one to four bands ranging from 250 bp to 700 bp, and no band observed from cDNA of uncomplicated malaria. Sequencing of the 418 bp bands matched with the eba-175 gene, the 316 bp determined as DBL1a domain and 486 bp band matched with the DBLg domain isolated from placenta of PAM’s Malawian woman. The expression of a 237 bp sequence corresponding to var D gene, was detected solely in severe malaria patients, implicating an association of gene expression and manifestation of severe malaria. Further characterization of the var D gene with a larger sample size is required to draw a definite conclusion. Keywords: DBL domains, Plasmodium falciparum, severe malaria, var D gene.
Co-Authors A.A. Ketut Agung Cahyawan W Adilah Ulfiati, Adilah Agustin Iskandar Agustina Tri Endharti Anik Widijanti Arasy, Andi Arahmadani Ardhian Wardana, Ardhian Ariel, Dio Giovanni Astutik Pudjirahaju Bagus Hermansyah BR. Sijabat, Melda Fio Flora Bramantyo Aji Wicaksono, Bramantyo Aji Brigitta Ida RV Corebima Budiarti, Niniek Burhan, Niniek Cahyono, Alfian Wika Chairul A. Nidom Dalhar, Mochamad Damayanti, Ria Dara Dasawulansari Syamsuri Desy Andari, Desy Didi Candradikusuma Dorta Simamora Edi Widjajanto Erma Sulistyaningsih Erwan, Nabila Erina Eviana Norahmawati Fitriana Nugraheni, Fitriana Ghofar, Hervin Febrina Handono Kalim Herpan Syafii Harahap Hidayat Sujuti Husnul Asariati I Ketut Gede Muliartha Ihwan Ihwan Joko Agus Gunawan Juhdi, Isnadiyah Kartika Senjarini Karyono Mintaroem Khadafi Indrawan Khairiyadi Khairiyadi Krisni Subandiyah Kusworini Handono Laksmi Karunia Tanuwijaya Lilik Maslachah Lilik Zuhriyah Mardhiyyah, Kana Merici, Angela Mochammad Dalhar Moh Mirza Nuryady, Moh Mirza Mulyohadi Ali Nicole Berens-Riha, Nicole Noer Aini Nopitasari, Hayu Sukowati Nugraha, Rivo Yudhinata Brian Nur Fahma Pradiptasari, Nur Fahma Nur Izzati, Nur Nur Permatasari Nurdiana Nurdiana Nurtyas, Yunika pertiwi, resti anggun Poedji Hastutiek Putri, Ajeng Maharani Putri, Fitria Febriliani Putri, Rachmania Rahma, Zainabur Rahmad Rahmad Rahman, Mohammad Saifur Renny Suwarniaty, Renny Rifa'i, Muhaimin Samsul Arifin Siti Candra Windu Baktiyani Soebaktiningsih Soebaktiningsih Soemarko Soemarko Sri Murwani Sri Poeranto, Sri Sri Winarsih Sudjari Sudjari Sugeng Setyo Utomo, Sugeng Setyo sujarot dwi sasmito, sujarot dwi Sumarno Sumarno Susanto Nugroho Sutiman B. Sumitro Swastomo, Rahadi Syarkiah Syarkiah Teguh Wahju Sardjono Thomas Loescher, Thomas Tinny Endang Endang H Tinny Endang Hernowati Tuda, Josef Sem Berth Umar Zein Verry Asfirizal Wahyono, Tikto Wongso Suhendro Yoes Prijatna Dachlan Yuanita Mulyastuti Yuliyanik Yuliyanik, Yuliyanik Yunita Armiyanti Zakiyah Zulaifa, Zakiyah