Nanang Haryono
Departemen Administrasi, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial Dan Politik, Universitas Airlangga

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PERBANDINGAN REFORMASI MANAJEMEN PUBLIK INDONESIA DAN PERANCIS Nanang Haryono
Jurnal Mediasosian : Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Administrasi Negara Vol 5, No 2 (2021): SEPTEMBER 2021
Publisher : Universitas Kadiri

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.30737/mediasosian.v5i2.2075

Abstract

AbstrakKajian perbandingan administrasi publik telah berkembang sejalan dengan perkembangan ilmu administrasi publik. Tujuan paper ini adalah mengetahui reformasi manajemen publik di Indonesia dikomparasikan dengan Prancis. Komparasi ini tidak mendudukkan Indonesia vis a vis dengan Prancis, namun untuk menemukan lesson learned untuk membangun Indonesia menjadi lebih baik. Metode yang digunakan adalah studi pustaka. reformasi manajemen publik di Indonesia mempertahankan banyak fitur inti dari negara neopatrimonial yang fundamental, di mana elit politik dan ekonomi yang berkuasa melakukan kontrol ketika beroperasi dalam administrasi publik Weberian.  Model reformasi negara Prancis sebagaimana negara-negara eropa kontinental berdasarkan modernisasi (Bouckaert, Pollitt, 2000). Pada negara Prancis, menganggap administrasi negara sebagai domain otonom terpisah dari masyarakat sipil '(Clark, 1998, hal. 100) dan diatur oleh aturan hukum. Berdasarkan studi komparasi reformasi manajemen publik di Indonesia dan Prancis lesson learned yang dapat penulis sampaikan adalah: a) Pelaksanaan Reformasi pada suatu negara harus memperhatikan aspek proses sosial-ekonomi, sistem politik, kebijakan elit berkuasa, dan sistem administrasi;  b) Reformasi pada negara maju maupun negara berkembang cenderung mengarah pada penciptaan good government dengan mengadopsi prinsip-prinsip NPM pada tata pemerintahan;  c) Dorongan reformasi untuk membangun good government dengan menerapkan NPM melalui paket-paket reformasi harus dibaca ulang disesuaikan dengan karakteristik sosial, budaya, politik dan kondisi masyarakat suatu negara. Kata kunci: perbandingan reformasi, manajemen publik. AbstractComparative studies of public administration have developed in line with the development of public administration science. The purpose of this paper is to find out public management reform in Indonesia compared to France. This comparison does not place Indonesia vis a vis with France, but to find lessons learned to build a better Indonesia. The method used is literature study. Indonesia's public management reforms retain many of the core features of a fundamentally neopatrimonial state, over which the ruling political and economic elite exercise control while operating within the Weberian public administration. The French state reform model as continental European countries is based on modernization (Bouckaert, Pollitt, 2000). The French state considers state administration as an autonomous domain separate from civil society' (Clark, 1998, p. 100) and governed by the rule of law. Based on a comparative study of public management reform in Indonesia and France, the lessons learned that the author can convey are: a) The implementation of reform in a country must pay attention to aspects of socio-economic processes, political systems, policies of the ruling elite, and administrative systems; b) Reforms in both developed and developing countries tend to lead to the creation of good government by adopting the principles of NPM in governance; c) The impetus for reform to build good government by implementing NPM through reform packages must be re-read in accordance with the social, cultural, political and social characteristics of a country. Keywords: comparative reform, public management
PEMBUATAN MEDIA PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS TIK UNTUK PENGEMBANGAN E-LEARNING SISTEM BAGI GURU: STUDI PADA GURU-GURU SMP MUHAMMADIYAH 14 PACIRAN LAMONGAN Philipus Keban; Yayan Sakti Suryandaru; Nanang Haryono
Jurnal Layanan Masyarakat (Journal of Public Services) Vol. 5 No. 1 (2021): JURNAL LAYANAN MASYARAKAT
Publisher : Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/jlm.v5i1.2021.84-94

Abstract

Learning media is an important part of the distance learning process, especially in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic. Online learning implemented in the midst of a pandemic demands innovation. The process of learning media innovation with the use of information technology is a big part of the progress of education. E-learning as a learning model in education provides a big role and function for the world of education. E-learning as a distance learning model in the education sector provides a big function and role for the world of education, especially since the Indonesian Government since March 2, 2020 (kompas.com) is facing the Covid-19 outbreak where all students at all levels are studying at home. Teachers at all levels of education as the spearhead of the implementation of education need to be empowered by providing knowledge and skills in making innovative learning media using technology. Community service that has been carried out aims to empower teachers in making technology-based learning media. This is based on the special problems faced by teacher partners (SMP Muhammadiyah 14 Paciran), the difficulty in making innovative learning media using technology. After empowerment through lectures on the importance of e-learning, followed by training on innovative learning media with movavi, and direct assistance and use of zoom, it was concluded that (a) teacher partners of SMP Muhammadiyah 14 Pondok Pesantren Karangasem Lamongan have increased knowledge (b) Teachers are capable converting PPT into visual learning media using Movavi software, (c) The teacher is able to take pictures, edit using Movavi on a smartphone. (d) At this stage the teachers are able to make learning media starting from planning by selecting important materials, taking pictures, editing learning media, to rendering so as to produce learning media that attracts students. abstrakMedia pembelajaran menjadi bagian penting dalam proses pembelajaran jarak jauh terlebih ditengah pandemi covid-19. Pembelajaran daring yang diimplementasi ditengah pandemi menuntut inovasi. Proses inovasi media pembelajaran dengan penggunakaan teknologi informasi bagian besar untuk kemajuan Pendidikan. E-learning sebagai model pembelajaran dalam pendidikan memberikan peran dan fungsi yang besar bagi dunia pendidikan. E-learning sebagai model pembelajaran jarak jauh sektor pendidikan memberikan fungsi dan peran yang besar bagi dunia pendidikan lebih-lebih saat ini Pemerintah Indonesia sejak 2 Maret 2020 (kompas.com) menghadapi wabah covid-19 dimana semua siswa pada semua jenjang belajar dirumah. Guru pada semua jenjang pendidikan sebagai ujung tombak pada pelaksanaan Pendidikan perlu diberdayakan dengan memberi bekal pengetahuan, ketrampilan dalam membeuat media pembelajaran yang inovatif dengan pemanfaatan teknologi. Pengabdian masyarakat yang telah dilaksankaan bertujuan untuk pemberdayaan guru dalam membuat media pembelajaran berbasis teknologi. Hal tersebut didasari permasalahan khusus yang dihadapi mitra guru (SMP Muhammadiyah 14 Paciran) kesulitan dalam pembuatan media pembelajaran inovatif dengan penggunaan teknologi. Setelah dilaksankaan pemberdayaan melalui ceramah pentingnya pembelajaran e-learning, dilanjutkan dengan pelatihan inovasi pembaatan media pembelajaran dengan movavi, dan pendampingan baik melalui langsung dan penggunaan zoom disimpulkan (a)  mitra guru SMP Muhammadiyah 14 Pondok Pesantren Karangasem Lamongan  telah bertambah pengetahuannya (b) Guru mampu mengubah PPT menjadi media pembelajaran visual dengan menggunakan software movavi, (c) Guru mampu untuk pengambilan gambar, editing menggunakan movavi pada smartphone. (d) Pada tahap ini guru-guru mampu membuat media pembelajaran mulai dari perencanaan dengan memilih materi penting, pengambilan gambar, melaksanakan editing media pembelajaran, sampai rendering sehingga menghasilkan media pembelajaran menarik siswa.
Peningkatan Literasi Digital Era New Normal: Studi Kasus Pembelajaran Daring Mahasiswa Akuntansi UPN Veteran Jawa Timur Sholihatin, Endang; Haryono, Nanang; Dwi Aprilisanda, Invony; Widoretno, Astrini Aning; Korika Swasti, Ika; Kusumastuti, Erwin; Febrianita, Roziana
Akuntansi : Jurnal Akuntansi Integratif Vol. 7 No. 1 (2021): Volume 7 Nomor 1 April 2021
Publisher : Prodi Akuntansi UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29080/jai.v7i1.457

Abstract

Abstract The rapid development of ICT and the digital world has changed many things. Education in the new normal era must innovate to integrate ICT. This study aims to determine the digital literacy competence of Accounting students FEB UPN Veteran East Java; and Formulating strategies to improve digital literacy competencies for Accounting students of FEB UPN Veterans East Java. In addition to digital infrastructure, it is necessary to design learning models such as curriculum that is integrated with digital literacy (Stein and Graham, 2014). European Commission Digital Competency Framework 2.1 (Carretero, Vuorikari & Punie, 2018), covers five aspects, namely information/data literacy; communication/collaboration; digital content creation; security; and problem solving. This research method uses mixed methods (survey/interview). Quantitative and qualitative data analysis. The results showed that from the five aspects of digital literacy competence, Accounting students of FEB UPN Veteran Jatim were categorized both in the aspects of Information/data literacy and Communication/collaboration. Next is the aspect of creating digital content; Security; and Troubleshooting, need improvement. Strategies to improve digital literacy competence are to direct students to: think critically; using digital media; manage online identity; managing digital distractions; digital experience practice; and get out of your comfort zone.
Reformasi Administrasi Pemerintah Kabupaten Banyuwangi dalam Meningkatkan Petumbuhan Ekonomi dan Kesempatan Kerja Nanang Haryono
Jejaring Administrasi Publik Vol. 12 No. 2 (2020): Jejaring Administrasi Publik
Publisher : Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/jap.v12i2.29360

Abstract

Reformasi administrasi pemerintah lokal era otonomi daerah sangat dipengaruhi kepemimpinan, kondisi politik lokal, birokrasi, dan hubungan negara-masyarakat. Tujuan paper ini adalah menjelaskan reformasi administrasi pemerintah lokal Kabupaten Banyuwangi periode 2016-2019 yang mampu meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan kesempatan kerja untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat. Implikasi praktis paper ini dapat menjadi informasi pemerintah lokal lain di Indonesia dalam melaksanakan reformasi administrasi untuk kesejahteraan masyarakat. Hasil yang diperoleh proses reformasi di Banyuwangi dominan peran kepemimpinan kepala daerah. Perubahan-perubahan terjadi pada aspek institusional, operasional pemerintah, dan prosedural pada pelayanan publik.  Manajemen sektor publik berorientasi pada masyarakat dengan penekanan peran civil society, peningkatan kualitas dan peningkatan produktivitas ekonomi. Kesimpulannya adalah reformasi administrasi pemerintah lokal Banyuwangi bersifat top-down dengan dominasi peran kepala daerah sebagai pengarah. Perubahan terjadi pada aspek institusional, operasional dan prosedur untuk meningkatkan pelayanan public. Kedudukan birokrasi pada proses inovasi sebagai implementator kebijakan
Peningkatan Literasi Digital Era New Normal: Studi Kasus Pembelajaran Daring Mahasiswa Akuntansi UPN Veteran Jawa Timur Endang Sholihatin; Nanang Haryono; Invony Dwi Aprilisanda; Astrini Aning Widoretno; Ika Korika Swasti; Erwin Kusumastuti; Roziana Febrianita
Akuntansi : Jurnal Akuntansi Integratif Vol. 7 No. 1 (2021): Volume 7 Nomor 1 April 2021
Publisher : Prodi Akuntansi UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29080/jai.v7i1.457

Abstract

Abstract The rapid development of ICT and the digital world has changed many things. Education in the new normal era must innovate to integrate ICT. This study aims to determine the digital literacy competence of Accounting students FEB UPN Veteran East Java; and Formulating strategies to improve digital literacy competencies for Accounting students of FEB UPN Veterans East Java. In addition to digital infrastructure, it is necessary to design learning models such as curriculum that is integrated with digital literacy (Stein and Graham, 2014). European Commission Digital Competency Framework 2.1 (Carretero, Vuorikari & Punie, 2018), covers five aspects, namely information/data literacy; communication/collaboration; digital content creation; security; and problem solving. This research method uses mixed methods (survey/interview). Quantitative and qualitative data analysis. The results showed that from the five aspects of digital literacy competence, Accounting students of FEB UPN Veteran Jatim were categorized both in the aspects of Information/data literacy and Communication/collaboration. Next is the aspect of creating digital content; Security; and Troubleshooting, need improvement. Strategies to improve digital literacy competence are to direct students to: think critically; using digital media; manage online identity; managing digital distractions; digital experience practice; and get out of your comfort zone.
SMALL AND MEDIUM MICRO ENTREPRISES INNOVATION STRATEGIES IN EFFORTS TO FACE THE INDUSTRY REVOLUTION 4.0 Tranggono -; Egan Evanzha Yudha Amriel, S.MN., M.M; Endang Sholihatin; Nanang Haryono
Journal of Economics, Business, and Government Challenges Vol 4 No 1 (2021): Journal of Economics, Business and Government Chalenges (JoRBGC)
Publisher : Universitas Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jawa Timur

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33005/ebgc.v4i1.162

Abstract

Micro, small and medium enterprises still rely on conventional ways of doing business. On the other hand, rapid digitalization is integrated with the economy and trade, giving birth to the industrial revolution 4.0. If micro, small and medium enterprises do not want to innovate, they will be disrupted. The research objectives are to describe the innovation strategies of micro, small and medium enterprises in increasing competitiveness in facing the industrial revolution 4.0; and also identify factors that hinder the innovation of micro, small and medium enterprises in increasing competitiveness in facing the industrial revolution 4.0. The method used in this research is qualitative. The research location is in the area of ​​micro, small and medium enterprises in Gresik Regency and Sidoarjo Regency. The conclusion of this research is(a) innovation strategies for micro, small and medium enterprises in increasing competitiveness in facing the industrial revolution 4.0 through marketing with e-commerce marketing through social networking media. One of the strategies is product innovation.(b) Furthermore, the factors that hinder innovation are human resources, capital to innovate, a narrow owner's mindset, and the use of technology that is still simple. lack of strategic partners for innovation, managementmicro small and Medium Enterprises who are kinship and less professional, and lack of permits micro small and Medium Enterprises.
Peningkatan Pelayanan Kesehatan Puskesmas Untuk Penanggulangan Penyakit Tropis Demam Berdarah Dengue Andi Umardiono; Andriati Andriati; Nanang Haryono
JAKPP (Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan & Pelayanan Publik) Volume 4 No. 1, Juni 2018
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu Administrasi FISIP UNHAS

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.31947/jakpp.v4i1.5905

Abstract

Preventive services to overcome tropical diseases of dengue hemorrhagic fever are very important. Optimization of the role of puskesmas needs to be improved, especially health educators in the efforts of preventive services. The purpose of this journal writing is to improve health services for health centers in tackling dengue hemorrhagic fever through counseling as a preventive measure. This study uses qualitative methods that prioritize the depth of research. Data is collected through interviews, observation and documentation. Data analysis using interactive model qualitative analysis. The results of the study, preventive health promotion services through local wisdom delivered by health educators at health centers are effective in changing the behavior and culture of the community for prevention of dengue can be optimized. The conclusion of this study is the public service of health counseling that synergizes with other stakeholders such as kyai and village heads are more effective in improving health services through preventive efforts to overcome tropical diseases with dengue hemorrhagic fever.AbstrakLayanan preventif menanggulangi penyakit tropis demam berdarah dengue sangat penting. Optimalisasi peran puskesmas perlu ditingkatkan terutama penyuluh kesehatan dalam upaya layanan preventif. Tujuan penulisan jurnal ini adalah peningkatan pelayanan kesehatan puskesmas dalam penanggulangan penyakit tropis demam berdarah dengue melalui penyuluhan sebagai upaya preventif. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif yang mengutamakan kedalaman penelitian. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara, observasi dan dokumentasi. Analisis data menggunakan analisis kualitatif model interaktif. Hasil penelitian, pelayanan preventif promosi kesehatan melalui kearifan lokal yang disampaikan petugas penyuluh kesehatan puskesmas efektif mengubah perilaku dan budaya bersih masyarakat untuk pencegahan DBD bisa dioptimalkan. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah pelayanan publik penyuluhan kesehatan yang bersinergi dengan stakeholder lain diantaranya kyai dan kepala desa lebih efektif dalam peningkatan layanan kesehatan melalui upaya preventif penanggulangan Penyakit Tropis demam berdarah dengue.
Analisis Peningkatan Kelembagaan Pengelola Air Limbah Domestik Era Otonomi Daerah: Studi Pada Kabupaten Sumenep Mike Yuanita; Nanang Haryono; Viktor Imanuel W. Nalle
Jejaring Administrasi Publik Vol. 13 No. 2 (2021): Jejaring Administrasi Publik
Publisher : Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/jap.v13i2.32184

Abstract

AbstrakSumber air limbah dari kegiatan domestik seperti dari urin, limbah air mandi, limbah buang air besar, mencuci peralatan, mencuci pakaian dan kegiatan dapur lainnya sebelum dibuang ke saluran air harus diolah terlebih dahulu di instalasi pengolahan limbah. Upaya memaksimalkan layanan pada masyarakat perlu mengoptimalkan infrastruktur instalasi pengolahan lumpur tinja (IPLT) yang telah terbangun. Isu strategis utama adalah belum optimalnya layanan IPLT Sumenep sehingga perlu memperkuat kelembagaan teknis pengelola infrastruktur IPLT agar prasarana IPLT yang ada fungsinya berjalan optimal. Prinsip dasarnya adalah air limbah yang dibuang ke lingkungan tidak berbahaya bagi kesehatan lingkungan.
CEMARAN BAHAN KIMIA BERBAHAYA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA Teguh Wahjudi; Arifa Mustika; Nanang Haryono
Jurnal Layanan Masyarakat (Journal of Public Services) Vol. 1 No. 2 (2017): Jurnal Layanan Masyarakat
Publisher : Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (652.838 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/jlm.v1i2.2017.98-104

Abstract

The purpose of science and technology program for the public identification of hazardous food materials from contaminated drugs and hazardous chemicals on youth and mothers PKK Mojokerto regency through testing the content of formalin in foodstuffs, especially salted fish, wet fish, shrimp, chicken, raw tofu, wet noodles, meatballs Using formalin main reagent. Science and technology for the community to be transferred is a method of spot test. Food is a necessity for all living things including humans. Food is needed to obtain energy used for daily activities. In general, food is only able to survive within a few days or a few hours until the meal is no longer consumable and should be discarded. Partners in this program are youth and mothers PKK Kelurahan Sawahan, Mojokari District Mojokerto District. Each group consists of five cadres. This method is the application of existing chemical analysis methods for determination of formalin content, borax, and hazardous dyes. Spot test method is chemical analysis method by using reagent. This method has the features of fast, cheap, sure and does not require complicated equipment and can be done anytime and anywhere. The working principle is to add liquid (reagent) to the foodstuffs that are suspected to use the material under investigation, with the final result of a distinctive color change. Formalin main reagent is one type of formalin tester kit tester.AbstrakTujuan program IbM identifikasi bahan berbahaya makanan dari cemaran obat dan bahan kimia berbahaya pada karang taruna dan ibu PKK Kabupaten Mojokerto melalui pengujian kandungan formalin pada bahan makanan khususnya ikan asin, ikan basah/udang, ayam potong, tahu mentah, mi basah, bakso menggunakan FMR (formalin main reagent). Iptek bagi masyarakat yang akan di transfer adalah metode spot test. Makanan merupakan kebutuhan bagi semua mahluk hidup termasuk manusia. Makanan dibutuhkan untuk memperoleh energi yang digunakan untuk beraktifitas sehari-hari. Secara umum makanan hanya mampu bertahan dalam waktu beberapa hari atau beberapa jam sampai makan tidak lagi dapat dikonsumsi sehingga harus dibuang. Mitra dalam program IbM ini adalah Karangtaruna dan Ibu PKK Kelurahan Sawahan, Kecamatan Mojosari Kabupaten Mojokerto. Masing-masing kelompok terdiri atas lima kader. Metode ini adalah penerapan metode analisa kimia yang sudah ada untuk penetapan kandungan formalin, borak, dan zat pewarna berbahaya. Metode spot test yaitu metode analisa kimia dengan menggunakan reagent kit (kit tester). Metode ini mempunyai keistimewaan antara lain cepat, murah, pasti dan tidak memerlukan peralatan yang rumit dan dapat dilakukan kapanpun dan dimanapun. Prinsip kerjanya adalah dengan menambahkan cairan (reagent) pada bahan makanan yang diduga menggunakan bahan yang diselidiki, dengan hasil akhir terjadinya perubahan warna khas. FMR (formalin main reagent) merupakan salah satu jenis kit tester kandungan formalin. 
PENGUATAN KOMPETENSI MENGAJAR GURU DALAM MEMBUAT INOVASI PEMBELAJARAN BLANDED LEARNING DI SMP MUHAMMADIYAH 14 LAMONGAN Endang Sholihatin; Gendut Sukarno; Arista Pratama; Indrawati Yuhertiana; Sukirmiyadi Sukirmiyadi; Nanang Haryono
Jurnal Layanan Masyarakat (Journal of Public Services) Vol. 5 No. 2 (2021): JURNAL LAYANAN MASYARAKAT
Publisher : Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/jlm.v5i2.2021.316-324

Abstract

AbstractThe face-to-face school learning process in the midst of the covid pandemic is carried out online. This is based on the policy of the Ministry of Education, Circular Letter Number 4 of 2020 regarding the implementation of education policies in the emergency period of the spread of the corona virus. The pandemic condition with the online learning process requires schools and teachers to innovate in the teaching and learning process. With the aim of strengthening the teaching competence of teachers in making learning innovations, the community partnership program is carried out based on special problems faced by partners of SMP Muhammadiyah 14 Lamongan, namely: (a) not being able to innovate blended learning models for online learning; (b) has not been able to optimally use e-learning based on cloud computing; (c) have not been able to innovate in making ICT-based learning media. The solution to the problem of partner needs is answered by three strategies: (a) training in the preparation and development of blended learning models for teachers; (b) create an open-source e-learning website based on chamilo and train teachers and students to use it; (c) train teachers to make learning media based on information and communication technology.Keywords: learning innovation, blended learning, learning. AbstrakProses belajar sekolah tatap muka di tengah pandemi covid dilakukan secara daring. Hal tersebut didasarkan kebijakan Kementerian Pendidikan Surat Edaran Nomor 4 Tahun 2020 tentang pelaksanaan kebijakan pendidikan dalam masa darurat penyebaran virus corona. Kondisi pandemi dengan proses pembelajaran daring menuntut sekolah dan guru untuk berinovasi dalam proses belajar mengajar. Dengan tujuan penguatan kompetensi mengajar guru dalam membuat inovasi pembelajaran program kemitraan masyarakat dilaksanakan didasarkan permasalahan khusus yang dihadapi mitra SMP Muhammadiyah 14 Lamongan yaitu: (a) belum mampu inovasi model pembelajaran blanded learning untuk pembelajaran daring; (b) belum mampu secara optimal menggunakan e-learning berbasis cloud computing; (c) belum mampu inovasi membuat media pembelajaran berbasis TIK. Solusi masalah kebutuhan mitra dijawab dengan tiga strategi: (a) pelatihan penyusunan dan pengembangan model pembelajaran blanded learning untuk guru; (b) membuat website e-learning open source berbasis chamilo serta melatih guru dan siswa untuk menggunakannya; (c) melatih guru membuat media pembelajaran berbasis teknologi informasi dana komunikasi.Kata kunci: inovasi pembelajaran, blanded learning, pembelajaran.