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Hubungan kadar vitamin D dalam darah dengan kejadian tuberculosis paru Jon Pangarapan Saragih; Bintang Sinaga; Zainuddin Amir
Majalah Kedokteran Nusantara The Journal Of Medical School Vol 46, No 3 (2013): The Journal of Medical School
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran USU

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Abstract

Introduction : Vitamin D is known to have an important role in macrophage activation and the subsequent restriction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth , and it has been implicated as a risk factor for TB. Vitamin D also induced the expression of cathelicidin, which is involved in the first line of defense in TB patients. An association between 25(OH) vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and TB has been described in several studies.To compare serum vitamin D level in subjects with and without TB, to find out association of serum vitamin D level with TB and association of serum vitamin D level with extent of lesion in chest x ray.Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital Medan, Indonesia from Januari to Juni 2013. New TB cases was diagnosed by the presence of acid-fast bacilli on sputum smears and chest x ray. We excluded TB patients with DM, HIV, malignancy, immunosupresan treatment and immunocompromized patients. Non TB subjects were selected randomly from health care staff, who didn’t have TB from anamnesis and chest X ray. The serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were determined by an CLIA methode. Vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D sufficiency, vitamin D optimal defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations of '3d 10 ng/ml, 10–20 ng/ml, 20-30 ng/ml and >30 ng/ml respectively Results : Thirty one subjects with TB and 31 subjects without TB were enrolled. Mean serum vitamin D level of subjects with and without TB were 25.21 (SD 7.93)ng/ml and 21.50 (SD 9.37)ng/ml, respectively (P = 0.098). Vitamin D deficiency was not found in all subjects. Mean serum vitamin D level in far edvanced and minimal lesion in TB patients [21.61 (SD 5.50) ng/ml versus 29.58 (SD 8.39) ng/ml, P = 0.04], respectively. Regression test was performed to asess the influence of vitamin D in extent of lesion of TB patients (R = 0.000 and P model = 0.897). .Conclusion : There was no significant association between serum vitamin D level and TB. There was a significant difference in vitamin D level between far advance lesion and minimal lesion in TB patients. However statistically extent of lesion was not influenced by serum vitamin D level significantly. Serum vitamin D level of subjects without TB was lower than with TB. It remain to be established other factors that influences serum vitamin D level.Keywords : tuberculosis; vitamin D; extent of lesion
Uji Diagnostik Genexpert Mtb/Rif Di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Haji Adam Malik Medan Elva Susanty; Zainuddin Amir; Parluhutan Siagian; Rina Yunita; Putri Chairani Eyanoer
JBIO: jurnal biosains (the journal of biosciences) Vol 1, No 2 (2015): Jurnal Biosains
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Medan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24114/jbio.v1i2.2783

Abstract

Background: Cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is increasing in number in the world and requires early detection to prevent further transmission. GeneXpert MTB/RIF is a tool that can be used for detection of rifampicin resistance, as a surrogate marker for MDR TB. This study aims to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis of MDR TB. Methods: diagnostic test study was conducted at a poly MDR TB General Hospital Haji Adam Malik Medan. The subjects were all suspected MDR TB who had results positive GeneXpert MTB/ RIF with sensitive rifampin or resistant  rifampin and had a drug sensitivity test results with the proportion method Lowenstein Jensen medium. Data retrieved from the medical records, between January until December 2013. Results: founded 64 samples that had results of GeneXpert MTB/RIF test positive and had the results of drug sensitivity, 87.5% of rifampin-resistant samples were also resistant to isoniazid. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF examination showed the sensitivity of 92.86% and the specificitu of 59.09%. Conclusion: GeneXpert MTB/ RIF has a high sensitivity for diagnosing MDR TB compared the gold standard drug sensitivity testing proportion method on Lowenstein Jensen medium. This study recommends the GeneXpert MTB/RIF be used for MDR TB screening tool. Keywords: GeneXpert MTB/RIF, multidrug resistant tuberculosis, drug susceptibility test, Lowenstein Jensen medium
TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY THROUGH K.I.M (KEY WORD, INFORMATION, AND MEMORY CLUE) VOCABULARY STRATEGY IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Inzta Hariadi; Zainuddin Amir
Journal of English Language Teaching Vol 2, No 2 (2014): Serie B
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (410.347 KB) | DOI: 10.24036/jelt.v2i2.3713

Abstract

Abstrak Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan penerapan salah satu strategi yang disebut dengan K.I.M (Key word, Information, and Memory clue) Vocabulary yang berfungsi untuk melatih siswa dalam memahami kosa kata. Di awal pelajaran, guru memberikan sebuah teks bacaan. Setelah itu, guru langsung menyuruh siswa untuk mencari makna dari kata yang telah ditentukan dalam kolom pertama. Kolom pertama disebut dengan Key word digunakan untuk kosa kata. Selanjutnya kolom kedua disebut Information berfungsi untuk makna dari kosa kata tersebut. Kolom ketiga disebut Memory Clue digunakan untuk gambar. Terakhir, siswa disuruh membuat kalimat tentang kosa kata tersebut. Diharapkan dengan adanya strategi ini, siswa dapat memahami kosa kata lebihmen dalam lagi sehingga mereka tidak menganggap mempelajari kosa kata tersebut membosankan dan menyita banyak waktu. Kata Kunci: K.I.M Vocabulary Strategy, teaching vocabulary, junior high school
THE EFFECT OF USING ANTICIPATION GUIDE STRATEGY ON STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION AT SECOND GRADE OF SMA N 1 BATUSANGKAR Yummi Meirafoni; Zainuddin Amir; Fitrawati Fitrawati
Journal of English Language Teaching Vol 2, No 2 (2014): Serie B
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Padang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (724.218 KB) | DOI: 10.24036/jelt.v2i2.3718

Abstract

Abstrak Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan pengaruh anticipation guide strategy terhadap kemampuan pemahaman membaca siswa pada teks narrative, report dan analytical exposition. Metode penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimen. Data penelitian adalah tes pemahaman membaca siswa terhadap teks narrative, report dan analytical exposition pada posttest. Dari penghitungan data, diperoleh hasil bahwa t-obtained pada posttest siswa kelas eksperimen adalah 3.8. Hasil analisa tersebut menunjukkan bahwa t-obtained pada posttest (3.8) > t-table (2.00). Selanjutnya, rata-rata hasil tes pemahaman membaca siswa berdasarkan 4 indikator yang digunakan lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan hasil pretest sebelum melakukan penelitian.  Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa anticipation guide strategy memiliki pengaruh terhadap kemampuan siswa kelas XI membaca teks narrative, report dan analytical exposition. Kata kunci : anticipation guide strategy, teaching reading comprehension, narrative, report, analytical exposition, senior high school