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PEMBUATAN FILM PLASTIK BIODEGRADABLE DARI LIMBAH BIJI DURIAN (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Handayani, Prima Astuti; Wijayanti, Hesmita
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i1.3770

Abstract

Pembuatan film plastik biodegradable dilakukan melalui proses pencampuran menggunakan pelarut aquades dengan komposisi 10 g tepung biji durian, 50 mL larutan kitosan 2% , dan gliserol 25% dari berat pati.Variasi suhu pencampuran yaitu 70oC, 80oC, dan 90oC. Film plastik biodegradable yang dihasilkan dilakukan karakterisasi FTIR, biodegradasi, kuat tarik dan elongasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan variasi suhu proses pengadukan mempengaruhi kemampuan kuat tarik dan elongasi. Film plastik biodegradable terbaik dihasilkan pada suhu pengadukan 80oC dengan nilai kuat tarik sebesar 1187,732 N/m2 dan % elongasi sebesar 7,547%. Film plastik biodegradable dari limbah biji durian mampu terdegradasi selama 15 hari, sedangkan variasi suhu proses pengadukan tidak mempengaruhi kemampuan biodegradasi.Gugus fungsi yang terdapat dalam film plastik biodegradable diantaranya C-H, O-H, N-H, C-O, C≡C, C=O, dan C=C. Adanya gugus fungsi amida dan ester dalam analisis FTIR menunjukkan film plastik biodegradable dari limbah biji durian ini dapat terdegradasi dan dapat dikatakan sebagai plastik yang ramah lingkungan.Kata  kunci: film plastik biodegradable, biji durian, degradasi, kuat tarik, elongasi, dan FTIR. The manufacture of the biodegradable plastic film was done through the mixing process using  an aquades solvent with 10 g of durian seed flour, 50 mL of 2% chitosan solution, and 25% of glycerol from the weight of starch. The variation of the mixing temperature are 70oC, 80oC, and 90oC. The biodegradable plastic film was characterized by FTIR, its biodegradation, tensile strength, and elongation. The results were showed that the variations of temperature mixing proses affecting the ability of tensile strength and elongation.The best biodegradable plastic film was produced from the mixing process at 80oC and the value of tensile strength at 1187,732 N/m2 and percentation of elongation at 7,547%. The biodegradable plastic from the waste of durian seed was able to relegated up to 15 days, after while the variation of mixing process temperature was not affect to the ability of the biodegradation. The functional groups that is contained in the bidegradable plastic film are including C-H,O-H, N-H, C-O, C=C, C=O, and C=C. The existence of amida and ester functional groups in the FTIR analysis showed that the bidegradable plastic film from this waste of durian seed can be degraded and can be regarded as an environmentally friendly plastic.Key word : biodegradable plastic film, durian seed, degradation, tensile strength, elongasi, and FTIR.
EKSTRAKSI MINYAK KETUMBAR (Coriander Oil) DENGAN PELARUT ETANOL DAN n-HEKSANA Handayani, Prima Astuti; Juniarti, Eqi Rosyana
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 1, No 1 (2012): June 2012
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v1i1.2538

Abstract

Indonesia memiliki banyak sumber daya alam, diantaranya minyak atsiri. Salah satu sumber daya alam yang potensial adalah minyak biji ketumbar (coriandrum oil). Kandungan terbesar dalam minyak ketumbar adalah senyawa linalool yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku parfum, farmasi, aroma makanan dan minuman, sabun mandi, bahan dasar lilin, sabun cuci, sintesis vitamin E dan pestisida maupun insektida. Tujuan dari percobaan ini adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan pelarut etanol dan n-heksana terhadap rendemen minyak ketumbar yang dihasilkan serta senyawa kimia yang terdapat dalam minyak ketumbar. Ekstraksi minyak ketumbar dengan pelarut etanol dan n-heksana menggunakan alat ekstraktor soxhlet. Biji ketumbar yang tua dan kering dihancurkan kemudian dibungkus kertas saring dan dimasukan dalam ekstraktor soxhlet. Temperatur proses ekstraksi sesuai dengan titik didih dari pelarut yang digunakan. Ekstraksi berakhir jika warna pelarut dalam ekstraktor seperti warna pelarut semula. Filtrat yang diperoleh kemudian di recovery dengan ekstraktor soxhlet untuk memisahkan minyak atsiri dari pelarutnya. Minyak ketumbar kemudian di analisis dengan uji GC-MS untuk mengetahui senyawa kimia yang terkandung dalam minyak tersebut. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa rendemen minyak ketumbar dengan pelarut etanol sebesar 1,17% dengan kadar linalool sebesar 57,13%, sedangkan dengan pelarut n-heksana diperoleh rendemen minyak ketumbar sebesar 0,84% dengan kadar linalool sebesar 47,25%. Indonesia has many natural resources, such as the essential oils. One of the potential re-sources is the coriander seed oil (coriandrum oil). The greatest content in coriander oil is linalool compounds that can be used as raw materials of perfumes, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage scent, soap, basic materials for candles, laundry soap, synthetic vitamin E and pesticides as well as insecticide. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the use of ethanol and n-hexane toward the yield of the resulted coriander oil and the chemical compounds in corriander oil. The extraction of Coriander oil with ethanol and n-hexane was performed using a Soxhlet extractor. The mature and dried Coriander seeds were crushed, then wrapped in filter paper and inserted in the Soxhlet extractor. The temperature of the extraction process was set according to the boiling point of the used solvent. The extraction process finishes if the color of the solvent in the extractor looks like the original color. The obtained filtrate was then recycled by using Soxhlet extractor to separate the essential oil from the solvent. Then, the Coriander oil was analyzed by test GC-MS method to determine the contained chemical compounds in the oil. The experimental result shows the yield of coriander oil obtained from the extraction using ethanol is 1.17% with linalool concentration of 57.13%, while the yield of the coriander oil from extraction using n-hexane is 0.84% with linalool concentration of 47.25%.
EKSTRAKSI MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN ZODIA (Evodia suaveolens) DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN DISTILASI AIR Astuti Handayani, Prima; Nurcahyanti, Heti
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 3, No 1 (2014): June 2014
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v3i1.3095

Abstract

Daun zodia merupakan tumbuhan yang berpotensi sebagai insektisida nabati. Daun zodia mengandung senyawa aktif limonene yang bersifat neurotoksin terhadap serangga. Pengambilan minyak atsiri daun zodia dilakuan dengan metode maserasi dan metode distilasi air. Pada metode maserasi bahan digunakan etanol dan dimaserasi selama 3x24 jam. Kemudian didistilasi untuk menguapkan pelarut etanol. Untuk metode distilasi air bahan didistilasi selama 3 jam, campuran minyak dan air dipisahkan dengan menambahkan pelarut n-heksana. Kemudian pelarut n-heksana dipisahkan dari minyak atsiri dengan cara direcovery menggunakan alat sokhlet. Minyak atsiri daun zodia yang dihasilkan dianalisis dengan Gas Cromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimianya. Hasil percobaan diperoleh randemen minyak atsiri daun zodia dengan metode maserasi sebesar 1,0566% dengan kandungan senyawa limonene 2,6%, sedangkan metode distilasi diperoleh randemen sebesar 0,6471% dengan kandungan senyawa limonene 1,26 %.Zodia leaf is a plant which has a potential to be plant-based insecticide. Zodia leaf has limonene as its active component which is neurotoxin towards insect. The extraction of the essential oil of the zodiac leaf is conducted using maceration method and water distillation method. In the maceration process, the raw material was macerated using ethanol for 72 hours, after that it was distillated to evaporate the ethanol. In the water distillated method, the raw material was distillated for 3 hours, the mixture of water and oil are separated by adding n-hexane solvent. After that, the n-hexane solvent was separated from the essential oil using recovery method using soxhlet. The obtained essential oil of zodia leaf was analyzed using GC-MS to determine its chemical component. The result of the research provides the yield of essential oil of zodiac leaf using maceration method is 1.0566% with limonene component is 2.6%, whereas the distillation method resulted in 0.6471% yield with 1.26% limonene.
PEWARNA ALAMI BATIK DARI TANAMAN NILA (Indigofera) DENGAN KATALIS ASAM Astuti Handayani, Prima; Amar Mualimin, A.
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 2, No 1 (2013): June 2013
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v2i1.2909

Abstract

Indigo is a natural blue dye substance of batik extracted from the leaves of indigo plant, which is eco-friendly and non-carcinogenic. To be able to extract an indigo dye substance, the indican glycosides contained in the leaves of the plant is first hydrolyzed into Indigo indoxyl and glucose by using either the dilute mineral acids or enzymes. The indoxyl is then oxidized to indigo. In this experiment, the extraction of the blue dye substance of indigo plant was carried out by method of acidifying. The observations made on the variation of the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the aeration time, the acids, and the type of binding substances. The material used in the experiment included the 2 months old of Indigo leaves, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, sugar, lime, alum and tunjung (Ferrous sulfate). The equipments used in the aeration were beaker glass and the air pump.The process was initiated by soaking the indigo leaves in acid with a specific concentration for 24 hours. The filtrate was then oxidized by flowing the air using the air pump for 12 hours. Then, the sample was applied by immersing the fabric in a solution of the binding substances consisted of Ferrous sulfate, alum, and lime. The experiment results show that higher concentration of indigo was obtained from the longer aeration time. By comparing different type of acids, the extraction using 0.01 M H2SO4 shows better than using HCl in the same concentration. The highest indigo concentration produced by the extraction using 0.01 M H2SO4 was 29.20 ppm, while the highest concentration produced from the extraction using 0.01 M HCl was 26.88 ppm. The use of different type of binding substances on the fabric, giving the appearance of different colors. The binding substance of Tunjung produces the dark blue color, lime produces greenish blue colour, and alum produces a blue color.
PEWARNA ALAMI BATIK DARI KULIT SOGA TINGI (Ceriops tagal) DENGAN METODE EKSTRAKSI Handayani, Prima Astuti; Maulana, Ivon
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 2, No 2 (2013): December 2013
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v2i2.2793

Abstract

Synthetic coloring techniques shift the natural coloring techniques because the process is much easier, and the resulting color is more diverse. However, it comes into doubts if the synthetic color materials is continuously used because the produced waste harms the human health and indirectly polutes the environment. Hence, the bark of soga tingi which contains tanin as natural coloring subtances can be used as a substitute for synthetic dyes for Batiks. The extraction of tanin from the soga tingi bark is carried out in the refluxed equipment set. The materials used in the study consist of ethanol, aquadest, soga tingi bark, alum, lime, and tunjung. The experiment is done by varying the solvents and the extraction time. The solvent of ethanol-aquadest used in the experiment varied at the ethanol concentration of 96%, 70%, 30%, and without ethanol. The bark of soga tingi is dried and crushed into powder. The ratio of materials and solvent used in the experiment is 1:4 m/v. The extraction run at temperature of 700 oC for 3 hours. The coloring substances is subsequently analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The coloring substances made of soga tingi bark is applied by adding other key components such as alum, lime, and tunjung. The experimental results show the extraction of tanin from soga tingi bark yield the highest tanin (24,343 ppm) when solvent of 96% ethanol is used. Moreover, the extraction for 3 hours yield higher tanin concentration than 2 hours. This dye has been applied on the fabric using 3 types of key substances. To the key substances in form of tunjung produce black color, lime produces a brown color, and alum produces a reddish-brown color.
PEMANFAATAN KULIT BUAH NAGA (Dragon Fruit) SEBAGAI PEWARNA ALAMI MAKANAN PENGGANTI PEWARNA SINTETIS Handayani, Prima Astuti; Rahmawati, Asri
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 1, No 2 (2012): December 2012
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v1i2.2545

Abstract

Kulit buah naga merupakan limbah hasil pertanian yang mengandung zat warna alami antosianin cukup tinggi. Antosianin merupakan zat warna yang berperan memberikan warna merah yang berpotensi menjadi pewarna alami untuk pangan dan dapat dijadikan alternatif pengganti pewarna sintetis yang lebih aman bagi kesehatan. Pengambilan zat warna antosianin dilakukan dengan metode ekstraksi. Pelarut yang digunakan adalah aquades. Variabel penelitian antara lain varietas buah naga, konsentrasi asam sitrat dalam pelarut, suhu ekstraksi, dan waktu ekstraksi. Potongan kulit buah naga diekstraksi dengan pelarut aquades dan asam sitrat dengan perbandingan tertentu, pada suhu ekstraksi 25-800C dan waktu ekstraksi 0,5-3 jam. Analisis kadar antosianin dilakukan dengan analisa antosianin metode Glusti dan Wrolstad. Hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa varietas buah naga daging merah menghasilkan kadar antosianin terbesar 22,59335 ppm. Selain itu kadar antosianin terbesar diperoleh pada variasi pelarut aquades:asam sitrat (5:1) 26,4587 ppm, variasi pada suhu kamar menghasilkan 21,5028 ppm dan waktu pengadukan  3 jam menghasilkan 23,3027 ppm. Pewarna alami ini telah diaplikasikan pada makanan dan diujikan pada tikus putih, hasil uji coba menunjukkan pewarna buah naga dapat dipakai sebagai pewarna alami makanan. Dragon fruit peel is agricultural waste which contains quite high natural pigments of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin is a dye that potentially provides a red natural colorant for food and alternatively used as synthetic dye which is safe for health. In this study, the process of taking anthocyanin was conducted using extraction method. The solvent used was distilled water. The variables observed in the research include dragon fruit varieties, the concentration of citric acid in the solvent, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The dragon fruit peel was extracted using solvents of distilled water and citric acid at a certain ratio, at extraction temperature varies from 25-80oC with the extraction time varies from 0.5 to 3 hours. The analysis of anthocyanin concentration was conducted by using Glusti and Wrolstad method. The experimental result shows the red dragon fruit varieties produced the greatest concentration of anthocyanin (22.59335 ppm). Moreover, the result shows the greatest concentration of anthocyanin obtained from the following variations, i.e. the 5:1 solvent ratio of distilled water : citric acid produces 26.4587ppm,  the extraction at room temperature produced 21.5028 ppm, and the extraction for 3 hours stirring produced 23.3027 ppm. The extracted dragon fruit dye has been applied for food and tested on white mice; the test result shows the dye can be used as a natural food dye.
PEMBUATAN PUPUK ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILIZER (OMF) PADAT DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI BIOETANOL (VINASSE) Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Oktafiani, Oktafiani; Hartanto, Dhoni; Handayani, Prima Astuti; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 4, No 2 (2015): December 2015
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v4i2.4189

Abstract

Organo-mineral fertilizer solid was generated from liquid-waste vinasse with the addition of other materials as variations such as filter cake, boiler ash, urea, and NPK through the evaporation of water content in the material. Each solid OMF has a different mixture. OMF A made of evaporated vinasse or sticky vinasse, OMF B made of vinasse and urea, OMF C made from vinasse and filter cake, omf D made of vinasse and boiler ash 2 : 2, OMF E made of vinasse and boiler ash 2 : 4, OMF F made of vinasse, filter cake, and boiler ash, OMF A3 made of vinasse and 3% NPK, OMF made of A6 vinasse and 6% NPK, OMF A9 made of vinasse and 9% NPK. OMF analysis includes NPK and C/N ratio. Solid OMF which meet the SNI (Indonesian National Standard) are OMF A3, OMF A6, OMF A9 based on the quantity of NPK and C/N ratio where NPK is a source of primer macro nutrients on the plant while the C/N ratio equilibrium will determine the equilibrium of the vegetative and generative stage. NPK content and C/N ratio of OMF A3 are 0,63%, 0,45% ,0,38%, and 10,30, respectively.OMF A6 was 0,59%, 0,52% ,0,41%, and 13,66, respectively as well as OMF A9 are 0,68%, 0,52% ,0,45% and 14,16, respectively. OMF that meet SNI applied to the watermelon plants. OMF that gives the best results in plants is OMF A9 compossed from vinasse and NPK 9% because the plants growth faster shown based on plant height and stem diameter, leaf shape, flower and fruit appearance time. 
PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH SEKAM PADI MENJADI SILIKA GEL Handayani, Prima Astuti; Nurjanah, Eko; Rengga, Wara Dyah Pita
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 3, No 2 (2014): December 2014
Publisher : Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v3i2.3698

Abstract

Sekam padi merupakan salah satu sumber penghasil silika terbesar, berpotensi sebagai bahan pembuatan silika gel. Abu sekam padi mengandung silika sebanyak 87%-97% berat kering. Sintesis silika gel dari abu sekam padi dilakukan dengan mereaksikan abu sekam padi menggunakan larutan NaOH 1N pada suhu 800C selama 1 jam dan dilanjutkan dengan penambahan larutan asam hingga pH=7. Gel yang dihasilkan selanjutnya didiamkan selama 18 jam kemudian dikeringkan pada suhu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 800C hingga beratnya konstan. Hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH menghasilkan yield yang lebih besar dibandingkan penambahan HCl. Berdasarkan analisis FT-IR silika gel yang diperoleh memiliki gugus Si-O-Si dan gugus Si-OH. Silika gel dengan penambahan HCl memiliki surface area sebesar 65,558 m2/g, total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 59,0196 Å. Sedangkan silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH memiliki surface area sebesar 9,685 m2/g, total pore volume 0,02118 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 43,7357Å. Silika gel dengan penambahanCH3COOH memiliki kemampuan menyerap kelembaban udara yang lebih baik dibanding silika gel dengan penambahan HCl. Rice hull ash (RHA) is one of the biggest source of silica, potential for sintesis silica gel. RHA contains silica as many as 87 % -97 %. Synthesis of silica gel from rice hull ash was done by reaction using NaOH solution at temperature 800C for 1 hour and followed by the addition of an acid solution until pH=7. The gel were rested with time aging 18 hour, and then dried using oven at temperature 800C until constant weigh. The results obtained that the silica gel with the addition of CH3COOH produce higher yields than the addition of HCl. Based on FT-IR analysis, silica gel has a group of silanol (Si-`OH) and siloxan (Si-O-Si) group. Silica gel with the addition of HCl has a surface area 65,558 m2/g, a total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, and average pore size 59,0196 Å. While the silica gel with the addition of CH3COOH has a surface area 9.685 m2/g, a total pore volume 0,02118 cc/g, and average pore size 43,7357 Å. Silica gel with the addition of CH3COOHhas the ability to absorb humidity better than silica gel with the addition of HCl.
POLIMERISASI AKRILAMID DENGAN METODE MIXEDSOLVENT PRECIPITATION DALAM PELARUT ETANOL-AIR Handayani, Prima Astuti
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Vol 8, No 1 (2010): June 2010
Publisher : Unnes Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/sainteknol.v8i1.340

Abstract

Polimerisasi akrilamid dengan mekanisme radikal bebas menggunakanmetode pengendapan merupakan reaksi polimerisasi adisi. Polimer mempunyai beratmolekul yang tinggi, larut dalam air dan dapat menaikan viskositas air, sehinggapolimer ini digunakan pada proses Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Penelitian inibertujuan mempelajari variabel yang mempengaruhi reaksi polimerisasi dan beratmolekul polimer yang dihasilkan. Polimerisasi akrilamid dilakukan didalam reaktorbatch, pelarut etanol dimasukkan ke dalam reaktor dan dipanaskan sampai mencapaisuhu tertentu kemudian ditambahkan inisiator kalium persulfat. Suhu dan kecepatanpengadukan selama proses dijaga tetap. Cuplikan diambil selang 15 menit dalamwaktu 90 menit dan dianalisis dengan metode gravimetri. Peubah yang dipelajarimeliputi suhu dan konsentrasi monomer. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diperolehbahwa reaksi polimerisasi akrilamid dipengaruhi oleh suhu dan konsentrasi monomer.Pada kisaran peubah suhu 40-70oC, diperoleh berat molekul rata-rata polimer 87987,2– 154885,6 gr/mol. Dan pada konsentrasi monomer 10-25 gr dalam 200 ml pelarutdiperoleh berat molekul rata-rata polimer 101738,1 – 189926,7 gr/mol.Kata kunci : polimerisasi, akrilamid, adisi, poliakrilamid
PENINGKATAN KUALITAS MINYAK DAUN CENGKEH DENGAN METODE ADSORBSI Handayani, Prima Astuti; Rengga, Wara Dyah Pita
Sainteknol : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Vol 9, No 1 (2011): June 2011
Publisher : Unnes Journal

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/sainteknol.v9i1.5523

Abstract

Teknik penyulingan yang dilakukan pengrajin minyak atsiri belum benar, sehingga minyak atsiri yang dihasilkan berkualitas crude. Minyak terlihat gelap kehijauan akibat kontaminasi logam Fe dan Cu. Adanya bahan asing akan merusak mutu minyak atsiri, menyebabkan harga jual turun. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh parameter-parameter yang mempengaruhi proses adsorbsi pada pemurnian minyak daun cengkeh. Pemurnian minyak cengkeh dengan metode adsorbsi terdiri dari 2 tahap. Tahap pertama aktivasi bentonit dengan asam sulfat selama 24 jam, kemudian disaring, dicuci dan dikeringkan. Tahap kedua adalah pemurnian minyak cengkeh crude dengan menambahkan bentonit teraktivasi, diaduk, dipisahkan filtrat dan rafinatnya Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh semakin besar konsentrasi asam sulfat (0,4–2,0M) maka luas permukaan spesifik bentonit semakin meningkat dan optimum pada 1,2M.. Semakin tinggi suhu pemanasan bentonit teraktivasi (100-200oC), luas muka spesifik bentonit semakin meningkat. Kesetimbangan adsorbsi dicapai pada waktu adsorbsi 1 jam dan volume minyak cengkeh dengan berat adsorbat optimum pada volume 20 ml/gram adsorben.