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PENGARUH CHEMICAL TREATMENT TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KANDUNGAN SELULOSA DAN KEKUATAN TARIK SERAT ALAM RAMI Edi Syafri; Anwar Kasim; Hairul Abral; Alfi Asben
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Andalas Vol 19, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Andalas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (375.758 KB) | DOI: 10.25077/jtpa.19.2.18-24.2015

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh chemical treatment  menggunakan  NaOH pada serat alam rami terhadap kandungan selulosa serat, sifat fisik dan kekuatan tarik  serat alam  rami. Serat mendapat perlakuan NaOH dengan variasi konsentrasi 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5% dan dibandingkan dengan rami yang didekortikasi (green ramie). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan NaOH menyebabkan  terjadinya degradasi lignin, hemiselulosa dan juga selulosa serat rami. Dari pengamatan menggunakan SEM (Scanning Electro Microscopy) terlihat bahwa permukaan serat rami setelah mengalami chemical treatment menjadi lebih kasar dibandingkan dengan sebelum mengalami perlakuan. Penurunan kandungan selulosa serat rami itu akan menyebabkan  turunnya kekuatan. Kekuatan tarik serat rami terkecil sebesar 707.083 MPa pada perlakuan NaOH 7.5 %. Hasil penelitian ini selanjutnya digunakan sebagai acuan perlakuan awal pada serat alam rami untuk pembuatan material bionanokomposit.Kata kunci : serat alam rami, chemical treatment, selulosa,  kekuatan tarik  
PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI KOMPOSIT BIOPLASTIK BERBASIS FILLER CELLULOSE MICRO FIBERS RAMI Edi syafri; Anwar Kasim; Hairul Abral; Alfi Asben; Sudirman Sudirman
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 19, No 2: JANUARI 2018
Publisher : Center for Science & Technology of Advanced Materials - National Nuclear Energy Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17146/jsmi.2018.19.2.4146

Abstract

Pada penelitian ini telah diproduksi dan dikarakterisasi komposit bioplastik dari partikel selulosa serat rami (Cellulose Micro Fibers/CMF) untuk memperkuat komposit bioplastik bermatriks pati tapioka. CMF rami diproduksi menggunakan metode milling (CMFM) dan ultrasonikasi (CMFU) dengan ukuran masing-masing adalah 3,51 µm dan 0,388 µm. Pembuatan dan karakterisasi komposit bioplastik dilakukan dengan metode casting menggunakan gliserol sebagai plastisizer, dan penambahan filler CMF rami. Sifat fisik, kekuatan tarik, struktur dan termal komposit bioplastik dikarakterisasi menggunakan SEM, UTM, XRD, dan DSC. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa ukuran dan konsentrasi CMF secara signifikan mempengaruhi fisik bioplastik komposit. Dari hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa filler CMF berinteraksi dengan matriks pati tapioka, dimana bioplastik dengan CMF rami berukuran kecil memperlihatkan struktur kompak dan permukaan yang lebih homogen. Nilai optimum kekuatan tarik terjadi pada penambahan 8% (w/w) CMF rami dari hasil ultrasonikasi dan milling masing-masing meningkat menjadi 3,31MPa dan 2,71MPa dari 1,64 MPa. Sebaliknya pada sifat termal sedikit berpengaruh dengan penambahan CMF rami. Analisis Difraksi Sinar-X menunjukkan kristalinitas komposit bioplastik meningkat dengan penambahan CMF rami dari 8,65 % menjadi 20,21 % untuk CMFM dan 15,12% untuk CMFU.
FTIR and Moisture Absorption of Yam Bean Starch Biocomposites with Yam Bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) Bagasse Fibers as Reinforcement Melbi Mahardika; Hairul Abral; Anwar Kasim; Syukri Arief; Mochamad Asrofi
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 19 No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (405.738 KB) | DOI: 10.19184/jid.v19i2.7255

Abstract

Biocomposites from yam bean starch with yam bean bagasse (YBB) fibers as reinforcement has been successfully fabricated. The fabrication method was solution casting. YBB was variated for 1, 2, 3 and 4wt% (from dry weight starch basis). 2 mL glycerol was used as a plasticizer. The relative humidity (RH) condition in moisture testing was 99%. The result shows that the addition YBB able to decreased moisture absorption of starch film. The lowest moisture absorption was in biocomposites with 4wt% YBB. The moisture absorption test was supported byfourier transform infrared (FTIR) data.Keywords: Biocomposite, yam bean, yam bean bagasse, moisture, FTIR
PENGARUH LAMA WAKTU PENGGETARAN ULTRASONIC BATH TERHADAP SIFAT MEKANIK DAN MORFOLOGI PATAHAN BIOKOMPOSIT PATI TAPIOKA/SERAT RAMI (BOEHMERIA NIVEA) Mochamad Asrofi; Hairul Abral; Anwar Kasim; Adjar Pratoto; Herwin Gevin; Melbi Mahardika
ROTOR Vol 10 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Mesin Fakultas Teknik Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19184/rotor.v10i2.5574

Abstract

This study reported about mechanical properties and fracture surface of ramie fiber reinforced tapioca starch based biocomposites. The amount of fibers in matrix was kept constant at 10% from dry weight starch basis. Fabrication of biocomposites was solution casting. The effect of vibration duration from ultrasonic bath was 0, 15, 30, and 45 min. This treatment was applied to biocomposites while gelatinized. Tensile test was carried out to determine the mechanical properties of biocomposites. Fracture surface of biocomposites after tensile test was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result shows that, tensile strength increased when vibration time was added. The maximum tensile strength was obtained at 45 min vibration time with 2,84 MPa. This phenomenon was supported by SEM observation which indicate compact structure. Keywords: Tapioca starch, ramie fiber, biocomposites, mechanical properties, SEM
SIFAT MEKANIK DARI BIOKOMPOSIT FILM PATI UBI KAYU DENGAN PENGUAT SERAT AKAR BUAH NAGA (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS) Melbi Mahardika; Hairul Abral; Anwar Kasim; Syukri Arief; Mochamad Asrofi
ROTOR Vol 10 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Mesin Fakultas Teknik Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19184/rotor.v10i2.5579

Abstract

Dragon fruit root fiber used as a reinforcement in the biocomposites film of cassava starch. The production method of biocomposites film was solution casting. The cassava starch serves as the matrix in the biocomposites film. The variation of amount fiber in matrix was 2, 4 and 6% from dry starch weight basis. Isolation of dragon fruit root fiber used alkalization and bleaching process with NaOH, NaClO2 and CH3COOH, respectively. Glycerol was used as plasticizers. Mechanical properties of biocomposites was determined by tensile test. The result shows that, tensile strength increased 200% after the addition of 6% fiber compared to pure starch film. Tensile test data was supported by X-Ray Difraction (XRD). Keywords: Biocomposite, Cassava Starch, Dragon fruit root fiber, Mechanical properties, XRD.
An optimized method of partial discharge data retrieval technique for phase resolved pattern Eka Putra Waldi; Aulia Aulia; Ariadi Hazmi; Hairul Abral; Syukri Arief; Mohd Hafizi Ahmad
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control) Vol 14, No 1: March 2016
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.12928/telkomnika.v14i1.2602

Abstract

The measurement of phase resolved partial discharge requires a gigantic memory capacity to store all the waves of the PD test results. This limitation eventually hinders the testing. It is necessary to optimize on the aspect of memory storage capability to reduce the storage requirements. In light of foregoing, the partial discharge data retrieval techniques with sampling rate methods were used to detect the peak of partial discharge as well as the PD constituent representatives. The optimization process was performed by using integration of oscilloscope and LabVIEW software. The partial discharge data recording can be easily confined to the points of the partial discharge occurrence only. As results, the storage points were reduced by taking wave magnitude associated with PD, thereby resulting in more representative data. Therefore, this optimized method was able to reduce the file size of the test results up to 97 percent of PD original size thereby decreasing the usage of hard disk storage.
MOISTURE ABSORPTION AND FTIR CHARACTERISTIC OF TAPIOCA STARCH BIOCOMPOSITE REINFORCED DRAGON FRUIT ROOT FIBER (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS) Mochamad Asrofi; Hairul Abral; Anwar Kasim; Adjar Pratoto; Melbi Mahardika
Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya Vol 3 No 1 (2018): SPEKTRA: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya, Volume 3 Issue 1, April 2018
Publisher : Program Studi Fisika Universitas Negeri Jakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (245.715 KB) | DOI: 10.21009/SPEKTRA.031.01

Abstract

Abstrak Biokomposit dari pati tapioka dan serat akar buah naga telah berhasil dibuat. Sebanyak 0, 2, 4, dan 6% serat (dari berat kering pati) digunakan sebagai penguat biokomposit. Fabrikasi biokomposit menggunakan metode solution casting. Pengujian serapan uap air digunakan untuk mengetahui persentase penyerapan uap air. Gugus fungsi dari biokomposit ditentukan dengan karakterisasi FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red). Persentase penyerapan uap air menunjukkan bahwa, film pati tapioka mempunyai serapan uap 21,7%. Hasil ini lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan film tapioka ditambah serat. Fenomena ini didukung dengan analisis FTIR pada gugus serapan air sekitar wavenumber 1647 cm-1. Pada daerah tersebut terlihat bahwa, film pati tapioka memiliki absorban yang tinggi dibandingkan film pati tapioka ditambah serat. Kata-kata kunci: biokomposit, pati tapioka, serat akar buah naga, FTIR, serapan uap air. Abstract Tapioca starch biocomposites reinforced dragon fruit root fiber was successfully produced. As much 0, 2, 4 and 6% fiber fractions (from dry starch weight basis) were used as reinforcement in biocomposites. The fabrication of biocomposites was solution casting method. Moisture absorption testing was used to know the percentage of moisture absorption. The functional group of biocomposites was determined by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) characterization. The moisture absorption percentage of tapioca starch film was 21,7%. This result was higher than fiber-reinforced biocomposites film. This phenomenon was supported by FTIR analysis on functional group (water absorption band) at wavenumber 1647 cm-1. In this wavenumber, tapioca starch film has higher absorbance than fiber-reinforced biocomposites film. Keywords: biocomposites, tapioca starch, dragon fruit root fiber, FTIR and moisture absorption.
Pengaruh Variasi Persentase Campuran Polymer Polyester dan Vinyl Ester Terhadap Kekuatan Tegangan Lentur Nusyirwan Adnand; R Mutya; Firman Ridwan; Hairul Abral; Hendery Dahlan; Eka Satria
METAL: Jurnal Sistem Mekanik dan Termal Vol 5, No 2 (2021): Jurnal Sistem Mekanik dan Termal (METAL)
Publisher : Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Andalas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (942.586 KB) | DOI: 10.25077/metal.5.2.126-131.2021

Abstract

Polymer mixture of polyester and vinyl ester is widely used in engineering fields such as for car bumpers, boat bodies, ultra-light aircraft wings, wind turbine blades and others. One of the requirements to meet the application aspects in the engineering field is the ability of the material to withstand bending loads. For this reason, it is necessary to test the flexural stress characteristics of the mixture of the two polymers of unsaturated polyester and unsaturated vinyl ester. The aim is to find out which of the two polymer blends obtains superior flexural resistance properties from each of the polymers with respect to the blend percentage. To determine the flexural stress value of the polyester and vinyl ester mixture, a flexural stress test was carried out with reference to the standard flexural test or the bending test used based on ASTM D 790 by varying the composition of the mixture 100%: 0%, 90%: 10%, 80%: 20%, 60%:40%, and 0%:100%. From the results of the bending stress test on specimens with variations in the composition of polyester and vinyl ester with the hand lay-up method, the highest bending stress value is found in the composition of 60% polyester and 40% vinyl ester, which is 126.88 MPa ( an increase in maximum flexural strength of 255%)
A leakage current estimation based on thermal image of polymer insulator Darwison Darwison; Syukri Arief; Hairul Abral; Ariadi Hazmi; M. H. Ahmad; Eka Putra Waldi; Rudy Fernandez
Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Vol 16, No 3: December 2019
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.11591/ijeecs.v16.i3.pp1096-1106

Abstract

Polymer insulators tend to fail because of the climatic and environmental conditions. The failure occurs when the surface of insulator is contaminated by sea salt or cement dust which lead to partial discharge (PD). Leakage currents will increase by PD that causes deterioration of insulation. To predict the insulation failures, an  adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) method using initial color detection processes are proposed to estimate the leakage currents based on the polymer insulator thermal images (infrared signature). In this study, the sodium chloride and kaolin are used as pollutants of the polymer insulator according to IEC 60507 standards. Then, the insulator is tested in the laboratory using AC high voltage applied at 18 kV where the temperature detection is controlled at 26° C and 70% RH (relative humidity). The percentage of colors (Red, Yellow, and Blue) from the thermal image is measured using the color detection method. Correspond to the color percentage, the ANFIS method predicts leakage currents from polymer insulators. Furthermore, this system interprets measured data from insulators that need to be categorized as Safe, Need Maintenance or Harmful. The final application of the system can be a non-contact tool to predict the polymer insulators used by technicians in the field.