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KONSEP RESIPROSITAS DALAM ANTROPOLOGI EKONOMI Bambang Hudayana
Humaniora No 3 (1991)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2006.591 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.2076

Abstract

Antropologi ekonomi mempunyai kecenderungan yang khas dalam mengkaji masalah perekonomian yaitu banyak menaruh perhatian terhadap berbagai gejala penukaran yang tidak melibatkan penggunaan uang sebagai mekanisme pertukaran. Berbagai geiala pertukaran tersebut sering dikenal dengan nama resiprositas dan redistribusi. Kecenderungan disiplin antropologi ekonomi seperti itu bekaitan dengan orientasi studi antropologi yang banyak menaruh perhatian pada masyarakat-masyarakat di luar Eropa. Ketika awal perkembangan disiplin antropologi ekonomi, umumnya gejala-gejala penukaran yang terjadi dalam perekonomian di masyarakat-masyarakat di luar Eropa tersebur tidak menggunakan mekanisme uang sebagaimana seperti terjadi di Eropa. Kecenderungan antropologi ekonomi banyak menaruh perhatian padagejala penukaran resiprositas dan redistribusi disertai pula dengan cara kerja disiplin ini yang berbeda dengan disiplin ilmu ekonomi. Dalam melihat gejala pertukaran, antropologi ekonomi tidak hanya melihat gejala tersebut sebagai gejala ekonomi semata,  melainkan sebagai gejala kebudayaan yang keberadaannya berdimensi luas, tidak sekedar berdimensi ekonomi, tetapi juga agama, teknologi, ekologi, politik dan organisasi sosial.
Pembauran Identitas Etnik di Kalangan Mahasiswa Universitas Gadjah Mada Bambang Hudayana
Humaniora No 9 (1998)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1775.358 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.2034

Abstract

Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) merupakan perguruan tinggi terbesar di Indonesia. UGM memiliki 18 fakultas untuk program sarjana, satu fakultas untuk program pascasarjana, dan 15 pusat penelitian. UGM juga memiliki beberapa program studi D3. Pada tahun 1997, jumlah mahasiswa UGM adalah sekitar 35.000 orang. Sebagai universitas nasional, jumlah mahasiswa ini tidak hanya berasal dan Jawa yang umumnya beridentitas etnik Jawa, tetapi berasal pula dari luar Jawa yang memiliki latar belakang etnik ber1ainan. Pembauran identitas etntk pada mahasiswa UGM merupakan fenomena yang menarik untuk dikaji. Dalam studinya tentang stereotipe etnik dan jarak sosial di kalangan mahasiswa UGM, Scnawetzer (1979) tidak melihat adanya proses pembauran antaretnik ke dalam suatu identitas sosiat-budaya milik bersama. Hal ini karena ia melihat bahwa setiap etnik mempunyai suatu kepribadian kelompok yang tidak berubah. Akan tetapi, tulisan ini melihat bahwa identitas etnik itu akan mengalami perubahan ketika individu berinteraksi sosial dengan kelompok etnik lain (out-group). Hal ini karena untuk melakukan interaksi sosial antaretnik dipel1ukan suatu bentuk adaptasitertentu yang mendorong munculnya gejala perubahan identitas etnik. Tulisan ini mengungkapkan hasil penelitian pembauran identitas etnik antarmahasiswa dalam komunitas akademik. Secara rinci penelitian ino mempunyai tiga pertanyaan pokok. Pertama, mengetahui pendapat mahasiswa UGM tentang identitas etniknya (in group) dan identitas etnik bukan kelompoknya (out group). Kedua, mengetahui bentuk interaksi sosial antarmahasiswa dengan fokus perhatian pada usaha memahami jarak sosial antarmahasiswa yang berlainan etnik. Ketiga, memahami pembauran budaya di kalangan mahasiswa yang berlainan etnik di kampus dan di Yogyakarta pada umumnya.
Civil Society: Anatomi Perkembangan Perkumpulan Warga di Era Otonomi Hudayana, Bambang
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Vol 6, No 3 (2003): Dinamika Negara dan Masyarakat Sipil
Publisher : Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1.795 KB)

Abstract

Observation at rural grassroots in Special Province of Yogyakarta reveals that there is a strong foundation for civil society. Self governing capacity has been well demonstrated in many forms within the daily live of the community: neigbourhood associations, policy advocacy and so on. The way they organise them mostly by revitalised the disfunctional organisation during the New Order government. Yet, more external fascilitation and support is needed still.
Kebudayaan Lokal dan Pemberdayaannya Hudayana, Bambang
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Vol 3, No 3 (2000): Kekerasan, Keberdayaan, dan Demokrasi
Publisher : Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

This paper underlines the importance of local culture as a basis to empowerthe Indonesian society which, during the era globalization and the late of capitalism attempt to engage in a process of reform based on a cultureal diversity. The modernist regime of the New Order has undermined local culture and treat it as he enemy of development and national itegration, so that many local cultures have been weakeningg. Many cases, indeed, show that local culture have played an important role in empowering local people as they provide alternatives for solving the weaknesses of development. Many local cultures have social-political value, and furthermore the have also economic value which can be managed to enhance welfare among the marginal people to actualize their potential, self-esteem, andcreativity became the bases of socio-cultural identity creation among the local people that live the pluralistic and compeetitive system. It is expected that the empowerment of local culture arise in near future as a part of the agenda of regional autonomy, globalization and late capitalism era. The process of empowerment will strengthen the spririt of pluralism and national solidarity.
ANTROPOLOGI EKONOMI VERSUS ILMU EKONOMI KAJIAN AWAL TENTANG MASALAH SEJARAH, OBYEK DAN METODE Bambang Hudayana
Humaniora No 2 (1991)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1075.389 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.2090

Abstract

Antropologi ekonomi sebagai salah satu cabang disiplin antropologi nampak paling: banyak berurusan dengan ilmu ekonomi. Ini terjadi bukan sekedar karena kedua bidang studi tersebut sama-sama mengkaji fenomena ekonomi, melainkan berhubungan dengan adanya perbedaan pendapat di kalangan para ahli antropologi untuk benar tidaknya meminjam teori, konsep ataupun metodologi llmu ekonomi. Penganut pendekatan formalis menghendaki dipakainya teori-teori ekonomi yang bersifat universal dalam studi antropologi sedangkan pendekatan substantif menolak universalitas teori ekonomi dan mencobe mengembangkan teori-teori yang dipandanglebih empiris.
Glembuk, Strategi Politik dalam Rekrutmen Elite Penguasa di Desa Pulungansari Yogyakarta Bambang Hudayana
Humaniora Vol 23, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (189.954 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jh.1005

Abstract

Credibility is the power resource of village elites in Java that has ability to find out influence to the people. However, village elites also still require glembuk as a strategy to generate credibility, or to make the people merely under their control even though without legitimacy. Glembuk is implemented through conducting political transaction between the elites and the peoples, the elites persuate and negosiate their interest, and offer a compensation in term of services, goods, money or something that is important, or valuable for the peoples. Elites become to rely more on glembuk in the contestation of rulling elite recruitment such as village staff (pamong) and headman (lurah) direct election because they have no sufficient credibility requirement. The winers are the elites enabling to produce glembuk that manipulate and show off their potential as the credible leaders.
Inisiatif Pengembangan BUMDesa sebagai Wirausaha Sosial M. Zamzam Fauzanafi; Bambang Hudayana
Bakti Budaya: Jurnal Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Vol 3, No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1093.729 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/bb.55501

Abstract

AbstractOne of the mandates of Undang-Undang No. 6 Tahun 2014 tentang Desa is the establishment of BUMDes (Village-Owned Enterprises) as village businesses that are used for village income sources. The process of establishing the BUMDes was colored by efforts of various stakeholders to place this business entity as an important element in economic development and to have social benefits. BUMDes is expected to have a vision and mission as a social entrepreneur so that it can empower small and micro scale businesses (UKM) and marginalized communities. During 2015 until now, villages have moved to have BUMDes, but in general villages have not succeeded in forming and managing BUMDes as social entrepreneurs. The Community service activity encourage BUMDes to have a role as social entrepreneurs so that the existence of BUMDes is very relevant to improve the welfare and empowerment of small and marginal communities. The activities that have been carried out are a training and field visits which are participated by BUMDesa managers in several villages in D.I. Yogyakarta. The results of community service activities are: change in orientation and role of BUMDesa from village business for village government to village business for village people, BUMDesa synergizing with village institutions as an effort to improve community welfare especially in local economic development, and BUMDesa development with social entrepreneurship vision.----------AbstrakSalah satu mandat Undang-Undang No. 6 Tahun 2014 tentang Desa adalah pembentukan lembaga BUMDes (Badan Usaha Milik Desa) sebagai usaha desa yang dipakai untuk sumber pendapatan desa. Proses pembentukan BUMDes diwarnai oleh upaya dari berbagai stakeholder untuk menempatkan badan usaha ini sebagai elemen penting dalam pengembangan ekonomi dan memiliki manfaat sosial. BUMDes diharapkan memiliki visi dan misi sebagai wirausaha sosial sehingga bisa memberdayakan usaha skala kecil dan mikro (UKM) dan masyarakat yang terpinggirkan. Selama tahun 2015 sampai sekarang, desa-desa bergerak untuk memiliki BUMDes, tetapi umumnya desa tidak berhasil membentuk dan mengelola BUMDes sebagai wirausaha sosial. Kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat ini mendorong BUMDes memiliki peran sebagai wirausaha sosial sehingga keberadaan BUMDes sangat relevan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan keberdayaan masyarakat kecil dan marjinal. Kegiatan yang telah dilaksanakan adalah menyelenggarakan pelatihan dan kunjungan lapangan yang diikuti oleh pengelola BUMDesa di beberapa desa di D.I.Yogyakarta. Hasil dari kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat ini adalah: perubahan orientasi dan peran BUMDesa dari usaha desa untuk pemerintah desa menjadi usaha desa untuk rakyat desa, sinergisasi BUMDesa dengan lembaga desa sebagai upaya peningkatan kesejateraan masyarakat khususnya dalam pengembangan ekonomi lokal, dan pengembangan BUMDesa yang bervisi wirausaha sosial.
Local Wisdom to Overcome Covid-19 Pandemic of Urug and Cipatat Kolot Societies in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia Bahagia, Bahagia; Hudayana, Bambang; Wibowo, Rimun; Anna, Zuzy
Forum Geografi Vol 34, No 2 (2020): December 2020
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v34i2.12366

Abstract

Local wisdom can be interpreted as principles of life, behaviour, rules, and punishments, as well as a view of life that regulate life, so that it can regulate and managing natural resources in the natural, social, and economic environments. Even local knowledge have adapted to environment obstacle. This research aims to investigate traditionally local knowledge for confronting Covid-19 pandemic. The method used is qualitative with an ethnography approach and literature review. Data are collected through in-depth interviews with leaders of Urug and Cipatat Kolot societies. In order to investigate Baduy and Ciptagelar communities used a literature review. Data are supported by documentation and observation sources. The sample is selected using a purposive sampling technique. The result is analysed through triangulation, which is by mixing some gathered data methods. The result is that Urug society allocates rice each year from their paddy yields to the vulnerable groups such as orphans, elderlies, widows, and persons need most. Secondly, collective action is used to jump the capacity of people like women through nujuh bulanan. Thirdly, societies exert taboo to combat disaster and Covid-19, including by prohibiting community from trading paddies and rice. Another finding is that indigenous knowledge uses some life strategies and utilizes natural capital optimally for overcoming life perturbances. The last finding is that local knowledge has preserved agriculture jobs as a venue to survive.
Reproduction of Volcanic Rituals in Appealing for the Right to Live in Disaster-Prone Zones on Mount Merapi Bambang Hudayana
Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik Vol. 34 No. 2 (2021): Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik
Publisher : Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/mkp.V34I22021.235-247

Abstract

In response to the Mount Merapi eruption in 2010, the government had conducted several disaster risk reduction programs. However, the programs had ironically threatened hamlets as communities regarding their rights to practice their local knowledge and live in their home ground. This study employed a qualitative method involving five hamlets from December 2019 until February 2020. The data were collected by employing participatory observation and depth interviews, involving the ritual organizers, participants, citizens, guests, and other audience. Spirited by ritual theory as political action, this research showed that the hamlets formulated volcanic ritual reproductions into three forms which were the delegitimation of the disaster risk reduction programs, the reinforcement of Kejawen identity, and the showing off the safety and prosperity. Those reproductions were recognized by the emergence of new ritual processions in the forms of parades, pilgrimages, offerings, and enhancements of ritual formalization and celebrations. Those reproductions positively impacted the literacy and recognition from both the government and general society that those hamlets have been living a safe and prosperous life in Merapi, even though they are located in disaster-prone areas.
Pengembangan Seni-Budaya sebagai Penguatan Identitas Komunitas Kejawen dan Santri di Desa pada Era Reformasi Bambang Hudayana
Satwika : Kajian Ilmu Budaya dan Perubahan Sosial Vol. 5 No. 1 (2021): April
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22219/satwika.v5i1.15641

Abstract

Artikel ini mendeskripsikan pengembangan seni-budaya sebagai penguatan identitas komunitas yang berbasis pada pilar politik aliran. Penelitian etnografi ini dilakukan di Desa Pulungsari, Bantul, secara longitudinal (2015-2019). Wawancara etnografi dilakukan kepada elite yang termasuk ke dalam golongan kejawen dan santri, pengelola pertunjukan seni-budaya, dan warga komunitas. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa komunitas kejawen memelihara ritual, tradisi, dan perayaan desa secara Jawa melalui pementasan wayang kulit, karawitan, dan tembang macapatan yang telah menjadi identitasnya. Sementara itu, komunitas santri juga memelihara ritual, tradisi, dan perayaan hari besar agama dengan menampilkan seni-budaya keislaman seperti rodat, selawatan, dan pembacaan kitab suci Quran yang memang menjadi identitasnya. Baik komunitas kejawen maupun santri bersaing untuk memperkuat identitas masing-masing dengan cara mengembangkan festival dan kirab seni-budaya sehingga komunitas tersebut semakin tersegregasi ke dalam komunitas berbasis politik aliran. Hasil studi juga membuktikan pengembangan seni-budaya menjadi relevan bagi tokoh untuk memperkuat identitas komunitas berbasis politik aliran karena mendukung posisinya sebagai elite desa.   This paper chronicles the development of cultural-art performance as a way to strengthen up the community identity based on the pillars of stream politics. This ethnographic research was conducted in Pulungsari Village with a longitudinal base (2015-2019). Ethnographic interviews were conducted involving elites belonging to the kejawen and santri groups, managers of cultural-arts performances, and community members who participate in the art performances and festivals. The results of the study revealed that the kejawen community preserved Javanese rituals, traditions, and village celebrations by conducting puppet shadow, gamelan, and macapatan songs performances which then became their identity. Meanwhile, the santri community preserved Islamic rituals, traditions, and Islamic days celebrations by conducting rodat, selawatan, and reciting the great Al-Quran as their identity. Both the kejawen and santri communities compete to strengthen up their own identities by developing cultural-art festivals and processions. As a result, a community in a village was increasingly segregated into a community based on stream politics. The results of the study also prove that the development of cultural-art performances is relevant for community figures to strengthen up their identity based on stream politics because it supports their position as village elites.