Abdul Ghafar Ismail
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

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Journal : Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business

Testing of the Ricardian Equivalence proposition: An Empirical Examination for Malaysia (1962-2006) Ismail, Ismadi; Ismail, Abdul Ghafar; Amiruddin, Rosilawati
Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business Vol 10, No 2 (2008): May - August
Publisher : Master of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

This paper investigates the effects of debts and budgetary deficit on real variables using structural Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) method with long-run restrictions. We compare our estimates of the impulse responses with those based on levels Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) with standard recursive order restrictions. The test is conducted on the Malaysian data covering the period of 1962-2006. The empirical results do not support the existence of “Ricardian Equivalence” hypothesis. The effects of budgetary deficit and government spending have a significant influence on private consumption and private investment.
An Empirical Analysis of Cash Flow and Investment Fluctuations Using Firm-Level Panel Data Ismail, Abdul Ghafar; Sanusi, Nur Azura
Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business Vol 7, No 1 (2005): January-April
Publisher : Master of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Since the pioneering work of Gurley and Shaw (1955), the attempt has been done to justify money as a primary focal point of macroeconomic theorizing. However, other researchers argue that variables such as financial development and indicators are also important to be linked with macroeconomic performance. Here, if money can be thought as means of production and consumer goods as the ultimate end toward which production is directed, and then capital also occupies a position that is both logically and temporarily intermediate between original means and ultimate ends. This temporarily intermediate status of capital is not in serious dispute, but its significance for macroeconomic theorizing is rarely recognized. The firms’ decision to acquire funds through debt and equity financings affects the capital structure, and, in the firm’s balance sheet, the impact of capital appears to influence the inventory investment. Hence, the significance of capital structure –induced inventory distortions in the context of firm-level is the basis for our article. The sample for our analysis is compiled from the balance sheets of listed syaria firms in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange for the period 1995-2000.
Monetary Policy, Debt and the Cyclical Behavior of Inventories Ismail, Abdul Ghafar; Bahari, Zakaria
Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business Vol 9, No 1 (2007): January - April
Publisher : Master of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

An earlier study on the determinants of inventories investment has been proposed by Lovel (1961). However, the study fails to mention the effects of financial variables. The puzzle prevails on account of imperfect capital markets. This implies that interest rate generally affects inventory investment indirectly through the debt channel. For instance, in the period of tight monetary policy, increasing interest rates have a negative impact on the present value of firms’ collateralizable net worth. In addition, they also weaken firms’ balance sheets as interest expenses also rise up. In imperfect capital markets, this fact indicates an increase in the amount of external financing that firms need, a rise in the premium on external financing that they face, and a reduction in their accumulation of assets, their spending and their production. Given the low adjustment cost that characterizes firms, it will be inventories that firms will initially reduce. Therefore, this paper is contributes to the issue of monetary policy transmission in Malaysia. Our specific attention is limited to the channel of monetary policy on a firm’s inventory. Using micro data, we try to take into account the relevance of the firm’s balance sheet conditions in the transmission of monetary policy.