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Journal : Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry

Mechanism of Vasorelaxation Induced by Coptosapelta flavescens Stems Extract in Rat Thoraric Aorta Sjarif Ismail; Khemasili Kosala; Ika Fikriah; Agustina Rahayu Magdaleni
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 4 No. 2 (2017): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (307.693 KB) | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v4i2.146

Abstract

Coptosapelta flavescens Korth. is a liana plant from the Rubiaceae family. In East Kalimantan, it is also known as “Akar Tambolekar” or “Merung”, it is called “akar” or root as its trunk spreads like a root. The plant’s stems are used by ethnic Dayak in East Kalimantan to overcome high blood pressure and it has been proven to induce vasorelaxation on blood vessels, but the its action mechanism in the endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are unknown. Vasorelaxation on the blood vessels could be mediated by endothelial or by the VSMC. This research aims to study in vitro which of them is the mechanism of action of Coptosapelta flavescens Stems (CFS) extract. CFS were taken from the secondary forest in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan Province. Its simplicia were macerated with methanol solvent for three days and twice repeated. Vasorelaxation activity of the blood vessels was tested with rats’ isolated thoracic aorta with endothelial and with the endothelial removed (endothelium-denuded). Both aorta of 3 mm length were soaked into Krebs-Henselheit solution at 37°C, pH 7.4 and aerated with carbogen gas. After they have acclimatized, both aortas were contracted with phenylephrine solution, after reaching peak contraction and plateau, the solution of extract or its solvent (Control) was administered in cumulatively increasing doses. The results show that CFS extracts induce vasorelaxation both in the endothelial-intact aorta and in the endothelial-denuded aorta. At high concentrations, the vasorelaxation activity in the endothelial-intact aorta was weaker than that on endothelial-denuded aorta. This study proves that action mechanism of blood vessels’ vasorelaxation induced by the methanol extract of CFS were more dominantly mediated by the blood vessels smooth muscle; and at high concentrations the endothelial actually weakened the VSMC vasorelaxation activity. Further study is necessary on the mechanism of action vasorelaxation through the modulation of intracellular or extracellular calcium ion channels of VSMC Keywords: Coptosapelta flavescens, vasorelaxation, extract, aorta, in vitro
Evaluation of Synergistic Effect of Kaempferia galanga L. Rhizome Extracts on the Antibiotic Activity Antibiotics against Bacterial Pathogens Almira Fahrinda; Sjarif Ismail; Khemasili Kosala; Ika Fikriah; Yuniati Yuniati
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 4 No. 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (358.004 KB) | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v4i3.148

Abstract

Background: aromatic ginger rhizome (Kaempferia galanga L.) is a member of Zingiberaceae family, has been known to have an antibacterial effect is used for everyday cooking spices, but the synergistic effect on broad spectrum antibiotics was unknown. Objective: this research was conducted to find out the synergistic effect of Kaempferia galanga L. Rhizome extract (KGR) on some broad-spectrum antibiotics against gram positive and negative bacterial pathogens in vitro. Method: KGR was taken from farmers in Samarinda City, East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Extraction by maceration with ethanol solvent. Antibacterial activity test of KGR ethanol extract, antibiotic and synergistic effect using Mueller-Hinton agar, Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on ampicillin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and meropenem antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results were expressed in percentage increase of the inhibition zone. Statistical test with t-test, significantly different if p<0.05. Results: KGR ethanol extract showed increase the percentage of antibiotic inhibition zone, ampicillin being the highest and the weakest of ciprofloxacin in E. coli; meropenem being the highest and the weakest of ciprofloxacin in S. aureus, statistically significant different tests on antibiotic ampicillin (E. coli), meropenem and cefuroxime. Conclusion: KGR ethanol extract showed synergistic effect on antibiotic ampicillin (E. coli), meropenem and cefuroxime in S. aureus and E. coli.
Acute Toxicity Assay from Seeds and Flesh of Tarap Fruit (Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco) Ethanolic Extract against Daphnia magna Larvae Crissty Magglin; Ika Fikriah; Khemasili Kosala; Hadi Kuncoro
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 2 (2020): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i2.240

Abstract

Tarap (Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco) is one of the plants in the tropics that are consumed by dayak tribe in East Kalimantan. Toxicity tests on seeds and bark have been done but there is no data regarding the acute toxicity of Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco seeds and flesh of fruit causing the need for acute toxicity tests. This Research to know the acute toxic effects of tarap (Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco) seed and flesh extracts on larvae of Daphnia magna. Tarap seeds and flesh (Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco) was taken from dayak market in Samarinda, is East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The seeds and flesh of the tarap fruit are extracted by maceration with ethanol solvent. An acute toxicity test was performed by exposing Dapnia magna larvae aged ? 24 hours with a solution of the experimental group and the control group for 48 hours. Toxicity test results are expressed in percentage of immobilization of larvae of Daphnia magna calculated by probit test to obtain EC50 (Half maximal effective concentration) values. Extracts are toxic if the EC50 value > 1000ppm. EC50 Ethanol extract of tarap seeds obtained values ( 3922,301 ± 324,590 ) for EC50 24h and ( 2964,498 ± 412,498 ) for EC50 48h. The EC50 value of ethanol extract from flesh of tarap fruit is ( 12224.514 ± 2186. 899 ) EC50 24h and ( 6165,235 ± 1940,006 ) EC50 48h.Ethanol extract of tarap fruit and flesh is non toxic to larvae of Daphnia magna.