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JAMINAN DALAM PEMBIAYAAN PADA PERBANKAN SYARIAH DI INDONESIA (Analisis Jaminan Pembiayaan Musyārakah dan Muḍārabah) Muhammad Maulana
Islam Futura Vol 14, No 1 (2014): Jurnal Ilmiah Islam Futura
Publisher : Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22373/jiif.v14i1.80

Abstract

The collateral is required to protect Islamic banks from the risk of non-performing financing and other financial lost that might be caused by moral hazard of debtors. There must be a collateral in the form of tabî'iyah contract whether in kafalah or rahn form in order to secure the position of debtors losers action. In fact, Islamic banks have a mandate to manage customer funds with the prudential principle that creditors are able to generate profits that can be shared with creditors. Although the use of rahn and kafalah contract are not well-known in the implementation of musyārakah and muḍārabah contract, using the theory of freedom of contract all the parties can still contract in the main of dictum because the basic principle of contract is permitted in fikih muamalat during the contract or requirement that are made do not contradict with shari'a. The presence of security systems in the theory of musyārakah and muḍārabah doesn’t mean to prohibit using the guarantee, because the use of musyārakah and muḍārabah contract in fikih muamalat is still carried out on the basis of personal trust between the parties. The existence of the guarantee in the contract of muḍārabah and musyārakah are good effort to promote preventive measures using sadd al-zarî'ah pattern so that the funds of creditors which should be protected in according with the concept of maqāsid syarîah should be protected because it is in dharūry level.
Penyebab Terlantar dan Rusaknya Rumah Bantuan Korban Tsunami Aceh dan Tinjauannya dalam Hukum Islam Muhammad Maulana
Ar-Raniry: International Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 6, No 2 (2019): Ar-Raniry: International Journal of Islamic Studies
Publisher : Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry Banda Aceh

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (311.87 KB) | DOI: 10.22373/jar.v6i2.10281

Abstract

Bencana gempa dan tsunami di Provinsi Aceh dan Kepulauan Nias telah berdampak pada berbagai sektor, di antaranya sektor sosial, infrastruktur, produksi, dan lintas sektor lainnya. Salah satu upaya yang dilakukan pemerintah yaitu membangun kembali perumahan tempat tinggal korban. Namun, setelah pembangunan selesai dilakukan ternyata menimbulkan permasalahan baru, yaitu banyak rumah bantuan yang tidak ditempati dan dimanfaatkan oleh pemilik atau penerima bantuan, sehingga rumah-rumah tersebut terbengkalai dan rusak. Fokus permasalahan yang dikaji yaitu, mengapa rumah bantuan untuk korban tsunami banyak yang tidak dimanfaatkan oleh pemiliknya sehingga terbengkalai dan rusak, serta bagaimana pandangan hukum Islam terhadap perilaku pemilik rumah bantuan yang tidak menempati dan memanfaatkannya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah gabungan antara metode yuridis normatif dan yuridis empiris. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik observasi dan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian rumah bantuan korban tsunami banyak yang tidak dimanfaat oleh pemiliknya disebabkan pendataan yang tidak akurat pada saat pembangunan, pihak penerima ada yang belum bisa menempati rumah tersebut karena masih di bawah umur, penerima bantuan juga ada yang telah pindah domisili karena perkawinan di tempat lain, udzur ahli waris setelah mendapat bantuan, dan faktor ketakutan untuk tinggal kembali di lokasi yang pernah diterjang tsunami. Adapun pandangan hukum Islam terhadap perilaku pemilik rumah bantuan yang tidak menempati dan memanfaatkannya dapat dikategorikan perbuatan dhalim karena telah melakukan perbuatan mubadzir dan menyiakan-nyiakan bantuan yang telah diberikan, seharusnya rumah bantuan tersebut dapat dialihkan penggunaannya untuk orang lain agar tidak terlantar dan rusak sia-sia. Beberapa saran yang dapat diajukan yaitu dalam setiap bencana yang terjadi diperlukan data yang jelas dan riil terhadap setiap calon penerima bantuan agar setiap bantuan yang disalurkan sesuai dengan kebutuhan masing-masing masyarakat korban bencana alam. Setiap bantuan yang disalurkan tersebut harus dilihat dan dievaluasi dengan calon penerima sehingga bantuan yang diberikan tepat sasaran, karena dalam keadaan bagaimanapun prinsip keadilan harus dikedepankan, bukan pemerataan yang menjadi standar.
Changes in Congregational Prayer Practices During the Covid-19 Pandemic in Aceh from Maqashid al-Sharia Perspective Salman Abdul Muthalib; Tarmizi M. Jakfar; Muhammad Maulana; Lukman Hakim
AL-IHKAM: Jurnal Hukum & Pranata Sosial Vol. 16 No. 2 (2021)
Publisher : Faculty of Sharia IAIN Madura collaboration with The Islamic Law Researcher Association (APHI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19105/al-lhkam.v16i2.5250

Abstract

Covid-19 has changed the habits of almost all activities of human life, including religious matters. The worship practices have also changed, such as performing prayers at home, keeping distant rows, and wearing masks. This paper is empirical legal research that seeks to examine the living law in the Aceh society with a maqashid shari’a perpective during a pandemic. The data collection techniques were interview, observation, and document study. It concludes that the government policies, including the 2020 Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB), the 2021 Implementation of Community Activity Restrictions (PPKM), fatwas of Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) and Tausiyah of Acehnese Ulema regulating and calling for restrictions on religious activities are rules with benefit values and in accordance with the principle of maqasid al-shari'a. Despite some people's rejection, the policies are, in fact, based on maqasid al-shari'a, namely protecting the life (hifz al-nafs) so that people will not get infected by the virus. Moreover, public safety is the highest law purpose to maintain. The policies also prove the state's role through the rule when conditions endanger the community in addition to avoiding harms as a part of Islamic law orders. (Covid-19 telah mengubah kebiasaan hampir seluruh aktivitas kehidupan manusia, mulai dari ekonomi, sosial, budaya, pendidikan bahkan agama. Pada aspek agama aktivitas ibadah juga mengalami perubahan misalnya himbauan shalat di rumah, menjaga jarak saf dan memakai masker. Tulisan ini merupakan penelitian hukum empiris yang berupaya menelaah hukum sebagaimana yang terjadi dalam realitas masyarakat dengan pendekatan hukum Islam saat pandemi. Sedangkan teknik pengumpulan data yang dipakai adalah wawancara, observasi dan studi dokumen. Kajian ini menyimpulkan bahwa pada awalnya himbauan sebagai pemerintah tidak secara menyeluruh diikuti oleh masyarakat karena setiap daerah berbeda tingkat penularan dan kondisi covid terjadi. Setelah aturan PPKM 2021 diterapkan hal ini relatif teratur termasuk di Aceh karena dibedakan empat level dan berdasarkan tingkat penularan dan korban yaitu, merah, orange, kuning dan hijau. Kebijakan pemerintah agar tidak salat jamaah di masjid pada saat kondisi penularannya tinggi sebenarnya mengacu pada konsep maqashid syari’ah yaitu menjaga jiwa (hifz al-nafs) agar masyarakat tidak tertular virus. Meskipun sebagian masyarakat khusus daerah atau kabupaten yang tingkat penularannya rendah menganggap bahwa shalat berjamaah di masjid tetap harus dilakukan dengan pertimbangan menjaga agama (hifz al-din) sesuai protokol kesehatan. Namun patut dicatat kebijakan pemerintah tersebut mengandung kemaslahatan yang bertujuan untuk menghindari kemudharatan dan menolak bahaya sebagaimana disebutkan dalam kaidah fikih. Sehingga menghindarkan diri dari kemudharatan dan taat kepada pemerintah juga merupakan perintah syariat Islam.)
Perbarengan Tindak Pidana Menurut Hukum Pidana Islam (Analisis Putusan Hakim Nomor 39/Pid.B/2019/Pn.Tdn) Muhammad Maulana; Edi Yuhermansyah; Sumita Dewi
Jurnal Justisia : Jurnal Ilmu Hukum, Perundang-undangan dan Pranata Sosial Vol 7, No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Law Department, Sharia and Law Faculty.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22373/justisia.v7i1.12877

Abstract

Concurrent criminal acts often occur in the community, even in the process many have been resolved in court, one of these cases is the Tanjungpandan District Court Decision Number 39/Pid.B/2019/PN.Tdn. In this decision, the perpetrator was charged with committing a crime concurrently between premeditated murder and theft in aggravating conditions. In this paper, the main issue raised is about how the judge's considerations in imposing sentences on the perpetrators and the review of Islamic criminal law against the concurrent criminal acts in the decision. This paper is presented with a literature study, with the type of normative legal research (juridical-normative). This paper concludes that the reasons and considerations of the judge in sentencing the perpetrators of the crime of premeditated murder and theft in Decision Number 39/Pid.B/2019/PN.Tdn include two criteria, namely the case of premeditated murder through Article 340 of the Criminal Code. In the review of Islamic criminal law, the concurrent crime of murder and theft is included in the theory of al-jabb, namely a punishment that can absorb other punishments, namely the death penalty.
ANALISIS SEWA MENYEWA PARALEL PADA PERUSAHAAN RENT CAR CV. HARKAT DALAM PERSPEKTIF EKONOMI ISLAM Samsuardi Samsuardi; Muhammad Maulana
Share: Jurnal Ekonomi dan Keuangan Islam Vol 2, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Islamic Economics and Business, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (723.61 KB) | DOI: 10.22373/share.v2i2.1496

Abstract

This study aims at determining the parallel process of car rental agreement between Harkat Rent Car Company and the owner of the car, and between the company and its customers in an Islamic economics perspective. This study also aims to analyze the risk coverage of the leased car. The data for this study was gathered through interviews, observation and documentation studies. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive analysis method. Results showed that the process of car leasing begin when customer rented a car from CV. Harkat which was owned by its partner. The company provided a shared price for car owners according to a mutual agreement and applied only for a certain period. Furthermore, the partner has to allocate 20 percent of the income for the company. In addition, the company also required the partner to cover for maintenance costs, insurance, equipment, and spare parts. In the context of Islamic economics, the practice of leasing parallel conducted by the company was not fully Shariah compliance due to practice a lease above a lease and using two contracts in one transaction. =========================================== Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perjanjian sewa menyewa mobil secara paralel antara Perusahaan Rent Car CV. Harkat dengan pemilik mobil dan dengan konsumennya dalam perspektif ekonomi Islam. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk menanganalisis pertanggungan resiko terhadap mobil yang dijadikan objek sewa menyewa tersebut sewa menyewa mobil di Perusahaan Rent Car CV. Data untuk penelitian ini bersumber dari wawancara, obesrvasi dan studi dokumentasi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif analisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa CV. Harkat menyewakan mobil milik mitra kerjanya (pemilik mobil) kepada pelanggan yang membutuhkan sewa mobil untuk keperluannya. Pemilik usaha memberikan harga kongsi kepada pemilik mobil sesuai dengan kesepakatan bersama dan untuk jangka waktu tertentu. Selanjutnya, pemilik mobil harus menyisihkan sebanyak dua puluh persen dari penghasilan mobil miliknya yang dikongsikan kepada pengusaha rental mobil. Pengusaha Rent Car CV. Harkat mengharuskan pemilik mobil mengurus asuransi mobil dan menanggung biaya perawatan, peralatan dan suku cadang mobil. Jadi dalam konteks ekonomi Islam, praktik sewa menyewa paralel yang dilakukan oleh CV. Harkat kurang sesuai dengan hukum Islam karena terjadi sewa di atas sewa dalam sistem perjanjian sewa menyewa antara pemilik mobil dengan CV. Harkat.
Polarization of Profit Sharing of Paddy Cultivation in the Acehnese Community as an Attempt to Alleviate Poverty: A Study of Fiqh Muamalah Muhammad Maulana; Aulil Amri
Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam Vol 5, No 1 (2021)
Publisher : Islamic Family Law Department, Sharia and Law Faculty, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22373/sjhk.v5i1.8774

Abstract

This study examines the polarization of profit sharing in paddy cultivation in the tradition of the people of Aceh as an effort to alleviate poverty. This study, as the empirical or juridical sociological legal research, examines the behavior of law or operation of law in society. The study uses fiqh muamalah approach and obtains data through interviews and literature study. This study concludes that the pattern of profit sharing on the cultivation of paddy fields is categorized into a muzāra’ah aqd, which has rules specified in fiqh muamalah and promotes mutual assistance. However, traditionally, the people of West Aceh, Pidie, and Aceh Jaya utilizing leasing in managing paddy fields tend not to fully operate in accordance with the muzāra’ah aqd. This is due to the operational costs needed for the management of the fields have to be provided by the tenant farmers without financial contributions from the landowners at all. This method can easily allow the landowners to exploit the labor of tenant farmers as the tenants do not have other options aside from cultivating the land. As a result, tenant farmers find it difficult to get out of the shackles of poverty. Therefore, it takes effort to help the farmers out of poverty. It is expected that the government plays a role in the forms of the provision of aids such as seeds, fertilizers, medicines, harvesting machines, and rice threshers, with the goal to reduce expenditure costs of management and thus, the farming revenue will increase and farmers’ well-being will be achieved. 
Juridical Provisions on Government Policies Towards Marginal Economic Actors in Indonesia in the Perspective of Islamic Law EMK Alidar; Muhammad Maulana; Yuhasnibar Syah; Bustamam Usman
Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam Vol 7, No 1 (2023)
Publisher : Islamic Family Law Department, Sharia and Law Faculty, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22373/sjhk.v7i1.14621

Abstract

This study investigates the legal provisions for dealing with street vendors in Banda Aceh and Yogyakarta, utilizing the Qanun no. 3/2007 and the Mayor Regulation no. 26/2002, respectively. It investigates the variables that constitute the basis for the creation of policies for dealing with street sellers and evaluates policy formulations for dealing with street vendors in the two provincial capitals in a more accommodating and comprehensive manner. This is a normative legal research that examines legal data in the form of the rule of law by evaluating statutes and Islamic law. The results indicated that the Qanun for the City of Banda Aceh and the Perwal Yogyakarta were legally designed to govern and control street vendors in compliance with the urban planning and aesthetics of the city. However, the Banda Aceh Qanun addressing street vendors must be tied to the Mayor's Regulation 44 of 2016 about the role and function of Wilayatul Hisbah (WH) and Satpol PP (Civil Police), which reflect Islamic shari'a standards. Although the Mayor of Yogyakarta Regulation No. 26/2002 on street vendors has been designated as a source and tourist attraction that must be managed responsibly, this has a positive impact on street vendors. The regulation has included cultural issues with such care that it has a favorable effect on their economic earnings. Although other aspects, such as the issuance of business licenses, impartial spatial layouts, and coercive measures against street vendors, still need to be developed. Nevertheless, the Banda Aceh government's comprehensive WH policy integrates Islamic law and the Yogyakarta Perwal, which accommodates local and cultural values in accordance with the rule of law that governs and disciplines the society.
NON-GOLD FIDUCIARY COLLATERAL VALUE CALCULATION SYSTEM AT PT. PEGADAIAN SYARI'AH UNIT DARUSSALAM BANDA ACEH Muhammad Maulana; Riska Yulianti
JURISTA: Jurnal Hukum dan Keadilan Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017): JURISTA: Jurnal Hukum dan Keadilan
Publisher : Centre for Adat and Legal Studies of Aceh Province (CeFALSAP)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.1234/jurista.v1i1.52

Abstract

The amount of financing to be provided by the pawnshop is determined by the value of the collateral submitted by the customer to the management of PT Pegadaian Syari'ah. This study aims to determine how the feasibility assessment of non-gold fiduciary security objects accepted as collateral at PT Pegadaian Syari'ah Darussalam Unit, Banda Aceh? In this research, the author uses a type of qualitative research, this research uses descriptive analysis methods based on library research and field research data. The results of the research found that in calculating the value of non-gold fiduciary collateral at PT Pegadaian Syari'ah Darussalam Unit is guided by the local market price provisions issued regularly by the head office. While the assessment of the feasibility of the non-gold fiduciary guarantee object received as collateral at PT Pegadaian Syari'ah Darussalam Unit is determined by directly seeing the feasibility of the guarantee object by PT Pegadaian Syari'ah to the customer, and also evaluating the real conditions of the feasibility assessment of the object as collateral for Arrum financing. The estimated value of the goods is determined based on the percentage of the price of the goods, which is guided by the Local Market Price and which is sourced in several places such as agents and online sites. Things that affect the value of the object of collateral, namely the object and business, both of which must be balanced, the year of expiration of the motorbike and the physical condition of an object. In the concept of fiqh muamalah, there are no specific provisions regarding the calculation of the value of collateral in this rahn contract. And in some pawn hadiths there is also no clear information obtained, so that the parties can flexibly make their own guarantee value.