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Islam dalam Politik Luar Negeri Singapura Sugeng Riyanto; Bambang Cipto; Tulus Warsito; Surwandono Surwandono
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 7, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/hi.72138

Abstract

The Malay Moslem community is actually a minority group in Singapore, which consist 14.3%, while Chinese ethnic is a majority with 76%. The previous studies on minority in Southeast Asia such as Thailand, Philippines and Myanmar showed that mostly the Muslim minority was treated as marginal community and political pressure. This study is to seek whether the Malay Muslim in Singapore has been treated as well as it in neighbor or contrary Malay Moslem has a different position and role in Singaporean politics. Furthermore, in term of foreign policy, this study is going to find the influence of Moslem existance, whereas Singapore is well-known as a secular state. In Singaporean leader’s perspectives, Islam is a threat, as it has been shown in several communal riots during the early history of Singapore, pressure from Malaysia and Indonesia. This is a vulnerable situation for Singapore. Therefore, Singapore addressed moderate policies toward Moslem through accommodation of Islam with several Islamic friendly policies in the country, and accommodation of Malaysian and Indonesian interests. In the other hand, Singapore also anticipates the threat from neighbors through close relations with United States and its allies.
Diplomasi Ekonomi China di Negara-Negara Teluk Bambang Cipto
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 5, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/hi.5294

Abstract

This article aims to analyse the diplomatic relation between China and the gulf states which  incorporated to Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The absence of England from this region in late 1960s was marked by the changing of China relation to the gulf states. However, as the pro-communist policy by China had spread over the world, the gulf country were reluctant to open diplomatic relation with China immediately. Therefore, this situation has made the changes went slowly. The spreading of the external threat from Soviet Union Communism in Iraq, became a strong consideration for Kuwait to eventually open the diplomatic relation to China before the other gulf state.Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan diplomasi antara China dan negara-negara Teluk yang tergabung dalam Dewan Kerjasama Teluk (Gulf Cooperation Council/GCC).  Keluarnya Inggris dari kawasan Teluk pada akhir dekade 60-an ditandai, antara lain, dengan perubahan hubungan China dan negara-negara Teluk. Namun perubahan ini berlangsung cukup lambat karena masa lalu kebijakan pro-komunis China di berbagai belahan dunia membuat negara-negara Teluk tidak segera membuka hubungan diplomasi dengan China pada saat itu. Kuwait merupakan sebuah perkecualian karena kekhawatiran Kuwait terhadap melebarnya pengaruh Uni Soviet di Iraq yang cenderung pro-Uni Soviet. Kekhawatiran terhadap ancaman eksternal ini menjadi alasan kuat bagi Kuwait untuk mendahalui rekan-rekannya sesama negara Teluk dalam membuka hubungan diplomatik dengan China.
Securitizing the Unseen: Behind Trump’s Reliance on Mexico in Combating Irregular Immigration Eiga Sitompul; Bambang Cipto
Global Strategis Vol. 17 No. 2 (2023): Global Strategis
Publisher : Department of International Relations, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/jgs.17.2.2023.327-346

Abstract

This research aims to analyze the reasons behind Trump’s decision to pressure Mexico to combat irregular immigration. Trump’s administration showed an exceptional commitment to immigration control and dramatically re-oriented the immigration control mechanism in the United States (US). Despite unprecedented amounts of changes in the US internal immigration system under Trump, his presidency relied on Mexico for his securitization cause. Due to massive migration activities along the US-Mexico border, Trump forced Mexican authorities to cooperate with US institutions to reduce and filter migrant flows coming to the US. Nonetheless, existing literature regarding US immigration did not explain the reason behind Trump’s reliance on Mexican authorities and its cooperation system; thus this article aims to fill the gap. This research applies the migration securitization framework in evaluating the US immigration system prior to the 2019 US-Mexico joint statement on immigration. Using Bourbeau’s migration securitization framework, the research found that Trump’s immigration policy faced barriers due to interference from the opposition party. This research concluded that the US federal system and political climate confined Trump’s immigration enforcement efforts, thus pushing the administration to burden Mexican authorities with its enforcement efforts. Keywords: irregular immigration, Mexico, migration securitization, Trump, US.   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis keputusan presiden Trump dalam menekan Meksiko untuk memerangi imigran gelap. Pemerintahan Trump menunjukkan komitmen luar biasa dalam mengontrol sistem imigrasi di Amerika Serikat (AS), mengorientasikan mekanisme imigrasi internal secara dramatis. Namun, terlepas dari perubahan besar dalam mekanisme imigrasi dibawah pemerintahan Trump, presiden Trump bergantung terhadap pemerintah Meksiko dalam mengimplementasikan agenda sekuritisasinya. Karena aktivitas migrasi besar-besaran di sepanjang perbatasan AS-Meksiko, Trump memaksa otoritas Meksiko untuk bekerja sama dalam menyaring arus migran yang datang ke AS. Studi-studi sebelumnya tidak menjelaskan alasan dibalik ketergantungan Trump pada otoritas Meksiko, sehingga artikel ini bertujuan mengisi kekosongan tersebut. Penelitian ini menerapkan kerangka sekuritisasi imigrasi dalam mengevaluasi sistem imigrasi AS sebelum pernyataan bilateral AS-Meksiko tahun 2019 tentang imigrasi. Menggunakan kerangka Sekuritisasi Bourbeau, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa kebijakan imigrasi Trump terhambat oleh campur tangan partai oposisi. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa sistem federal dan iklim politik di AS membatasi upaya penegakan imigrasi Trump, sehingga mendorong pemerintahan untuk membebani pemerintah Meksiko dengan upaya penegakannya. Kata-kata Kunci: Amerika Serikat, imigrasi ilegal, Meksiko, sekuritisasi imigrasi, Trump