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The Effectiveness of Canopy Trees to Reduce Rainfall Acidity in the Industrial Area at Medan Tyas Mutiara Basuki
Forum Geografi Vol 14, No 2 (2000)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v14i2.442

Abstract

The term of acid rain is referred to the mean rainfall with a pH less than 5,65. The element of Sox and Nox are the major sources of aid rain. These two elements are oxidized into SO4 and NO3 respectively in the air. Sulfate and Nitrate are water soluble and the primary sources of hydrogen ions in acid precipitation. Rain passing through a tree canopy may lose or gain mineral elements trough some combination of natural process of absorption and leaching. By this process, the canopy may reduce rainfall acidity and negatif effects of the acid rain which will enter into the soil. Due to characteristic differences among tree canopies, a study to evaluate effectiveness of the trees in reducing rainfall acidity was done. In this study, rainfall and troughfall were collected every single rain and the pH measure by portable pH-meter. Based on data collection during 3 months in Medan Industrial Estate, it found that the mean pH of rainfall was 5,15. The highest pH of throughfall was found from Gnetum gnemon, that was 5,70; following by Mimusops elengi, Filicium decipiens, Acacia mangium, and the lowest was Nephelium lappacum. G. Gnemon was able to reduce 11% of rainfall acidity, but N. Lappacum caused 13% increasing rainfall acidity. In this study, the main source of rainfall acidity was hidrogen from sulfate acid (54%), following by chloride acid (30%), and nitrate acid (16%).
ANALISIS KEKRITISAN LAHAN UNTUK PERENCANAAN REHABILITASI LAHAN DAS SOLO BAGIAN HULU (Analyses of degraded land for rehabilitation planning in upper Solo Watershed) Nining Wahyuningrum; Tyas Mutiara Basuki
Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (Journal of Watershed Management Research) Vol 3, No 1 (2019): Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (Journal of Watershed Managem
Publisher : Center for Implementation of Standards for Environmental and Forestry Instruments Solo

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (960.121 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jppdas.2019.3.1.27-44

Abstract

ABSTRACTWater erosion is one of the causes of degraded land and a decrease in land productivity. Improvement of degraded land needs to detect sources of erosion and vulnerability level of the degraded land. The research was conducted to predict the vulnerability of soil erosion and distribution of degraded land in order to support the implementation programme of Land Rehabilitation and Soil Conservation. The research was conducted in upper Solo Watershed. Soil erosion was predicted using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The analysis of Land Capability Class was undertaken to determine the suitability of current landuse with its capability. Analysis of critical land was based on the regulations of the Directorate General of Watershed Management and Social Forestry (BPDAS-PS) Nomor 4/V-SET/2013. The data used were DEM (Digital Elevation Model) Aster (30 m x 30 m), map of the Regional Physical Planning Program for Transmigration (RePPProT) scale 1: 250,000, map of forest area (1: 50,000) from BPKH (Forest Zone Determination Center), land cover map from BPKH (1: 50,000), Google Earth imagery, rainfall data from 93 rain stations and field surveys. The results show that the upper Solo Watershed is dominated by land categorized as potentially degraded (54%), followed by slightly degraded (35%), while land which is classified as degraded occupied 7% of the total watershed. The dominant land capability is categorized as Vth class and limited by soil erosion (89%). Dry land agriculture areas were found at land capability VIth and VIIth which should not utilized for agricultural activities. Implementation of agroforestry and teracing are alternatives to prevent further land degradation and to improve the current condition.Keywords: degraded; land; planning; watershed; rehabilitation ABSTRAKErosi oleh air merupakan salah satu penyebab terjadinya degradasi dan penurunan produktivitas lahan yang mengakibatkan lahan kritis. Upaya perbaikan lahan-lahan kritis perlu mendeteksi sumber-sumber penyebab erosi dan tingkat kekritisan lahan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui tingkat erosi dan distribusi lahan kritis dengan tujuan agar penerapan program Rehabilitasi Lahan dan Konservasi Tanah dapat tepat sasaran dan lahan berfungsi optimal. Penelitian dilakukan di Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) Solo bagian hulu. Besarnya erosi tanah diprediksi dengan Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Analisis KPL (Kemampuan Penggunaan Lahan) dilakukan untuk mengetahui kesesuaian penggunaan lahan dengan kemampuannya. Analisis lahan kritis didasarkan pada peraturan Ditjen Bina Pengelolaan DAS dan Perhutanan Sosial (BPDAS-PS) No.4/VSET/2013. Data yang digunakan berasal dari analisis DEM (Digital Elevation Model) Aster ukuran 30 m x 30 m, peta Regional Physical Planning Program for Transmigration (RePPProT) skala 1: 250.000, peta kawasan hutan skala 1: 50.000 dari BPKH (Balai Penetapan Kawasan Hutan), peta penutupan lahan BPKH skala 1: 50.000, Citra Google Earth, data hujan dari 93 stasiun hujan dan survey lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa DAS Solo bagian Hulu didominasi lahan yang potential kritis (54%), diikuti agak kritis (35%), dan yang kritis 7%. Kemampuan Penggunaan Lahan (KPL) yang dominan adalah kelas V dengan pembatas utama erosi (89%). Dijumpai areal tegalan pada lahan dengan KPL VI dan VII yang seharusnya tidak sesuai untuk pertanian. Upaya yang dilakukan untuk tetap mempertahankan areal yang belum kritis dan memperbaiki areal yang sudah kritis adalah penerapan agroforestri dan terasering.Kata kunci: degradasi; lahan; perencanaan; DAS; rehabilitasi
HASIL AIR HUTAN JATI PADA DUA SUB DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI DENGAN LUAS BERBEDA (Water yield of Teak Forest at two different catchment sizes) Tyas Mutiara Basuki; Rahardyan Nugroho Adi; Edi Sulasmiko
Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (Journal of Watershed Management Research) Vol 1, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (Journal of Watershed Managem
Publisher : Center for Implementation of Standards for Environmental and Forestry Instruments Solo

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (822.75 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jppdas.2017.1.1.1-14

Abstract

Effects of catchment sizes on hydrological responses were still being debated. Therefore, a study on hydrological effects of different catchment sizes was conducted in teak catchments. The catchments were Cemoro and Modang with their sizes were 13.5 and 3.4 km2, respectively. Research sites were in Forest Management Sub Unit (BKPH) Pasar Sore, Forest Management Unit (KPH) Cepu, and administratively were located in Blora Regency. Physical conditions of these catchments were similar. Rainfall was measured everyday at 07.00 a.m. Stream Water Level (SWL) data were collected from tide gauge measurements which were constructed at the outlet of the catchments. Discharge data were obtained by convertion of the SWL into discharge based on regression equations between direct discharge measurements in the field and SWL. Data analysed from 2001 to 2015 showed that Cemoro catchment had higher annual runoff than Modang. Generally, monthly runoff from Cemoro catchment was higher than Modang catchment, only for several years the Modang catchment had higher monthly runoff than Cemoro catchment. Annual runoff coefficient of Cemoro catchment was always higher than Modang catchment during 2001 to 2015. The runoff coefficient ranged from 0.20 to 0.62 and from 0.06 to 0.38 for Cemoro and Modang catchments, respectively.