Emmy Latifah
Fakultas Hukum Universitas Sebelas Maret

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TRADE WAR BETWEEN UNITED STATE OF AMERICA AND CHINA REVIEWED FROM THE RETALIATION PRINCIPLE Savira, Gina Nafsah; Latifah, Emmy
Tadulako Law Review Vol 4, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Tadulako University

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Abstract

This paper aims to examine how the principle of retaliation in the case of a trade war between the United States and China is now happening. The General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) in the World Trade Organization (WTO) has regulated acts of retaliation in the context of international trade. Even though there are different conceptions of retaliation in the two international legal frameworks, they both recognize the retaliation action. The results of the study shows that the economic policies carried out by the United States are called trade remedies in the form of protestionism which aimed to minimize the negative impact of imports on domestic products. Furthermore, actions taken by China are one example of the remedial actions in the form of retaliation. WTO has a remedy mechanism which is divided into three types, namely: (a) the plaintiff withdraws or changes actions that are not in accordance with the WTO; (b) compensation; and (c) delaying concessions or commonly called retaliation.
E-Contract Dalam Perspektif Hukum Perdagangan Internasional Latifah, Emmy
Syiar Hukum Vol 9, No 3 (2007): Syiar Madani
Publisher : LPPM Unisba

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Perkembangan teknologi membawa efek signifikan terhadap sistem ekonomi global, terutama di bidang hukum perdagangan internasional. Hal itu juga dapat dilihat melalui pertumbuhan e-commerce dan e-contract dalam dunia maya. PBB merespon perkembangan tersebut dengan membuat UNCITRAL Model Law on E-Commerce pada tahun 1996 yang menjadi hal terpenting bagi masyarakat internasional
PERAN DAN KEDUDUKAN PETANI DALAM SISTEM PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL Imanullah, Moch Najib; Latifah, Emmy; Adistuti, Anugrah
Yustisia Jurnal Hukum Vol 5, No 1: JANUARY-APRIL 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Universitas Sebelas Maret

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20961/yustisia.v5i1.8720

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AbstractThis study aims to determine the role and position of farmer in the international trading system today. The development of the international trading system has an impact on the shift of food production system and food security policy which ultimately also has an impact on farmer’s role and position in the global market. Evolution of agricultural structures in any periodization provide a clear description of the role and position of farmers in every era to enter the globalization. The globalization era was shaping a more liberal market system so that the role and position of farmers is becoming increasingly difficult in the international trading system.Keywords: role, position, farmer, international trading system.AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran dan kedudukan petani dalam sistem perdagangan internasional dewasa ini. Perkembangan sistem perdagangan internasional berdampak pada pergeseran sistem produksi pangan dan kebijakan ketahanan pangan yang akhirnya juga berdampak pada peran dan kedudukan petani di pasar global. Evolusi struktur pertanian dalam setiap periodesasi memberikan gambaran yang jelas mengenai peran dan kedudukan petani pada setiap masanya hingga memasuki era globalisasi. Era globalisasi membentuk sistem pasar yang lebih liberal sehingga peran dan kedudukan petani menjadi semakin sulit dalam sistem perdagangan internasional.Kata kunci: peran, kedudukan, petani, sistem perdagangan internasional.
ANALISIS PEMBENTUKAN ASEAN CROSS BORDER INSOLVENCY REGULATION SEBAGAI SOLUSI PERMASALAHAN KEPAILITAN LINTAS BATAS DI ASEAN Damardjati, Respati; Latifah, Emmy; Sudarwanto, Al. Sentot
Jurnal Privat Law Vol 5, No 1 (2017): JANUARI-JUNI
Publisher : Fakultas Hukum Universitas Sebelas Maret

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20961/privat.v5i1.19368

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AbstractThis paper purposes to analize the idea for establishing ASEAN cross border insolvency regulation as a solution of cross-border insolvency problem in ASEAN. It is a legal research viewed from descriptive analytic. The result of this paper indicates that the absence of uniformity or harmonization of insolvency law in ASEAN region will inflict some problems which are relating to the procedure of recognition and enforcement of a foreign insolvency. The regulation as a solution of cross-border insolvency in the ASEAN region is expected to become a facilitator for resolving problems and reducing uncertainty in cross-border insolvency cases. ASEAN Cross Border Insolvency Regulations in the form of a model law is the right solution to solve the problems of cross-border insolvency in the ASEAN region.Keyword (s)  :       ASEAN, ASEAN Cross Border Insolvency Regulation, Cross Border InsolvencyAbstrakArtikel hukum ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis gagasan pembentukan ASEAN cross border insolvency regulation sebagai solusi permasalahan kepailitan lintas batas di ASEAN. Jenis penelitian hukum ini adalah penelitian hukum normatif yang bersifat deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tidak adanya keseragaman atau harmonisasi hukum kepailitan di kawasan ASEAN menimbulkan permasalahan yang berkaitan dengan prosedur pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan kepailitan asing. Kehadiran sebuah pengaturan hukum sebagai solusi dari permasalahan kepailitan lintas batas di kawasan ASEAN sangat diharapkan untuk dapat menjadi fasilitator dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan dan dapat mengurangi ketidakpastian dalam perkara kepailitan lintas batas. ASEAN Cross Border Insolvency Regulation berupa model law merupakan solusi yang tepat dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan kepailitan lintas batas di kawasan ASEAN.Kata Kunci  : ASEAN Cross Border Insolvency Regulation, Kepailitan Lintas Batas
CORPORATION AS THE ACTORS OF FISHERIES CRIME IN INDONESIA Retno Ningsih, Sri Dwi; Supanto, S.; Latifah, Emmy
Jurnal Dinamika Hukum Vol 18, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20884/1.jdh.2018.18.2.2067

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In Indonesia, the Corporation is already recognized as one of the perpetrators of criminal acts in a variety of specific criminal acts and regulations, including in the Fisheries Act. Article 1 paragraph (14) Act No. 31 of the year 2004 jo Act No. 45 of the year 2009 about fisheries States that every person is a person, the individual or Corporation. This research is normative juridical research. The approach used is statute approach.The results showed that in the theory of criminal law, there is some form of the position of the Corporation as the perpetrator of a criminal offence may be subject to iability. The purpose of this study is to examine how the legal position of the Corporation as the perpetrator of the criminal offence of fishing in Indonesia. This research is the normative legal research. The data used are secondary data, while data collection is done through the study of the literature. Data analysis techniques using the deductive approach of law and interpretation.Keywords: corporations, criminal act fisheries
Eksistensi Prinsip-prinsip Keadilan dalam Sistem Hukum Perdagangan Internasional Latifah, Emmy
PADJADJARAN Jurnal Ilmu Hukum (Journal of Law) Vol 2, No 1 (2015): PADJADJARAN Jurnal Ilmu Hukum (Journal of Law)
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Padjadjaran University

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Ide mengenai keadilan telah berkembang seiring perkembangan kehidupan manusia, paradigma, dan nilai-nilai yang dianutnya. Dengan demikian, keadilan dapat diartikan berbeda-beda tergantung pada siapa, kapan, dimana, dan dalam konteks apa keadilan dimaknai. Demikian pula halnya yang terjadi pada sistem hukum perdagangan internasional, prinsip keadilan pada sistem perdagangan internasional yang dilakukan di bawah aturan dan prosedur WTO telah memainkan peran yang penting, terutama dalam kaitannya dengan pendistribusian hak dan kewajiban yang bersifat fundamental dan cara menentukan pembagian keuntungan dari kerja sama sosial yang ada didalamnya. Dalam hal ini prinsip keadilan diperlukan dalam rangka menanyakan apakah keputusan sosial yang dihasilkan oleh WTO benar dan konsisten dengan nilai-nilai yang ada di dalamnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa prinsip keadilan yang terdapat dalam aturan WTO mengandung dua makna yaitu makna “the equality of opportunity” dan “keadilan distributif”. Equality of opportunity dapat diwujudkan apabila prinsip reciprocity (timbal balik) ditegakkan baik dalam hal pengurangan hambatan perdagangan, akses pasar, maupun penyelesaian sengketa. Keadilan distributif berarti bahwa perdagangan internasional merupakan sarana untuk mewujudkan hubungan dagang yang saling menguntungkan diantara negara anggota. The Existence of Principles of Justice in International Trade Law System AbstractThe notion of justice has evolved along with the development of human being, paradigms, and their values. Therefore, justice can be interpreted differently, depends on who, when, where, and in what context people define it. It is also the case for the international trade law system. The principle of justice in the international trading system, conducted under the rules and procedures of the WTO, has played an important role; especially in relation to the distribution of obligations and fundamental rights, and the distribution of benefit from social cooperation within. In this case, the principle of justice is needed in order to inquire whether WTO’s social decisions are proper and consistent with the values that exist within The results show that the principle of justice in the WTO rules contains two meanings: “the equality of opportunity” and “the distributive of justice”. The Equality of opportunity can be realized if the reciprocity principle in the context of the reduction of trade barriers, market access, and dispute settlement are enforced. Distributive justice means that international trade is a tool to achieve a mutually beneficial trade among members.Keywords: distributive justice, reciprocity principle, international trade law system, the equality of opportunity, WTO.DOI: https://doi.org/10.22304/pjih.v2n1.a5
Dampak Ketiadaan Pengaturan Kuota Ekspor Hiu Tikus (Alopias Ssp.) di Indonesia Hardiningsih, Wahyu; Purwadi, Hari; Latifah, Emmy
PADJADJARAN Jurnal Ilmu Hukum (Journal of Law) Vol 4, No 3 (2017): PADJADJARAN Jurnal Ilmu Hukum (Journal of Law)
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Padjadjaran University

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Kuota ekspor merupakan salah satu mekanisme perlindungan ekosistem laut. Banyaknya perburuan Ikan Hiu Tikus (Alopias Ssp.) di Indonesia saat ini karena permintaan pasar yang tinggi, khususnya dari luar negeri. Tingginya permintaan menyebabkan ikan jenis ini masuk ke dalam daftar Convention on International Trade in Endanger Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)  Appendiks II pada tahun 2016. Jika Ikan Hiu Tikus yang merupakan predator puncak pada rantai makanan di laut ini sampai terancam punah, maka ekosistem laut akan mengalami kerusakan parah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia belum memiliki perangkat hukum yang memadai terkait dengan penentuan komponen-komponen kuota ekspor Ikan Hiu, khususnya Ikan Hiu Tikus sebagaimana ketentuan yang diatur di dalam CITES. Keadaan ini menimbulkan dampak terhadap kelestarian Ikan Hiu Tikus itu sendiri, kepentingan masyarakat Indonesia, keberlangsungan lingkungan laut dan generasi yang memanfaatkannya, serta berdampak terhadap perdagangan internasional.The Consequencies of an Inexistence of Alopias Ssp Export Quota Regulation In Indonesia AbstractExport quota is one of mechanical ways to protect marine ecosystem. The huge number of Alopias Ssp. hunts has recently been caused by its international trade worldwide. Highly demands of Alopias Ssp. get this species to be listed on Convention on International Trade in Endanger Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)  Appendix II in 2016. When Alopias Ssp. as the top predator have been endangered, the marine ecosystem will come to a serious damage. Research shows that Indonesia does not have yet the regulation on components of export quota of Alopias Ssp. as it is regulated on CITES. This condition has affected the preservation of Alopias Ssp. itself, Indonesians’ interest, marine ecosystem sustainability and the generation taking the benefit of it, also international trade as well.DOI: https://doi.org/10.22304/pjih.v4n3.a9  
The Roles of International Law on Technological Advances Latifah, Emmy; Imanullah, Moch Najib
Brawijaya Law Journal Vol 5, No 1 (2018): Culture and Technological Influence in Regulation
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Universitas Brawijaya

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1238.13 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.blj.2018.005.01.07

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The study focuses on the roles of International Law in responding to the technological advances, particularly examining the International Law as a regulator on emerging technology. The technological advances, especially in the means and method of war and environmental issues, have been contributing to the development of International Law. It is a normative legal research using the secondary data including primary and secondary legal materials. While the primary legal materials consist of all the international agreement related to the development of technology both directly and indirectly, secondary ones included the references having correlation and support to the issues. The technique of analysis data used legal interpretation. The study concludes that as a regulator of technological advances, International Law has a role to play in regulating its development. Many facts showed that International Law has capability to respond to the challenges.  However, the scope and application of International Law is subject to a number of limitations inherent the nature of International Law itself.
PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE SEBAGAI LANDASAN DALAM MERUMUSKAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK Latifah, Emmy
Yustisia Jurnal Hukum Vol 5, No 2: MAY-AUGUST 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Universitas Sebelas Maret

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20961/yustisia.v5i2.8742

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AbstractThis study aims to explore on how to formulate and what should be considered in formulating the precautionary principle within public policy in order to generate appropriate and effective public policy. Precautionary principle is one of the important principles in International Law, particularly in International Environmental Law. This principle implies caution (prudence) in the face of new challenges, especially in the development of technology. Caution is not understood as an unwillingness to act or lack of courage to face new challenges, but on the contrary, the caution conduct is needed for the policy maker to make activity contain potential danger to the public butat the same time that danger is not understood  because Keywords: precautionary principle, public policy.AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi bagaimana cara merumuskan dan apa saja yang harus dipertimbangkan dalam merumuskan precautionary principle dalam kebijakan publik agar menghasilkan kebijakan publik yang tepat dan efektif. Precautionary principle menjadi salah satu prinsip yang penting di dalam perkembangan Hukum Internasional, khususnya Hukum Lingkungan Internasional. Prinsip ini mengandung makna kehati-hatian dalam menghadapi tantangan baru salah satunya berupa perkembangan teknologi. Sikap kehati-hatian ini bukan dipahami sebagai ketidakmauan untuk bertindak atau kurangnya keberanian untuk menghadapi tantangan baru, namun sebaliknya, sikap kehati-hatian bagi para perumus kebijakan publik diperlukan untuk membuat keputusan yang tepat mengenai suatu produk atau kegiatan khusus di mana di dalamnya terdapat kecurigaan bahwa produk atau kegiatan tersebut mengandung potensi bahaya bagi masyarakat luas namun di waktu yang sama bahaya tersebut belum dimengerti karena belum adanya bukti-bukti ilmiah.Kata kunci: precautionary principle, kebijakan publik. 
PERKEMBANGAN PENGATURAN PENGELOLAAN PERIKANAN BERKELANJUTAN BERDASARKAN HUKUM INTERNASIONAL Latifah, Emmy
Jurnal Bina Mulia Hukum Vol 1, No 2 (2017): Jurnal Bina Mulia Hukum
Publisher : Fakultas Hukum Universitas Padjadjaran

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AbstrakDewasa ini, kegiatan eksploitasi sumber daya ikan secara berlebihan menjadi salah satu ancaman terbesar bagi pengelolaan perikanan dunia. Perkembangan teknologi di bidang industri perikanan menjadi salah satu pemicunya. Oleh sebab itu, menjadi sangat relevan untuk mengetahui bagaimana Hukum Internasional mengatur mengenai pengelolaan perikanan ini sehingga aturan Hukum Internasional ini dapat digunakan sebagai pedoman bagi negara dalam mengelola perikanan di tingkat nasional. Artikel ini ditulis secara normatif. Data yang digunakan adalah data sekunder yang dikumpulkan melalui studi pustaka, terdiri dari bahan hukum primer, bahan hukum sekunder, dan bahan hukum tersier yang terkait dengan kelautan, perikanan dan pengelolaannya, serta konservasi laut. Teknik validasi data sekunder menggunakan metode kritik sumber, teknik analisis data menggunakan penafsiran hukum. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa pengaturan pengelolaan perikanan oleh Hukum Internasional mengalami perkembangan dari masa ke masa seiring dengan perkembangan manusia. Kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan, perkembangan teknologi, serta semakin besarnya kepentingan manusia terhadap sumber daya yang ada di laut merupakan beberapa faktor yang menjadikan pengelolaan perikanan perlu diatur bersama bangsa-bangsa di dunia dalam rangka menciptakan keadilan melalui instrumen hukum internasional, baik yang bersifat hard law maupun soft law. Kata kunci: hard law, hukum internasional, perikanan berkelanjutan, pengelolaan perikanan, soft law.  AbstractNowadays, overfishing is one of the most serious threats to the global fisheries management. Technological advances in fishing industry have became one of its trigger. Therefore, it is extremely relevant to examine to what extent International Law have regulated this matter so that its rules could be used as a guidelines for countries to manage the fisheries at national level. It is a normative legal research. The data were secondary ones that collected through study literature. Secondary data consisted of primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials which related to marine fisheries and its management, as well as marine conservation. The techniques of secondary data validation used source criticism method, while data analysis techniques used legal interpretation. The results showed that fishing activity is one of the oldest human activities. Fisheries management by International Law has developed from time to time in line with the development of man himself. The advances of science, technological developments, as well as the growing human interest against existing resources in the sea are several factors that make fishery management need to be arranged with the nations of the world in order to create justice through international legal instruments, both hard law and soft law.Keywords: fisheries management, hard law, international law, soft law, sustainable fisheries.DOI : https://doi.org/10.23920/jbmh.v1n2.13