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Safety Evaluation of Chicken Satay In Yogyakarta Indonesia Based on Benzo[A]Pyrene Content Irnanda, Khairunissa; Meiftasari, Argandita; Nagadi, Standie; Lukitaningsih, Endang
Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Chicken  satay  is  one  of  Indonesian  food  which  is  very  popular  and  processed  by direct  flame  over  the  meat.  But,  almost  every  types  of  food  which  are  prepared  by  direct flame  will  produce  chemical  compounds  that  contributes  to  the  incidence  of  cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a group of compound which can cause cancer and is  resulted  from  the  incomplete  combustion  of  fossil  fuels  or  pyrolysis  of  organic  material containing  carbon  and  hydrogen  atoms.  One  PAH  compound  having  mutagenic  and  highly carcinogenic  effect  is  benzo[a]pyrene  which  is  the  highest  content  found  in  foods  that  are burned directly on the flame. This study aims to establish levels of benzo[a]pyrene contained in  chicken  satay  in  Yogyakarta,  Indonesia  and  to  evaluate  how  it  meets  with  the maximumbenzo[a]pyrene  limit  in  the  burned  food  based  on  National  Agency  of  Drug  and Food  Control  which  is  equal  to  5  ppb  (5  mg/kg).  Analysis  were  performed  by  Gas Chromatography  method  using  helium  as  carrier  gas  and  CPCB-Sil8  as  stationary  phase. After  the  sample  was  prepared  and  analysed  by  GC,  it  is  known  that  the  amount  of benzo[a]pyrene in chicken satay found in Yogyakarta are ranging from 2.5 to 393.32 ppb. The result are quite high and far  above the safety limit determined by  National Agency of Drug and Food Control.Therefore, the result of the research needs to be socialized to the public so that people can be more aware about the danger of food they consume.Keywords: chicken  satay,  benzo[a]pyrene  (BaP),  policyclic  aromatic  hidrocarbon  (PAH), carsinogen, Yogyakarta
PHYTOSTEROL CONTENT IN BENGKOANG (Pachyrhizus erosus) Lukitaningsih, Endang
Pharmacon Vol 13, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Pharmacon

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Abstract

Bengkoang has long been used by ancestors as a raw material for cosmetics. In Indonesia, it is usually eaten raw, sometimes with salt, lemon juice and powdered chili. However, scientific evidences that support the use of bengkoang have not been widely published. Phytosterols from the bengkoang root have been isolated and identified based on their NMR spectrum data and mass spectrum. The result of the structure elucidation informed that ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol are major components of phytosterol in bengkoang root. Phytosterol content was about 0.02% of dry weight bengkoang or 2.76 % in petroleum ether extract of bengkoang, with a ratio of ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol (65:35). Therefore, bengkoang can be further exploited as a raw material of phytosterol supplement.
KAJIAN GLISEMIK INDEKS DAN MAKRONUTRIEN DARI UMBI-UMBIAN DALAM UPAYA PENCARIAN SUMBER PANGAN Lukitaningsih, Endang
Pharmacon Vol 13, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Pharmacon

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Abstract

Dewasa ini, di Indonesia eksplorasi untuk mencari bahan pangan alternatif pengganti beras masih terus dilakukan. Kandungan makronutrien dan kajian glisemik indeks dari umbi ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr.), walur (Amorphophallus variabilis), porang (Amorphophallus Oncophyllus Prain), suweg (Amorphophallus campanulatus Bl ) dan uwi (Dioscorea alata L.) telah dilakukan pada penelitian ini dan bertujuan untuk memberikan dasar ilmiah pemilihan pangan alternatif, terutama bagi penderita diabetes mellitus dan obesitas. Pengukuran kandungan makronutrien meliputi kandungan karbohidrat mereduksi dan tidak mereduksi, protein dan serat dilakukan mengacu pada metode AOAC (1990), sedangkan glisemik indeks ditetapkan secara in vivo menggunakan hewan percobaan tikus jantan galur Wistar. Glisemik indeks sampel umbi-umbian seluruhnya lebih rendah dari glisemik indeks beras (72,8). Harga glisemik indeks sangat dipengaruhi oleh kandungan serat, sedangkan pengaruh kandungan karbohidrat terhadap harga glisemik indeks tidak dapat diamati. Walur dan porang memiliki kandungan serat yang besar, yaitu masing-masing 15,09% dan 11,27%, sedangkan harga glisemik indeks masing-masing sekitar 20,6 dan 16,9. Kata kunci: glisemik indeks, makronutrien, karbohidrat, serat, protein 
ANALISIS AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KANDUNGAN ANTOSIANIN TOTAL EKSTRAK DAN LIPOSOM KELOPAK BUNGA ROSELLA (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) Juniarka, I Gede Agus; Lukitaningsih, Endang; Noegrohati, Sri
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 16, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (706.251 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ16iss3pp%p

Abstract

Formulasi bentuk liposom merupakan salah satu cara yang diaplikasikan untuk mengatasi keterbatasan stabilitas antosianin dalam ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) yang mudah rusak oleh faktor lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan dan kandungan total antosianin ekstrak dan bentuk liposom kelopak bunga rosella. Pembuatan ekstrak dilakukan dengan maserasi bertingkat dengan metanol:asam format (97:3) sebagai cairan penyari yang paling baik dari segi rendemen (26,40% b/b) dan aktivitas antioksidan (uji hambatan DPPH) yang dihasilkan (19,991% + 0,001) bila dibandingkan terhadap hasil maserasi menggunakan kombinasi pelarut etanol, metanol, dan akuades. Liposom dibuat dari ekstrak metanol kelopak bunga rosella dengan metode fase terbalik. Hasil uji stabilitas dengan penyimpanan selama 30 hari pada suhu rendah (0-50C) dalam wadah jenuh nitrogen menujukkan penurunan 11,25% aktivitas antioksidan (uji DPPH) bentuk ekstrak, sedangkan bentuk liposom hanya mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,93%. Demikian pula pada stabilitas kandungan antosianin total, dimana ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella mengalami penurunan sebesar 39,12% sedangkan bentuk liposom hanya mengalami penuruanan 0,72%. Lebih lanjut, hasil uji iritasi menunjukkan bentuk liposom memiliki iritasi yang lebih rendah dibandingkan bentuk ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella. Oleh karena itu, disimpulkan bahwa antosianin terenkapsulasi liposom lebih stabil, efektif, dan aman bila dibandingkan dengan bentuk ekstrak metanol kelopak bunga rosella.
SKRINING IN SILICO SENYAWA AKTIF BENGKOANG (Pachyrrhizus erosus) SEBAGAI ANTITIROSINASE PADA Aspergillus oryzae (STUDI KOMPUTASIONAL DENGAN HOMOLOGY MODELING DAN MOLECULAR DOCKING) Lukitaningsih, Endang; Wisnusaputra, Aditya; Sudarmanto, B. S. Ari
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 20, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Bengkoang has been widely used in the cosmetics industry as a whitening agent. Based on research by Lukitaningsih (2009), bengkoang contains 6 active compounds that  acts as a inhibitors of the Aspergillus oryzae (TyrAo) tyrosinase enzyme. However, the interaction between the active compounds in bengkoang and the enzyme tyrosinase has not been known yet. Interaction between bengkoangs active compounds and TyrAo enzyme can be identified by computational studies (in silico). The interaction is conducted using homology modeling and molecular docking. Homology modeling performed to design a three-dimensional (3D) model of Aspergillus oryzae tyrosinase enzyme (TyrAo) using a template form of known 3D structure of TyrAb enzyme (PDBID: 2Y9X). TyrAo model used as target macromolecules in molecular docking method. Molecular docking method is a method to describe ligand (active compounds) position on the active receptor (TyrAo model). Based on the docking results, it is known that residues interacting on the active site of tyrosinase enzyme were Thr275 and His294 residues. The Thr275 made a hydrogen bonding, while the His294 residue made a hydrophobic interaction on the aromatic ring. Experiments in silico and in vitro have been done; the results exhibited a good correlation of them with R2 value of -0.8366. This correlation indicates that the activity of the active compounds in Bengkoang was similar with the results of them in silico and in vitro studies.
INDEK GLIKEMIK UWI, GADUNG DAN TALAS YANG DIBERIKAN PADA TIKUS Sari, Ika Puspita; Lukitaningsih, Endang; Rumiyati, Rumiyati; Setiawan, Irfan Muris
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 18, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (154.68 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/mot-TradMedJ18iss3pp127-131

Abstract

Indonesia kaya akan umbi lokal yang semakin hari semakin dilupakan oleh generasi sekarang sebagai sumber bahan pangan yang sehat. Seiring dengan makin meningkatnya penyakit degeneratif terkait tingginya asupan glukosa, perlu digali kembali kekayaan lokal umbi-umbian dan pembuktian kandungan karbohidrat sehat di dalamnya yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pangan di masa depan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui indek glikemik (IG)  umbi-umbian yang diberikan secara oral pada tikus. Umbi yang diteliti antara lain, Uwi (Dioscorea alata), Gadung (Dioscorea hispida) dan Talas (Colocasia esculenta). Tikus dikelompokkan menjadi 9 kelompok masing-masing terdiri 4 ekor. Umbi diberikan dalam bentuk serbuk yang disuspensikan ke dalam Na CMC 0,1%  dengan dosis 2,5 g/kg berat badan (BB), kontrol positif berupa glukosa pemberian oral dosis 2,5 g/kg BB. Dilakukan pengambilan sampel darah hewan uji pada jam ke 0 (sebelum pemberian senyawa uji atau kontrol), 0,5; 1 dan jam ke-2 setelah pemberian senyawa uji.  Serum darah selanjutnya ditetapkan kadar glukosanya menggunakan GOD-PAP kit. Data berupa kadar glukosa darah hewan uji versus waktu dianalisis menjadi Area Under Curve (AUC) kadar glukosa versus waktu (0-2 jam). Perhitungan IG dilakukan dengan membandingkan AUC (0-2jam) senyawa uji terhadap AUC (0-2jam) glukosa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketiga umbi yang diteliti memiliki nilai IG rendah (14-22). Umbi lokal dapat dikembangkan sebagai sumber karbohidrat yang sehat.
Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Panaceus merquensis and Calappa flammea in south sea water Jogjakarta Lukitaningsih, Endang; Sudarmanto, B.S. Ari; Primadesa, Lina
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Vol 15 No 3, 2004
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (282.515 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp110-117

Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic chemicals, composed of fused benzene rings, occurred in the environment due to incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Health concerns are focused on the metabolite transformation of PAHs, which is carcinogenic, mutagenic and terratogenic. Due to their hydrophobicity in aquatic environment, PAHs are accumulated to the more lipophilic ecocompartments such as biolipid tissues and sediments, so PAHs can be distributed through food chain system. In this research, five kinds of PAHs (i.e. pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benz(k)fluoranthene, benz(a)pyrene and perylene) in shrimps (Panaceus merquensis) and crabs (Calappa flammea) collected from the south sea beach water system at Jogjakarta were investigated. PAHs analysis were worked out by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. It can be shown from this research that PAHs accumulate into each biota.The results showed that bioacumulation factor value of total PAHs in shrimp and crab are 2388.33-23486.54 and 13870.92-96078 respectively. The logarithmic value of bioacumulation factor of total PAHs in shrimp and crab are 3.378-4.371 and 4.142-4.983 respectively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation, the level of PAHs concentration in water sample is safe.Key words : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bioacumulation, shrimp (Panaceus merquensis) and crab (Calappa flammea)
PHYTOSTEROL CONTENT IN BENGKOANG (Pachyrhizus erosus) Lukitaningsih, Endang
Pharmacon: Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

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Abstract

Bengkoang has long been used by ancestors as a raw material for cosmetics. In Indonesia, it is usually eaten raw, sometimes with salt, lemon juice and powdered chili. However, scientific evidences that support the use of bengkoang have not been widely published. Phytosterols from the bengkoang root have been isolated and identified based on their NMR spectrum data and mass spectrum. The result of the structure elucidation informed that ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol are major components of phytosterol in bengkoang root. Phytosterol content was about 0.02% of dry weight bengkoang or 2.76 % in petroleum ether extract of bengkoang, with a ratio of ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol (65:35). Therefore, bengkoang can be further exploited as a raw material of phytosterol supplement.
STUDI KELARUTAN PROPAGERMANIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KINERJA TINGGI Putranti, Widyasari; Martodihardjo, Suwaldi; Lukitaningsih, Endang
Pharmaciana Vol 4, No 2 (2014): Pharmaciana
Publisher : Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (179.217 KB) | DOI: 10.12928/pharmaciana.v4i2.1569

Abstract

Propagermanium, a synthetic organic compound of germanium is known as β- or biscarboxyethylgermaniumsesquioxide or Ge-132. It is found in some plants such as shelf fungus,ginseng, garlic, and Aloe vera. Ge-132 plays an important role for the pharmacological effectsof the plants. The solubility of propagermanium at a certain pH is not exactly known yet. Untilnow, the analytical methods for the analysis of Ge-132 so far have the shortcoming and thepropagermanium as germanium metal in the sample, so that improvement for propagermaniumanalysis was necessary to be conducted, primarily to be used for solubility assay. This studyaims to determine the effects of pH on the propagermanium solubility using HPLC method foranalysis. The results showed that validation parameters for analysis by using HPLC method e.iaccuracy, precision, and linearity, have met to the quantitative analysis requirements. Increasingthe pH causes increasing the solubility of propagermanium in the pH range of 3.0-3.6. Thesolubility result was 9.8514; 10.4204; 12.5446 mg/mL on pH 3.0; 3.3; 3.6.
PENGARUH SUHU STERILISASI TERHADAP PENYERAPAN LARUTAN D-MANITOL SEDIAAN PARENTERAL DENGAN PENGEMAS PLASTIK LOW DENSITY POLYETHILENE Lukitaningsih, Endang; Mufrod, .; Bustomi, Tomy
JFIOnline | Print ISSN 1412-1107 | e-ISSN 2355-696X Vol 3, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Plastic can cause some problems, especially in parenteral product. Main disadvantage of using plastic container is  plastic has capability to absorp many compounds which in solution. Furthermore, it can cause decreasing of drug concentration which having an effect on efficacious of drug. This research aims to know the influence of autoclave sterilitation process and Low Density Polyethilene (LDPE) plastic container to decreasing of D-Manitol concentration in parenteral dosage form. Beside that, the other purpose is searching sterilization temperature which have high safety and effectivity. The research includes making D-Manitol 20% solution and then determination of its concentration. After that, the D-Manitol solution is divided into two groups. One group is as control solution (without plastic LDPE) and another group is as sample (with plastic LDPE). Then, both of solutions are strerilized at three temperature programs (100°C, 102°C, 105°C). The results show that sterilization by autoclave and plastic presence in D-Manitol solution can cause concentration D-Manitol decreasing. The decreasing of D-Manitol concentration is not more than 5%, so that it is accepted in accordance with rule of Indonesian Pharmacope 4th edition. The best condition of sterilization is 100°C temperature during 45 minutes. ABSTRAK Plastik dapat menimbulkan masalah, terutama dalam sediaan parenteral. Kerugian utama penggunaan pengemas plastik adalah plastik mempunyai kemampuan untuk menyerap banyak komponen dalam larutan sediaan. Selanjutnya dapat mengakibatkan berkurangnya kadar obat yang berpengaruh pada kemanjuran obat tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu sterilisasi autoklaf dan bahan pengemas plastik Low Density Polyethilene (LDPE) terhadap penurunan kadar larutan D-Manitol sediaan parenteral (Injeksi D-Manitol). Di samping itu bertujuan untuk mencari suhu sterilisasi yang paling aman dan efektif. Penelitian meliputi pembuatan larutan D-Manitol 20% kemudian dilakukan penetapan kadar awal. Larutan dibagi menjadi dua kelompok untuk kontrol (tanpa plastik LDPE) dan sampel (dengan penambahan plastik LDPE), kemudian disterilisasi pada tiga paket suhu (100°C, 102°C, 105°C). Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan sterilisasi dengan autoklaf menggunakan variasi suhu pada larutan D-manitol tanpa penambahan plastik dan dengan penambahan plastik menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan kadar D-Manitol. Besarnya penurunan kadar D-Manitol tidak lebih dari 5%, sehingga masih dapat diterima berdasarkan Farmakope Indonesia IV. Suhu sterilisasi 100°C selama 45 menit merupakan kondisi sterilisasi yang paling efektif dan aman.
Co-Authors -, Ariyanti -, Sutriyanto Abdul Rohman Abdul Rohman Aditya Wisnusaputra Aditya Wisnusaputra, Aditya Ag. Yuswanto Ag. Yuswanto Akhmad Kharis Nugroho Alfat Fadri Amalia Miranda Amanita K. Hana Andi Nur Aisyah Annisa Novarina Ardian Widyatmoko Argandita Meiftasari Ari Sudarmanto Ari Sudarmanto Arief Nurrochmad Ariyanti - B. S. Ari Sudarmanto Bustomi, Tomy Bustomi, Tomy Devyanto Hadi Triutomo Dirman, Arifin Dwi Hastutik Etty Sulistyowati Hilda Ismail, Hilda I Gede Agus Juniarka I Gede Agus Juniarka, I Gede Agus Ika Puspita Sari Ika Puspita Sari Ika Puspitasari Indah Purwantini Indah Tri Nugraha Irfan Muris Setiawan Khairunissa Irnanda Kurnianto, Rifki Wahyu La Ode Muhammad Andi Zulbayu Laeli Muntafi'ah Lina Primadesa, Lina Lisa Andina Lora Johana Tamba Lucky Octavianus Saputra M, Suwaldi Marwati Marwati Melania Perwitasari, Melania Meti Christiana Mufrod, . Mufrod, . Muhammad Bahi Muhammad Bahi Muhammad Fahrurrozi Mustanir Mustanir Mutia Kusuma Wardani Nanang Fakhrudin, Nanang Noegrohati, Sri Pudjono Pudjono Purwantiningsih Purwantiningsih Purwantiningsih Radilla Mutia Ragil S. Dianingati Rahmawati, Adillah Ratih Kurnia Wardani Ratna Asmah Susidarti Ratna Budhi Pebriana Revita Saputri Rochmadi Rochmadi Rumiyati Rumiyati Rumiyati Rumiyati Rumiyati Rumiyati Rumiyati Rumiyati Rumiyati Rumiyati Salsabila Yusfita Fawzy Samsul Hadi Samsul Hadi Sekar Ayu Pawestri Sekar Ayu Pawestri Siti Mufidatul Khasanah Sri Noegrohati Sri Noegrohati Standie Nagadi Subagus Wahyuono Subagus Wahyuono Sudarmanto, B.S. Ari Sudarmanto, Bambang Sulistyo Ari Sudibyo Martono Sugeng Riyanto Sugeng Riyanto Suwaldi . Suwaldi M Suwaldi Martodihardjo Syamsu Nur Syamsu Nur Ulrike Holzgrabe Widyasari Putranti Wirasti, Wirasti Wiwik Supriati