Ratno Lukito
Sunan State Islamic University, Yogyakarta

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Law and Politics in Post Independence Indonesia: A Case Study of Religious and Adat Courts Lukito, Ratno
Studia Islamika Vol 6, No 2 (1999): Studia Islamika
Publisher : Center for Study of Islam and Society (PPIM) Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3984.39 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v6i2.731

Abstract

This paper will address the development of Indonesian law in the post-independence era. In the following pages, this paper will demonstrate that changes in the country's political climate affected born the Islamic and adat (customary) courts,in spire of the inflexibility with which both legal traditions had weathered the political upheavals of the first half of the century. To this end, the place of both adat and religious courts in post-independence Indonesia will be analyzed in light of this political change. Two major avenues of investigation will be discussed. The first explains the debate between "pluralist" and "uniformist" groups regarding legal development in the young Republic of Indonesia, while the second discusses contentions between the so-called "secular nationalists" and "Muslims". The discussion provided in these sections is intended to provide a basis for understanding the legal controversies which unavoidably arose as a result of the shift from a colonial to a narional legal philosophy.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v6i2.731
Islamisation as Legal Intolerance: The Case of GARIS in Cianjur, West Java Lukito, Ratno
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 54, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2016.542.393-425

Abstract

In its endeavour, Islamization projects done by some Muslim organisations in Indonesia can lead to certain treats of intolerance, especially to those rejecting the missions wrought about in the movements. Using qualitative approach, this paper tries to analyse the legal Islamization programs undertaken by Gerakan Reformis Islam (GARIS) in Cianjur, West Java, since their inception in early 2001 and its inclination to various intolerant attitudes towards others. The movement of Islamization is probed on the basis of the three main GARIS projects, namely, reviewing the draft of Indonesian penal law, engaging contra-Christianization movements and the struggle against Ahmadiyah. Describing the movement, one will see how the idea of legal Islamization is carefully and persistently moulded in the field to make it so fluid and adequate to accomplish a purpose. What seems appearing in this phenomenon is not a theoretical legal quandary but more a political one, as legal Islamization is in its practice more sensed as a political movement than that of law.[Dalam praktiknya, gerakan Islamisasi yang dilakukan oleh beberapa organisasi Islam di Indonesia dapat memunculkan tindakan intoleransi, utamanya hal itu menimpa mereka yang menolak gerakan tersebut. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, paper ini berusaha untuk menganalisis program-program Islamisasi hukum yang dilakukan oleh Gerakan Reformis Islam (GARIS) di Cianjur, Jawa Barat sejak mula berdirinya organisasi ini di awal 2001 dan kecenderungannya kepada perilaku intoleransi kepada kelompok lain. Gerakan Islamisasi dari GARIS ini dikaji berdasarkan pada tiga program mereka yang paling utama yaitu: usulan perbaikan terhadap draf amandemen hukum pidana Indonesia, gerakan perlawanan terhadap kristenisasi, dan perlawanan terhadap kelompok Ahmadiyah. Melalui kajian yang mendalam terhadap organisasi ini, kita dapat melihat bagaimana program Islamisasi hukum tersebut dilakukan dengan kesungguhan di lapangan sehingga dapat meraih hasil sesuai dengan yang dicanangkan. Apa yang dapat kita lihat dari fenomena ini sejatinya bukanlah pergumulan teori hukum namun lebih sebagai perhelatan politik, karena pada praktiknya gerakan Islamisasi hukum itu lebih menonjol sisi gerakan politiknya ketimbang hukumnya.]
Leveling the Unleveled? Syariah Advocates’ Struggle for Equality in Indonesian Legal Pluralism Lukito, Ratno
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 49, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2011.491.87-117

Abstract

One of the ongoing problems faced by many Syariah advocates in Indonesia is how they can maintain their important role in the practice of law in the midst of the domination of common advocates. They are always trapped in double burden in concern of their position. On one side, they are challenged with the long historical inequality of educational access between religious (Islamic) groups and secular groups, while on the other, they have to deal with the problem of being part of Muslim society with a legal culture where Islamic  law is commonly viewed as irreconcilable with secular legal traditions. This paper specifically discusses the role played by the Association of Indonesian Syariah Advocates (Asosiasi Pengacara Syariah Indonesia, APSI) in their struggle to assert equality between Syariah advocates and common advocates. It shows that although APSI has successfully attracted attention from the state and public in general, the interest shown by Syariah faculties remains even relatively low. Embedded traditional culture of studying Islamic law in many Syariah faculties seems to have influenced their attention towards APSI. Yet, with inclusive approaches in expanding the institution, APSI can attract many advocates, not only from Muslim law graduates but from those of non-Muslims as well.
Religious ADR: Mediation in Islamic Family Law Tradition Lukito, Ratno
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 44, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2006.442.325-346

Abstract

Mediasi adalah salah satu metode resolusi konflik yang banyak menjadi kajian dalam studi Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), atau Resolusi Konflik Alternatif). Kelebihan dari teori ini terletak pada metodenya yang sepenuhnya menyerahkan proses resolusi tersebut kepada para pihak yang sedang konflik. Mediator dengan demikian sekadar memfasilitasi proses resolusi tersebut agar berjalan dengan baik. Keputusan akhir tetap berada pada para pihak yang berkonflik. Namun begitu, selama ini kajian mengenai mediasi ini tidak pernah melibatkan nilai-nilai agama. Sistem ilmu mengenai hal ini lahir dari masyarakat sekuler sehingga dilihat sebagai subjek yang terpisah dari kajian agama. Penulis berpendapat bahwa sejatinya banyak nilai-nilai yang sudah ditawarkan oleh agama terkait mediasi ini. Islam sebagai contoh telah menawarkan metode mediasi sebagai salah satu sarana dalam pencapaian perdamaian, khususnya dalam hal konflik keluarga. Dalam tulisan ini penulis mendeskripsikan tentang teori umum mediasi dalam sistem keilmuan ADR dan kemudian menghubungkannya dengan tradisi mediasi dalam masyarakat Islam yang diambil dari Quran 4:35. Dalam argumentasinya penulis mengemukakan bahwa interpretasi terhadap ayat tersebut dengan menggunakan teori-teori mediasi modern sangat penting untuk dilakukan, sehingga implementasi teori mediasi Islam dapat lebih ditingkatkan efektifitasnya.
Wali as an Agent of Women in Islamic Marriage Law: Maliki School as a Basis for Reinterpretation Lukito, Ratno
Musawa Jurnal Studi Gender dan Islam Vol. 5 No. 2 (2007)
Publisher : Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University & The Asia Foundation

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/musawa.2007.52.191-209

Abstract

Artikel ini menkusikan masalah wali nikah, khususnya menurut mazhab Maliki. Apabila dicermati, wali nikah, yang hatus laki-laki, daiam parulangan mazhab Maliki ini pada dasamya tidak dimaksudkan mensubordinasi otonomi dan hak perempuan, karena secara tegas mereka menyatakan bahwa wali tidak harus bapak atau keluarga laki-laki, tetapi calon mempelai perempuan dapat juga menyerahkan perwaliannya kepada hakim, apabila wali menolak untuk  menikahkannya. Karena itu, fungsi wali nikah dalam mazhab Maliki adalah lebih sebagai wakil (agent) dari calon mempelai perempuan untuk memastikan terwujudnya tujuan perlawinan. Adanya konsep wali nikah daiam mazhab Maliki, dengan demikian, pada dasamya diformulasi untuk membantu calon mempelai, baik laki-laki maupun perempuan, untuk mendapatkan perkawinan yang bahagia, tentu saja dengan cara yang sesuai dengan konteks ketika itu. Dengan perkembangan masyarakat dan bentuk keluarga saat ini, masalah perwalian daiam nikah ini perlu direinterpretasi sesuai dengan konteks masa sekarang, dan reinterpretasi tersebut bisa berangkat dari ide dasar dan nilai yang terkandung dari konsep wali nikah mazhab Maliki ini.
The Politics of Syariatisation in Indonesia: MMI and GARIS' struggle for Islamic Law Lukito, Ratno
Studia Islamika Vol 28, No 2 (2021): Studia Islamika
Publisher : Center for Study of Islam and Society (PPIM) Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.36712/sdi.v28i2.15819

Abstract

This paper addresses the deficiency of the doctrinal approach in Islamic legal studies. There is an emergent need to comprehend Islamic law from the standpoint of its practical aspects: that is, how the law is intended to produce certain results, whether it gives expected results, and whether an identifiable result is consistent with the reason for the law as one might have expected. This paper examines the discourse of legal Islamization from the perspective of its practical aspects, that is, how the idea is developed, campaigned, and impregnated in Muslim societies. A study of the organizations Majlis Mujahidin Indonesia (MMI) and Gerakan Reformis Islam (Garis) shows that both groups had different concerns. While MMI focused on the theoretical legal system, Garis was more concerned with the practical realm of law; yet the two are the same in orientation as they are both concerned with how everyday life is regulated for Muslims.
Legal Pluralism within The Space of Sharia: Interlegality of Criminal Law Traditions in Aceh, Indonesia Sumardi, Dedy; Lukito, Ratno; Ichwan, Moch Nur
Samarah: Jurnal Hukum Keluarga dan Hukum Islam Vol 5, No 1 (2021)
Publisher : Islamic Family Law Department, Sharia and Law Faculty, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22373/sjhk.v5i1.9303

Abstract

This article aims to analyze various legal traditions working within the implementation of Islamic law after special autonomy in Aceh. Although Aceh's legal system follows the national legal system derived from civil law, diverse legal traditions still exist. The scope of this study is limited to the interaction of Aceh's legal traditions by taking the construction of juvenile and immoral criminal law and describing the social authorities who also operate the legal tradition to the parties in the case. This study presents the results using a case study model. Data obtained from interviews and documentation, analyzed using an interlegality approach. Based on the results of data analysis, it was found that the dialectic of legal traditions is determined by the role of actors acting as companions for victims to ensure that the rights of victims are not neglected. The traditions of Islamic law, customary law, and laws for protecting women and children are used interchangeably. The effort to combine these three legal traditions was carried out to obtain justice and guarantee the fulfillment of the victim's civil rights, such as the right to continue education, to relieve the trauma caused by the psychological pressure. The amalgamation of legal traditions in Aceh is an effective way to achieve justice for women and children and the construction of new laws to develop a national legal system that favors the interests of victims.