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PENGARUH BAHAN AKTIVATOR PADA PEMBUATAN KARBON AKTIF TEMPURUNG KELAPA Setiawati, Evi; Suroto, Suroto
Jurnal Riset Industri Hasil Hutan Vol 2, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Kementerian Perindustrian

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Abstract

Penelitian mengenai pengaruh bahan aktivator pada pembuatan karbon aktif dari tempurung kelapa untuk keperluan industri telah dilakukan. Tempurung kelapa dibersihkan dan dipotong – potong, dan dikarbonisasi pada suhu 6000C selama 4 jam, lalu diayak dengan ukuran 30-60 mesh. Arang hasil karbonisasi direndam pada larutan NaCl, NaOH, H2SO4 sebagai bahan aktivator masing – masing dengan variasi konsentrasi sebesar 5%, 10%, 15%, dan 20%, selanjutnya arang diaktivasi pada suhu 5000C. Sifat yang diuji adalah kadar air, kadar abu, bagian yang hilang pada pemanasan 9500C, dan daya serap iodium. Hasil uji statistik menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi berbagai bahan aktivator berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap karakter karbon yang dihasilkan. Hasil terbaik diperoleh dari tempurung kelapa yang direndam dengan bahan aktivator NaCl 20% dengan karakter sebagai berikut: kadar air 4,88%, kadar abu 3,54%, bagian yang hilang pada pemanasan 9500C 14,63%, dan daya serap iodium 761,07 mg/g.
KAJIAN PENGARUH WARNA DAN JARAK LAMPU PENGAMAN TERHADAP HASIL RADIOGRAF Setiyono, Setiyono; Azam, M.; Setiawati, Evi
BERKALA FISIKA Vol 12, No 1 (2009): Berkala Fisika
Publisher : BERKALA FISIKA

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Abstract

The study of influence of distance, time and color for safety lamp filter variation to radiograph has been done.  The research used blue sensitive film and green sensitive, type ­-X ray, film. The research was conducted by illuminating film with safety lamp red, yellow, green and blue color filter. The type of filter was red acrylic riddle and glass which was layered in red, yellow, green and blue scot light. The variation of irradiating distance between safety lamp with film was 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm, 50 cm, 60 cm, 70 cm, 80 cm, 90 cm, 100 cm and variation of time is 10 second, 15 second, 20 second, 25 second, 30 second, 35 second, 40 second, 45 second, 50 second, 55 second, and 60 second. Respectualy measurement of irradiating resulted used measuring densitometer instrument. The result of research give an illustration that variation of distance, variation of time and color of safety lamp filter influence the radiograph.  The greater distance caused the fog result becomes smaller.  The longer time caused the fog result becomes bigger.  To red acrylic filter, the fog that resulted exceed the tolerance limit is more than 0,2, but for glass filter that layered red scot light is not more than tolerance limit. Keyword: Radiograph, Blue sensitive film, Green sensitive film, Fog, Scot light.
Sifat Optis Tak-Linear Pada Material KDP Setyawan, Rahmadi; Setiawati, Evi; Marhaendrajaya, Indras; Firdausi, K. Sofjan
BERKALA FISIKA Vol 11, No 3 (2008): Berkala Fisika
Publisher : BERKALA FISIKA

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Abstract

Non-linier optical properties of transparent material Kalium Di- hydrogen Phosphate (KDP) have been identified under the influence of external magnetic fields at wavelength 632.8 nm and 532 nm by using Faraday Effect method. The external  magnetic fields used in this experiment is produced from coils with total turns of 810, wire diameter of 0,8 mm, and soft magnet core, and is flowed by maximum AC current 5 A. The magnitude of magnetic fields can be produced is 194.23 mT. The optical property measured here is rotation of polarization angle ß of the laser beam after passed the transparent material. From the experiment, it is obtained Verdet’s constant value for transparent material KDP is (12.60 ± 0.59) min/G-cm at  = 632.8 nm and (14.93 ± 0.73) min/G-cm at  = 532 nm.   Key words: non-linier optic, KDP, magnetic fields, polarization, Verdet’s constant
PENENTUAN CT DOSE INDEX (CTDI) UNTUK VARIASI SLICE THICKNESS DENGAN PROGRAM DOSXYZNRC Andriani, Intan; Anam, Choirul; Setiawati, Evi
BERKALA FISIKA Vol 15, No 3 (2012): Berkala Fisika
Publisher : BERKALA FISIKA

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The calculation of CT dose and CTDI has been done by using DOSXYZnrc software. Two kinds of phantoms have been used, i.e air and PMMA phantoms. The volume of phantoms 16 x 16x 16 cm3. The simulation carried out at 120 kV and the particles source 106. The calculation ofdose at the mid of phantom at the z axis, every voxel 0,2 x 0,2 x 0.2 mm3. The  variation of slicethickness were 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm. The dosages at every point then were plotted tofind out dose profile, and then were integrated to find out the CTDI. It was obtained that the peakvalue  on the air phantom has a higher value than the PMMA phantom. In the air phantom at theslice thickness of 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm were 68.28%, 80.49%, 90.91%, 99.86%. Whilein PMMA were 63.68%, 77.42%, 89.32%, 100%. At the penumbral region, it was obtained thatdosage at the PMAA phantom has a higher than the air phantom. CTDI from the PMAA phantomwas 212.50% and the air phantom was 184%. It was obtained that CTDI independent of slicethickness at the range 5-20 cm.Keywords: DOSXYZnrc, Slice thickness, CTDI
Rekontruksi Citra Tomografi Sinar-X Flouresens 2D Berbasis Teknik Radiografi Digital Menggunakan Bahasa Pemrograman Matlab 7.1 M.Si, Sumariyah; Muhlisin, Zainul; Setiawati, Evi
BERKALA FISIKA Vol 13, No 4 (2010): Berkala Fisika
Publisher : BERKALA FISIKA

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This research has been done Recontructing of  2D X-ray Flouresense Tomographic Imaging Basis on Digital Radiograhy Technique using MATLAB 7.1 Programming  The research uses an unit Computed Radiografi, a rotated obyect and a reconstruction programme imaging. The shape of rotated object is prisma which made of acrylic, lenght 18 cm and  size sisi 6 cm. The prismacan  rotate continue and as cor of the rotatd obyek uss asylinder still. Recontruction 2D tomographic imaging build from 25 rotatd object radiograf imaging result of expose Computed Radiografi with expose factor constant ang interval increasing rotated angle7,50 . The reconstruction programme 2D Tomographic  consist of the cropping programme which produces  25 slice rotatd obyect forming sinogram and the programm Transformation invers Radon. The result of 2D Tomographic reconstruction in this rsearch obtain cross-sectionalprisma imaging is circle in the triangle sisi same imaging  which habrur.           Keywords: recontruction, tomography and radiography
PEMBUATAN KURVA ISODOSIS PAPARAN RADIASI DI RUANG PEMERIKSAAN INSTALASI RADIOLOGI RSUD KABUPATEN KOLAKA - SULAWESI TENGGARA Syahria, Syahria; Setiawati, Evi; Firdausi, K Sofjan
BERKALA FISIKA Vol 15, No 4 (2012): Berkala Fisika
Publisher : BERKALA FISIKA

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Abstract

t have been conducted research about the influence of distance variability betweensecondary radiation source and the determining spot to scatter  radiation exposure in theinspection room I radiology instalation RSUD Kolaka – South East Sulawes, it producted isodosecurve .This research use phantom, in the form of water in the plastic container high 40 cm andwidth 21 cm, with exposure wide 30×  40 cm. Exposure condition is given by fixed expose factor covering of tube voltage 90 kV, tube current 150 mA and exposure time 0.8 second.  Sample in this research is distance of 1 meter; 1,5 meter and 2 meter from the secondary radiation source to thedetermining spot, which measuring the scatter radiation exposure is directly conducted by thesurvey meter measuring instrument.The result of research indicates that the amount of thescattered radiation exposure will downhill progresivley to addition distance, so it can know thepoints/places that safe to the scatter radiation exposure. It can also know the maximum time limitallowed for a radiator worker in the inspection room I.Keywords : Isodose Curve ,  Phantom, Expose factor, Scatter radiation exposure.
Studi Radiografi Makro Dengan Variasi Jarak Sumber Sinar-Bayangan (SID) dan Ukuran Fokus Terhadap Pembesaran Bayangan Suriansyah, Nanang; Setiawati, Evi; Firdausi, K. Sofjan
BERKALA FISIKA Vol 10, No 4 (2007): Berkala Fisika
Publisher : BERKALA FISIKA

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Abstract

The dependence of radiograph magnification (M) on the ratio focal spot size to object ( has been studied. The object shape like a coin made from iron which different diameter and variation focal spot size have been used. The experiment condition were set up at the distance of the object to the film of 0 cm (object stick the film) and 45 cm, with the tube voltage of 50 kV, tube’s current of 100 mA, and time of 0.04 s. The results show that the increasing of (leads to the increasing of (M) when the distance of the object to the film is more than 0 (b>0).   Keyword: focal spot, SID, magnification radiograph
Gamma Spectroscopy Response Analysis of Bismuth Germanium Oxide (BGO) and NaI (Tl) Detector to Determine the Detector Efficiency using the Monte Carlo MCNPX Method Oktajianto, Hammam; Setiawati, Evi; Richardina, Verry
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 23 Issue 2 Year 2015
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Simulation of Gamma spectroscopy with Bismuth Germinate Oxide (BGO) and NaI(Tl) detectors has been done using Monte Carlo method in MCNPX computer program. Simulation was conducted by modelling detector scintillator geometry, model of radiation source which was Cobalt-60 and pulse count model. BGO and NaI(Tl) had a diameter of 3 inch and thickness of 3 inch and closed by Aluminium with 0.05 cm thickness. Extended radiation source of Cobalt-60 was in radius of 0.15 cm which was put in front of detector surface with distance of 0.001 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm, and 12 cm. The simulation results showed that the less radiation count with increasing distance of the radiation source which was put in front of detector. Reduce of the radiation count lead to decrease efficiency in each increase of radiation source distance. The detector efficiency to count gamma ray radiation of BGO detectors was better than NaI(Tl) detector. The maximum efficiency of both detectors was occurred at distance of 0.001 cm in front of detector. These results also showed that MCNPX was able to agreeably simulate detector process to determine spectroscopy Gamma response.
Simulasi Pengaruh Kombinasi Target-Filter Tambahan Terhadap Spektrum Sinar-X pada Tabung Pesawat Mammografi dengan Program EGSnrc Budiwati, Trisna; Anam, Choirul; Setiawati, Evi
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 19 Issue 1 Year 2011
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

The mammography use the specific x-ray energy. At high x-ray energies (>35 keV) the subject contrast between the normal and malignant tissues in the breast is poor, at very low x-ray energies (10-15 keV) the contrast is highest, however the high absorption result in a high tissue dose. To achieve to good result must be used the optimal energy, that could be achieved by using specific x-ray target and additional filter materials to generate characteristic x-ray of the desired energy. This research was aimed to evaluate the influence of target-additional filter combination and filter thickness to the x-ray energy spectrum. The research was conducted by Monte Carlo simulation using EGSnrc program. The model of mammography tube was designed by BEAMnrc program, and phase space file was resulted by BEAMnrc was analyzed by BEAMDP. The tube x-ray contained of target and additional filter from molybdenum (Mo) and rhodium (Rh) material, window from berrylium, and collimator from Pb. Target-additional filter combination were Mo-Mo, Mo-Rh, Rh-Rh and Rh-Mo.  Variation of additional filter thickness that be used are 0,001 mm; 0,03 mm; and 0,05 mm. The results of the simulation indicated that an x-ray consist of bremmstrahlung and characteristic. X-ray spectrum were produced by Mo target had characteristic x-ray energy 17 keV and 19 keV, and Rh target had characteristic energy 20 keV and 23 keV. Target-additional filter combination that allowed are Mo-Mo, Mo-Rh, and Rh-Rh combination. Rh-Mo combination could not be used, because Mo filter would attenuated x-ray characteristic energy. For the Mo-Mo and Rh-Rh, the thicker the additional filter then the x-ray spectrum obtained has a more narrow, but the reduced intensity of the x-ray bremmstrahlung and characteristic.   Keywords: target-filter combination, x-ray spectrum, mammography, EGSnrc.
Penentuan Entrance Skin Exposure (ESE) pada Pesawat Mammografi Mammomat 1000 dengan Filter Molybdenum (Mo) dan Rhodium (Rh) Susanti, Fitri; Anam, Choirul; Setiawati, Evi
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 22 Issue 1 Year 2014
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

Mammography is a radiographic examination to detect breast cancer earlier. However, the usage of radiation with low kVp can cause high dose and this becomes the reason why monitoring the dosage during the mammography process is an important thing to do. One of the techniques to monitor the radiation level is done based on the Entrance Skin Exposure (ESE) value. This research was aimed to determine the ESE value using molybdenum (Mo) and rhodium (Rh) as the filter at Mammomat 1000 mammographics system.The research was started by measuring the consistency of the X-ray tube voltage (kVp ). After that, the ESE value at the target/filter Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh was measured using a Barracuda Multi Purpose Detector (MPD). The tube voltage during the research was 26, 28, and 30 kVp with fixed electrical current-time 100 mAs. The result shows that ESE value resulted at the target/filter Mo/Mo and Mo/Rh is tolerable, except at tube voltage 30 kVp with target/filter Mo/Mo. The comparison of ESE value shows that Mo/Rh has lower ESE value than Mo/Mo.   Keywords: Entrance Skin Exposure (ESE), mammography, Barracuda Multi Purpose Detector (MPD)    Pemeriksaan mammografi merupakan tindakan efektif dalam mendeteksi adanya kanker payudara sejak dini. Namun demikian, penggunaan teknik radiasi dengan kVp rendah pada mammografi dapat menyebabkan dosis tinggi. Oleh karena itu, pemantauan dosis pada pemeriksaan mammografi sangat penting dilakukan. Salah satu teknik pemantauan dosis radiasi dapat dilakukan dengan nilai Entrance Skin Exposure (ESE). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan nilai ESE dengan filter molybdenum (Mo) dan rhodium (Rh) pada pesawat mammografi Mammomat 1000. Penelitian diawali dengan pengukuran konsistensi keluaran tegangan tabung sinar-X (kVp output). Selanjutnya dilakukan pengukuran nilai ESE pada target/filter Mo/Mo dan Mo/Rh dengan menggunakan Multi Purpose Detector (MPD) merek Barracuda. Tegangan tabung yang digunakan dalam penelitian yaitu 26, 28 dan 30 kVp dengan arus-waktu tabung tetap yaitu 100 mAs. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa nilai ESE yang dihasilkan pada target/filter Mo/Mo dan Mo/Rh masih berada dalam batas toleransi yang direkomendasikan, kecuali pada pada tegangan tabung 30 kVp untuk Mo/Mo. Hasil perbandingan nilai ESE menunjukan bahwa Mo/Rh memiliki nilai ESE yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan Mo/Mo.   Kata kunci : Entrance Skin Exposure (ESE), mammografi, Multi Purpose Detector (MPD) Barracuda.