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Socioeconomic characteristics of the parents and the risk prediction of early childhood caries Wahyu Aji Wibowo; Retno Indrawati Roestamadji; Retno Pudji Rahayu
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 50 No. 1 (2017): March 2017
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (342.282 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v50.i1.p23-27

Abstract

Background: The high prevalence of early childhood caries still becomes a major health problem. It is because children prefer to consume sweet foods, which are also cariogenic. The oral mucosa is a mirror of general health or any systemic disease which usually shows visible symptoms in the oral cavity. Dental caries in children is often related to the socioeconomic characteristics of the parents. Some references suggest that there is a relationship between the socioeconomic status with the incidence of caries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of socioeconomic characteristics of the parents with the risk prediction of early childhood caries by using cariogram approach to the elementary school students in Wonosobo. Method: The research is an observational analytic study with cross-sectional approach survey method. The research sampling uses proportional random sampling with 201 respondents of fifth graders. The socioeconomic status is measured through questionnaires, while the risk prediction of early childhood caries is measured by using cariogram. The research data analysis uses Spearman rank. Result: The results of the study show that the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents’ parents mostly belong in the middle category as many as 145 respondents (72.1%), lower category as many as 31 respondents (15.4%) and in the upper category as many as 25 respondents (12.4%). Prediction of the respondents avoiding early childhood caries is 55%, while the prediction of the respondents being risked of having early childhood caries is 45%. The results of data analysis show that the relationship between the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents’ parents and the risk of having early childhood caries for the respondents is p<0.05. Conclusion: There is a relationship between the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents’ parents with the early childhood caries, which shows that the higher the socioeconomic status of the parents, the lower the risk of the respondents from having early childhood caries.
Korelasi Jumlah Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) dan Level Ekspresi Interlukin 8 (IL-8) pada Severe Early Childhood Caries Muhammad Luthfi; Retno Indrawati; Ira Arundina; Yoes Prijatna Dachlan
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 1, No 2 (2015): December
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (313.441 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/majkedgiind.9227

Abstract

Correlation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) Level and Interleukin 8 (IL-8) Expressions of Salivary Neutrophils in Severe Early Childhood Caries. Early childhood caries is a very serious health problem because it is a chronic infectious disease that is contagious. Dental caries begins after the primary teeth grow and develop on the tooth surface very quickly and progressively. In recent years the views of neutrophils have changed dramatically. Neutrophils not only act as a microbe killer through phagocytosis, the release of reactive oxigen species (ROS) and its antimicrobial peptide, but neutrophil activation also helps regulate the immune response. To analyze the relationship between the amount S. mutans and IL-8 expression of salivary neutrophils in severe early Childhood caries. Two groups, namely Isolation of S. mutans were performed on saliva samples taken from 20 caries-free and 20 severe early childhood caries and samples Nacl 1,5% mouthwash results of 20 caries-free and 20 severe early childhood caries salivary neutrophils that were analysis of IL-8 expression by flow cytometry. Based on the average value, it is known that S. mutans level in early Childhood caries-free is lower (513.500,00 +185.565,28 CFU/ml) in comparison to the severe early Childhood caries (977.000,00 +222.500,15 CFU/ml), but the expression of IL-8 neutrophil salivary neutrophils in early Childhood caries-free is higher (3,31+0,50) in comparison to the severe early Childhood caries (2,95+0,56). The increased S. mutans level is probably caused by the decrease in the expression of IL-8 salivary neutrophils in severe early childhood caries.
Best Practice in Early Childhood Development Financial Governance: A Case Study in Indonesia Villages Indrawati, Retno; Komara Ragamustari, Safendrri; Ery Wijaya, Muhammad
Jurnal Pendidikan Usia Dini Vol 15 No 2 (2021): Jurnal Pendidikan Usia Dini Volume 15 Number 2 November 2021
Publisher : Program Studi Magister Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21009/JPUD.152.07

Abstract

Early childhood development (PAUD) is a fundamental investment that is included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Previous research has shown that ECD investment in Indonesia, and its financial governance remains a challenging issue. Through a qualitative approach to a case study method design, this study aims to examine the state of PAUD financial management in Panggungharjo Village, Yogyakarta. This study uses in-depth interviews and desk research as data collection techniques. The instrument was developed from the SABER-ECD World Bank Assessment and ECD Financial Profiling Tools. The results showed that PAUD financial management in established villages had innovative financing, budget management and institutional development resulted in a blueprint for managing PAUD financing in other villages in Indonesia. Important policy objectives in all aspects, including the legal framework, cross-sectoral coordination, program coverage, coverage, equity, data availability, quality standards, and compliance with standards, the vision of financing early childhood development will be more achievable for future research. Keywords: Early Childhood, Financial Governance, Village References: Alatas, H., Brinkman, S., Chang, M. C., Hadiyati, T., Hartono, D., Hasan, A., Hyson, M., Jung, H., Kinnell, A., Pradhan, M., & Roesli, R. (2013). Early childhood education and development services in Indonesia. In Education in Indonesia (pp. 82–108). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Ambang.Yudanto. (2019). Analisis Kepemimpinan Transformasional Kepala Desa dalam Pengelolaan Badan Usaha Milik Desa: Studi Kasus Bumdes Panggung Lestari, Bantul [Analysis of Village Head Transformational Leadership in Village Owned Enterprise Management: A Case Study of Bumdes Panggung Lestari, Bantul]. The Journal of Business and Management. Antlöv, H., Wetterberg, A., & Dharmawan, L. (2016). Village Governance, Community Life, and the 2014 Village Law in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 52(2), 161–183. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2015.1129047 Aqsati, F. A. (2018). Pengelolaan Alokasi Dana Desa untuk Pengembangan Pembedayaan Masyarakat di Desa Panggungharjo [Management of Village Fund Allocation for Community Empowerment Development in Panggungharjo Village]. Resolusi: Jurnal Sosial Politik. Astuti, S. J. W., & Suaedi, F. (2019). Building Independent Villages through Collaborative Governance by Village-Owned Enterprises (Best Practice from Panggungharjo Village, Central Java, Indonesia). Iapa Proceedings Conference, 265. https://doi.org/10.30589/proceedings.2018.200 Basuki, A. F., Setyowati, K., & Wahyunengseh, R. D. (2019). Accountability Model of Financial Management in the Public Sector: A Study on Panggungharjo Village Budget. 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The impact of expanding access to early childhood education services in rural Indonesia. Journal of Labor Economics, 35(S1), S305–S335. https://doi.org/10.1086/691278 Britto, P. R., Engle, P. L., & Super, C. M. (2013). Handbook of Early Childhood Development Research and Its Impact on Global Policy. In Handbook of Early Childhood Development Research and Its Impact on Global Policy. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199922994.001.0001 Cardenas, M., & Cadena, A. M. (2020). How to prioritize Early Childhood? A note on the recent expeerience in Columbia. May 2020. Denboba, A., Hasan, A., & Wodon, Q. (2015). Early Childhood Education and Development in Indonesia. In World Bank Publications. Edi, A. C., & Wardhani, I. S. (2019). Transformational and Transactional Leadership, Understanding How Leadership Cultivates Democratic Citizenship in Panggungharjo, Bantul, Yogyakarta. PCD Journal, 6(2), 239. https://doi.org/10.22146/pcd.35229 Hasan, Amer., Hyson, Marilou., & Chu-Chang, M. (2013). Early childhood education and development in poor villages of Indonesia: Strong foundations, later success. World Bank. Istiqomah, L. (2016). Tiga Pilar Kebijakan Pemerintah dalam Pembinaan PAUD. Golden Age [Three Pillars of Government Policy in Early Childhood Education. Golden Age]: Jurnal Ilmiah Tumbuh Kembang Anak Usia Dini. Jeffrey, D. S., & Guido, S. T. (2014). Financing Sustainable Development: Implementing the SDGs through Effective Investment Strategies and Partnerships. Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Juniar, T. (n.d.). Efektivitas Program Kartu Jakarta Pintar (KIP) Dan Manfaatnya Dalam Meningkatkan Kesejahteraan Sosial Di SDN Bintaro 08 Pagi Jakarta Selatan [The Effectiveness of the Jakarta Smart Card (KIP) Program and Its Benefits in Improving Social Welfare at SDN Bintaro 08 Pagi South Jakarta]. Repository.Uinjkt.Ac.Id. Klees, S. J., Ginsburg, M., Anwar, H., Robbins, M. B., Bloom, H., Busacca, C., Corwith, A., Decoster, B., Fiore, A., Gasior, S., Le, H. M., Primo, L. H., & Reedy, T. D. (2020). The World Bank’s SABER: A Critical Analysis. Comparative Education Review. https://doi.org/10.1086/706757 Kurniawati, S., Suryadarma, D., Bima, L., & Yusrina, A. (2018). Education in Indonesia: A white elephant? Journal of Southeast Asian Economies, 35(2), 185–199. https://doi.org/10.1355/ae35-2e Magnuson, K., & Duncan, G. J. (2016). Can early childhood interventions decrease inequality of economic opportunity? Rsf, 2(2), 123–141. https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2016.2.2.05 Mizwar Hasyim, N. (2019). Peningkatan Kemandirian Desa Panggungharjo Melalui Komunikasi Pembangunan [Increasing the Independence of Panggungharjo Village through Development Communication]. Jurnal Pemberdayaan Masyarakat: Media Pemikiran Dan Dakwah Pembangunan, 3(2), 352–376. https://doi.org/10.14421/jpm.2019.032-06 Nakajima, N., Hasan, A., Jung, H., Kinnell, A., Maika, A., & Pradhan, M. (2021). Built to Last: Sustainability of Early Childhood Education Services in Rural Indonesia. Journal of Development Studies, 57(10), 1593–1612. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2021.1873283 National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine. (2018). Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education. In Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24984 Penner, E. K., Rochmes, J., Liu, J., Solanki, S. M., & Loeb, S. (2019). Differing views of equity: How prospective educators perceive their role in closing achievement gaps. Rsf, 5(3), 103–127. https://doi.org/10.7758/RSF.2019.5.3.06 Pratama, R. N., & Pambudi, A. (2017). Kinerja Badan Usaha Milik Desa Panggung Lestari dalam Meningkatkan Pendapatan Asli Desa di Desa Panggungharjon Kecamatan Sewon Kabupaten Bantul [Performance of Panggung Lestari Village-Owned Enterprises in Increasing Village Original Income in Panggungharjon Village, Sewon District, Bantul Regency]. Adinegara. Sayre, R. K., Devercelli, A. E., Neuman, M. J., & Wodon, Q. (2015). Investing in Early Childhood Development: Review of the World Bank’s Recent Experience. In Investing in Early Childhood Development: Review of the World Bank’s Recent Experience. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0403-8 Scheerens, J. (2015). School Effectiveness Research. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition (Second Edition, Vol. 21). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.92080-4 Suryadarma, D., & Jones, G. W. (2013). Education in Indonesia. Education in Indonesia, 39(3), 1–278. The World Bank. (2013). What Matters Most for Early Childhood Development: A Framework Paper. Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) Working Paper Series, 4–59. Vegas, E., & Santibanez, L. (2009). The Promise of Early Childhood Development in Latin America. In The Promise of Early Childhood Development in Latin America. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7759-8 Zúñiga, N. (2018). U4 Anti-Corruption Helpdesk Does: Does more transparency improve accountability? Transparancy International, 1–13.
The differences of effectiveness of β-1,3-glukanase Vigna unguiculata and papain Carica papaya enzymes in hydrolysis of denture plaque Retno Indrawati; Muhammad Luthfi; Erina Fatmala Yuli Andari
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 49 No. 2 (2016): June 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (307.08 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v49.i2.p81-86

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Background: Accumulation of denture plaque can lead to pathological changes in oral mucosa, such as denture stomatitis, halitosis, and caries. Plaque matrix is mostly formed by protein (30%) and polysaccharide complexes. Thus, an alternative enzyme solution as denture cleanser is required for hydrolysis of denture plaque. Papain is a proteolytic enzyme hydrolyzing proteins, while β-1,3-glucanase is a hydrolase enzyme hydrolyzing polysaccharides. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the differences of effectiveness of ß-1,3- glucanase Vigna unguiculata enzyme and papain Carica papaya enzyme in hydrolysis of denture plaque. Method: This research was a laboratory experimental research with post test only control group design. After using denture for 24 hours, the denture was soaked in a solution of 100 ml PBS, papain enzyme, and β 1-3 glucanase enzyme at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml, and 2 mg/ml for 10 minutes. The solution from plaque hydrolysis was soaked in PBS and vortex enzyme for 2 minutes, then soaked in ice water for 15 minutes, and centrifuged at 3000 rpm 5-10º for 10 minutes. The supernatant was separated and analyzed. Turbidity readings then were performed in spectrofotometer with a wavelength of 480 nm. Result: 2 mg/ml of ß-1,3 glucanase enzyme generated the highest values of hydrolysis with a mean percentage of 68.77% compared to papain enzyme (44.86 %). The lowest values of hydrolysis weregenerated by PBS with a mean percentage of 3.24%. Conclusion: ß-1,3-glucanase enzyme is more effective in hydrolysis of denture plaque than papain enzyme.
Horizontal transmission of Streptococcus mutans in children attending kindergarten Retno Indrawati
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 51 No. 4 (2018): December 2018
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (524.193 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v51.i4.p216-221

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Background: Transmission of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the main pathogen found in dental caries, is particularly prevalent during the first two years of infancy. Numerous children are reportedly infected with S. mutans by their mothers with early initial acquisition of the condition considered to carry a higher risk of subsequent dental caries. Purpose: This research aimed to examine the possibility of horizontal transmission of S. mutans in children attending Surabaya-based kindergartens. Methods: The number of subjects who satisfied the inclusion criteria totaled 146. Dental plaque was collected for one minute with a sterile toothbrush. After completion of an isolation process, 25 S. mutans colonies were identified in Tripticase Cysteine Yeast (TYC) media by means of morphological, microscopic and biochemical tests using API 20 Strept (bioMerieux France). A polymerase chain reaction with OPA-2 and 13 was subsequently used to determine the genotype of S. mutans. Primary data collection was completed by the administering of a questionnaire intended to elicit information regarding the gender, age, diet and medical history of subjects. Results: An arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) fingerprint profile of the strains isolated from the subjects indicated similarities in five genotypes of S. mutans and differences in 18 genotypes. Conclusion: The study indicated that certain children are similarly infected by S mutans bacteria which might be due to horizontal transmission between classmates.
Changes in bacterial profiles after periodontal treatment associated with respiratory quality of asthmatic children Wiyarni Pambudi; Imelda Fabiola; Retno Indrawati; Haryono Utomo; Anang Endaryanto; Ariyanto Harsono
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 48 No 6 (2008): November 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (221.622 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi48.6.2008.327-37

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Background Despite the reduction phenomenon of asthmaexacerbation after dental plaque control, no scientific report hasbeen found to describe the link between bacterial profiles andrespiratory quality in children with asthma.Objective To investigate association between bacterial profiles changesand improvement in respiratory quality after periodontal treatment.Methods Asthmatic children with FEV1 reversibility ~ 12% anddental plaque index ~ 2 who qualified for inclusion criteria wererandomized into two groups. The treatment group was referred fordental plaque removal by oral biology dentist and guided to performan individual oral health care for seven days. The control groupwas observed without intervention. Each subject was assessed forrespiratory quality and bacterial profiles taken from plaque culturebefore and after one week run-in period. Paired t-test and correlationwere used for statistical anayses. The study protocol was approved bythe Medical Research Ethics Committee of Dr. Soetomo Hospital.Results Dental plaque control was performed in 18 of 36 childrenwith mild asthma. At follow-up, plaque analysis among thesubjects receiving dental treatment showed a significant reduction(P<0.01) in number of microbial colony and gram negative bacilli,corresponding by a fall in asthma score, FEV1 reversibility, andblood eosinophil (P<O.Ol). The improvement of respiratoryquality variables were moderately associated (r>0.4; P<0.05) withbacterial profiles changes after periodontal treatment.Conclusions A reduced rate of gram negative bacilli colonizationin dental plaque after periodontal treatment is related toimprovement of respiratory quality of asthmatic children.
Identifikasi Kromatografi Lapis Tipis Sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L.) Ira Arundina; Theresia Indah Budhy S.; Muhammad Luthfi; Retno Indrawati
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 1, No 2 (2015): December
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (296.235 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/majkedgiind.9226

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Identification of Sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L.) Thin Layer Chromatography. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the type of cancer which is most frequently found in oral cavity. The primary risk factor of malignancy in oral cavity includes the habit of consuming tobacco and or alcohol. The plant sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L.) is often used in the community as anti-tumor in digestive organ, including in oral cavity. However, there have been no studies on active ingredients playing the role as anti-cancer in oral cavity. The species are mostly from the genus Artemisia, while those generally growing in Indonesia are the species Artemisia vulgaris L. The objective of this study is to explain the identification by TLC of sudamala. The study was sudamala extraction, identification of sudamala extract, sudamala fractionation with Vacuum Column Chromatography and identification of sudamala fractionation with TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography). The result shows that the fractionation using hexane extract resulted in 11 fractions of n-hexane: ethyl acetate. The conclusion of this study is that the fraction of n-hexane: ethyl acetate (3:7, v/v) sudamala (Artemisia vulgaris L.) identified contains terpenoids compounds.
Antibacterial effects of Pluchea indica Less leaf extract on E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (in vitro) Agni Febrina Pargaputri; Elly Munadziroh; Retno Indrawati
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 49 No. 2 (2016): June 2016
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (467.685 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v49.i2.p93-98

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Background: Enterococcus. faecalis (E. faecalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) are the most common bacteria found in infected tooth root canal. Most of these bacteria often cause failure in endodontic treatments. Pluchea indica Less leaf is a species of plants that has several chemical properties. It consists of flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, and essensial oils which have been reported as antibacterial agents. Because of its benefits, the extract of Pluchea indica Less leaves may be potentially developed as one of root canal sterilization dressing. Purpose: This study aimed to determine antibacterial activity of Pluchea indica Less leaves extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria. Method: Dilution method was conducted first to show Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum. The antibacterial activity test on Pluchea indica Less leaves extract was performed on E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria using agar diffusion method. The Pluchea indica Less leaves extract used for antibacterial activity test was at a concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%. Thirty-five petridiscs were used and divided into five groups based on the extract concentration. Result: The results showed strong and moderate antibacterial effects of the Pluchea indica Less leaves extract on E. faecalis at the concentrations of 100% and 50%, while on F. nucleatum only at the concentration of 100% with moderate effect. Conclusion: Pluchea indica Less leaves extract has antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria with strong-moderate effect.
The amount of macrophages and activated plasma cells on wound healing process affected by spirulina Regina Purnama Dewi Iskandar; Retno Indrawati; Ira Arundina; Retno Pudji Rahayu
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol. 48 No. 4 (2015): December 2015
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga https://fkg.unair.ac.id/en

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (436.1 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v48.i4.p209-212

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Background: Spirulina which grows abundantly in tropical seas have been investigated to enhance immune system. The administration of spirulina in tooth extraction sockets was expected to optimise the function of immunocompetent cells. Therefore, wound healing process would be improved. Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove that administration of spirulina could influence immune system in tooth extraction sockets. Method: There were 28 Cavia cobayas used in this study and were put in group of four. Mandibular left incisive were extracted from each of them. The basis made from mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 and PEG 4000 was administrated into each socket in control group (TG0). In addition, spirulina 12% was administrated into group TG1, spirulina 24% was administrated into group TG2, and spirulina 48% was administrated into group TG3. All of the Cavia cobaya were decapitated and the jaws were removed in day 5 after tooth extraction. The jaws were decalcified in EDTA solution, formed into paraffin block, processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and immunohistochemistry staining afterwards. Datas were analysed statistically using Anova method. Result: There was an augmentation in the number of macrophages and activated plasma cells after spirulina application. The administration of higher concentrations of Spirulina leads to greater amount of macrophages and activated plasma cells in each groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, spirulina is able to increase the amount of macrophages and activated plasma cells which play important role in healing process.
ANALYSI S ON SECONDARY I NFECTI ON- TRI GGERI NG MICROORGANISMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AS A MODEL FOR POLICY CONTROL Retno Pudji Rahayu; Nasronudin Nasronudin; Retno Indrawati; Prihartini Widiyanti; Bimo Dwi Lukito; Ferdiansyah Ferdiansyah; Siti Qomariyah Khairunisa; Adiana Mutamsari; Tomohiro Kotaki
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol. 5 No. 4 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (262.927 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v5i4.2016

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HIV infection is associated with immune-compromised and rising in opportunistic infection (secondary infection). Therefore, the number of mortality caused by HIV/AIDS is increasing. The use of ARV and development of HIV/AIDS management are expected to suppress the progress of HIV infection into AIDS and, therefore, the mortality can be diminished, while in fact most of the patients eventually suffer from AIDS due to secondary infection that commonly causes death. There should be a management by analysing microorganisms that trigger secondary infection. The method of this study was observational descriptive with cross sectional design. HIV infected blood samples were using ELISA Antibody (IgG and IgM) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on laboratory test. The result showed correlation between HIV/AIDS severity and the amount and types of secondary infection. The most common secondary infections were toxoplasm (96.77%), hepatitis C (22.58%), tuberculosis (19.35%), and hepatitis B (3.22%). Other less frequent secondary infections, which were quite difficult to diagnose and not commonly found in Indonesia, were West Nile Virus (25.81%), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (3.22%), and Enterovirus (3.22%). Due to MDGs (Millenium Development Goals) target and the results above, researchers are highly demanded to contribute in decreasing mortality related to AIDS through early detection of secondary infection,including type of infection which have not been commonly found in Indonesia, such as West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus. The discovery of secondary infection in this study was not enough to suppress the occurrence of infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Antimicrobes and good nutrition are required. Moreover, there should be either a primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent secondary infection that raises the number of mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS patients. The result of this study was to meet the target of MDGs by establishing new policies in handling HIV/AIDS infections and have potential as model for policy control in HIV/AIDS.