Gempa tahun 2006 di Kabupaten Bantul telah membuktikan bahwa sektor rumah tinggal menderita kerugian terbesar yang mencapai 52,4% dari total kerugian. Hal ini terutama disebabkan karena banyak rumah-rumah tinggal yang tidak menerapkan elemen-elemen struktur tahan gempa. Meskipun penerapan elemen-elemen struktur tahan gempa akan menambah biaya pembangunan rumah, masyarakat perlu diberi pemahaman yang baik tentang besarnya manfaat yang dapat dipetik dari penambahan biaya tersebut. Tujuan paper ini adalah untuk menganalisis keefektifan penambahan biaya pada penerapan elemen-elemen struktur tahan gempa pada rumah tinggal melalui analisis rasio manfaat-biaya. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel sebuah rumah di Kabupaten Sleman yang berada di zone ancaman gempa dengan PGA di batuan dasar 0,2 g – 0,25 g menurut peta gempa 2010. Rumah tersebut sudah menerapkan elemen-elemen struktur tahan gempa. Nilai manfaat dihitung dengan selisih antara nilai kerusakan antara rumah dengan elemen struktur tahan gempa (rumah eksisting) dan rumah yang sama (diasumsikan) apabila tidak menerapkan elemen struktur tahan gempa. Penilaian kerusakan rumah dilakukan dengan penilaian subyektif dari 4 ahli kegempaan yang terlibat aktif dalam penanganan gempa tahun 2006 di Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Skenario gempa yang digunakan adalah skenario gempa dengan PGA 0,225 g sesuai dengan peta gempa 2010. Nilai biaya dihitung dengan biaya elemen struktur tahan gempa yang meliputi sloof, kolom, balok latei, dan balok ring. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai keefektifan biaya (diukur dengan rasio manfaat dan biaya) pada skenario gempa apabila terjadi gempa pada tahun ke_0, ke_10, ke_20, ke_30, ke_40, atau ke_50 berturut-turut adalah 11,61; 13,93; 16,63; 21,24; 29,64, dan 41,98. Nilai rasio ini membentuk kurva dengan persamaan regressi Y = 10,77 x 1,026 x, yang mengindikasikan bahwa nilai keefektifan penerapan elemen tahan gempa pada rumah tinggal bergerak naik secara logaritmis. Kata kunci: gempa, rumah tinggal, elemen tahan gempa, rasio manfaat-biaya
Stasiun Brambanan and Taman Wisata Candi intersection are two short separate intersections around Prambanan Temple. The distance of these intersections is only 436 m, while the traffic volume is too high and because of no signal coordination between these intersections, they lead to traffic congestion during peak hour. Therefore, the need for improvement by using traffic signal coordination between them is significant. The traffic micro simulation software of VISSIM was used to simulate the existing delay and to design traffic signal coordination. To obtain existing traffic volume during peak hour and off peak hour period, and to design a new cycle time for signal coordination, primary data were compiled according to direct observation.Result showed that the existing traffic route generates travel time of 57.24 seconds and average traveling speed of 27.42 kilometer/hour with the service level of “E” in peak hour period. The best alternative of cycle time for peak hours was 117 seconds, with average delay of17.65 seconds, travel time between intersection was 50.99 seconds, average travel speed of30.78 kilometer/hour and the service level of “E”. Travel time from East leg at 1st intersection onto East leg at 2nd intersection (Yogya-Solo Routes) was 31.73 seconds, delay of 15.57seconds, average travel speed of 49.47 kilometer/hour with the service level of “E”. On off peak hour period, the existing average delay was 19.59 seconds, average travel time of 39,6 seconds and average speed of 39.64 kilometer/hour with the service level of “E”. The best alternative ofnew cycle time was 98 seconds, average delay of 16.42 seconds, travel time of 30.77 seconds, average travel speed 51.01 kilometer/hour, and the service level of “D”. Travel time from East leg at 1st intersection onto 2nd intersection was 27.25 seconds, delay of 14.83 seconds, average travel speed of 57.60 kilometer/hour with the service level of “D”. In general it can be said that the traffic coordination slightly increase traffic performance during peak hour at the same service level range, while on off peak hours it significantly improves their level of service.
Porous asphalt allows water to be more easily drained from the road surface into asphalt concrete pavement. It absorbs rainwater through the coarse aggregate, this may be a solution of flooding at most cities in Indonesia which is caused by continuous rain. Glass is one of waste that had not been much recycled and need to be considered, By using glass as a material substitution is expected to be longlife and has a strength equals or even better on asphalt mixtures. This research was conducted in order to find the effect of substitution levels of glass on Marshall characteristics, durability, value of indirect tensile strength, abrasion resistance and permeability according to specifications of Australia Asphalt Pavement Asociation (AAPA) 2004. The research was carried out by using variant levels of substituion glass on fine aggregate No.8 in mixture that are 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. The results show that the glass waste on fine aggregate No.8 can be used in porous asphalt mixture only to 30% of proportion. From the Marshall test the results showed that the mixture ability to withstand a load is increasing up to optimum limit and declined thereafter at stability value then the flow level, MQ, VITM, VMA which is increasing up to optimum limit also declined after that as for VFWA level and density is declining until certain level then rising thereafter. The ability toward impact with Cantabro test result is increased up to optimum limit. The mixture homogeneous is increased, it shows from value of Asphalt Flow Down that decreased continously with the increasing of glass waste proportion.
Evaluation of correlations regression between functional condition roads and structural condition of the pavement needs to be implemented, a result of condition handling the maintenance of roads in the province of South Sulawesi and South Kalimantan are still less accurate because the determination of handling is only determined from one of the condition steadiness of road, Data used to facilitate this research is secondary to data obtained in 2014, in which secondary data obtained from Balai Besar Pelaksanaan Jalan Nasional (BBPJN) and Balai Pelaksanaan Jalan Nasional (BPJN). Flexible pavement conditions on the roads of research in South Kalimantan Province, shows the surface roughness (IRI) has a the level of correlation conditions that reasonably represen theÂ elastic modulus of surface layer (E1), but the surface roughness (IRI) has a level of correlation that less represents theÂ elastic modulus of base layer (E2 ), while a different result is also shown by the surface roughness (IRI) can not represent theÂ elastic modulus of subbase layer (E3) and theÂ elastic modulus of subgrade layer (E4). While the condition of pavement flexible on the roads of research in South Sulawesi province, shows the surface roughness (IRI) has a level of correlation conditions that already represents the elastic modulus of surface layer (E1), but the surface roughness (IRI) has a level of correlation that reasonably represents the elastic modulus of base layer ( E2), while a different result is also shown by the surface roughness (IRI) is less representative of the elastic modulus of subbase layer (E3) and the elastic modulus of subgrade layer (E4). The difference correlation of regression relationship modelâ€™s between the functional conditions and the structural conditions for all the roads, indicated the influence of the type of pavement layers and pavement layer thickness all layer of of pavement for all the roads.
One aspect that is important in highway design is to protect from water. The damage caused by water on the asphalt, such as hole, peel and cracking. If the influence of water in a highway construction is not controlled, it will decrease the value of durability, consequently it will shortening serviceability of highway. The purpose of this research is to determine the performance of Hot Rolled Asphalt mixture with Pen 60/70 and Retona Blend 55 as binder due to variations of the duration of sea water immersion, with observing to the characteristics of Marshall, Indirect Tensile Strength, Index of Retained Strength and their Permeability. Testing of material specifications in this study refers to the specifications. The sea water immersion time are 0 hours; 48 hours; 96 hours; and 192 hours. HRA with asphalt Retona as binder has a value smaller than asphalt Pen 60/70. HRA with Retona are more impermeable than asphalt Pen60/70. The stability HRS with Retona lost of has a percentage of 18, 09 %, is smaller than the loss with asphalt Pen 60/70 the 20, 12 % on the duration of the immersing time 192 hours. The IRS with asphalt Retona be obtained better results in each the length of immersion the sea water than the asphalt Pen60/70. However, the percentage of the decline in the duration of the end of the immersing of the sea water, which is 192 hours, a mixture of HRA with the connective Retona, with a value of 11, 35 % compared with asphalt Pen 60/70 to come down to just 8, 66 %. While the testing of ITS in the duration of immersing time 192 hours with asphalt Retona has a value of 10, 83 %, larger than asphalt Pen 60/70 to the decline in only 6,45 %.
Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) mixture is one of the popular material for flexible pavement in Indonesia. Due to limitation of fine aggregate product from stone crusher therefore an alternative sand beaches is used. This paper presents results of determine the influence of the use of coastal sand as fine aggregate subtitution on the Split mastic asphalt (SMA). This research have four phases, first testing of aggregate and asphalt properties then Determinition of optimum asphalt content 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Next step were testing Marshall, Immersion, Indirect Tensile Strength, and Cantabro loss. The results showed that the use of Indrayanti's sand beach as substituted fine aggregate on the Split Mastic Ashpalt 0/11 mixture meet the standard. Based on Marshall's test stability and flexibility of all the mixture were higher the Bina Marga specification. Indirect Tensile Strength increase in each addition of Indrayanti's sand beach. Cantabro Loss and Index Retained Strength on all specimens of Indrayanti's sand beach qualify Bina Marga standard.
Porous asphalt is an asphalt mixture with high porosity to reduce the potential waterlogging and increase the roughness of the road surface. However, porous asphalt mixture has shortcomings in terms of strength and durability. This paper presents laboratory testing results of the effect of adding Rediset LQ-1106 additive on the performance of a porous asphalt mixture. The research was started with the determination of the optimum asphalt content. Then, the test object was made with Rediset LQ-1106 using variations in 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% of the optimum asphalt content and carried out the Marshall test, Immersion Test, Indirect Tensile Strength, Tensile Strength Ratio, and Wheel Tracking. The test results show that adding 1% of Rediset LQ-1106 resulted in the optimum performance of porous asphalt compared to other grade additions. This performance is evidenced by the increase in the mixture stability value by 18.62%, the Indirect Tensile Strength value of 20.14%, the dynamic stability value of 35.88%, and the most negligible deformation speed compared to porous asphalt, which does not use Rediset LQ-1106. However, the Index Retained Strength, and Tensile Strength Ratio tests did not significantly increase performance.
Kawasan Malioboro memiliki keramaian yang menimbulkan kemacetan pada Jalan Malioboro dan sekitarnya. Solusi mengatasi kemacetan adalah dengan menerapkan sistem satu arah untuk membatasi kendaraan menuju Jalan Malioboro. Salah satu ruas yang terkena dampak sistem satu arah pada Kawasan Malioboro adalah Jalan Pasar Kembang. Tujuan penelitian yaitu untuk mengetahui perbandingan kinerja ruas area Pasar Kembang sebelum dan sesudah penerapan sistem satu arah. Data primer diperoleh dari survei di lokasi penelitian dan data sekunder diperoleh volume lalu lintas Tahun 2019. Dari data tersebut dilakukan analisis MKJI 1997 dan pemodelan menggunakan software PTV VISSIM. Hasil menunjukkan perbandingan derajat kejenuhan pada ruas Jalan Pasar Kembang mengalami penurunan sebesar 56,06%, Jalan Malioboro turun sebesar 4,36%, Jalan Pajeksan turun 65,52%, sedangkan Jalan Gandekan naik 3,13%. Pada parameter kecepatan rerata didapatkan penurunan pada semua ruas yaitu Jalan Pasar Kembang turun 28,81%, Jalan Malioboro turun 30,02%, Jalan Pajeksan turun 12,56%, dan Jalan Gandakan mengalami penurunan 40,92%.
The performance of a pavement depends on a load of passing vehicles; in anticipation of these problems, alternative solutions are needed. One solution is using a Superpave mixture as a type of pavement. Previous studies concluded that the Superpave mixture performed better in receiving or distributing vehicle loads and resistance to submersion conditions. However, to strengthen this opinion, exploring it from another point of view is necessary. One of them is the mechanistic-empirical analysis of the KENPAVE program, which is needed to determine the prediction of service life. In this study, the AC-WC mixture was used as a comparison. The analysis started by calculating the stiffness modulus value for both types of pavements, determining the alternative pavement design plans to be applied using Bina Marga 2017 method, and ending the mechanistic-empirical analysis process using two modeling forms, namely viscoelastic and elastic. As a result, the Superpave mixture has a relatively higher predictive value of service life compared to the AC-WC mixture. This result applies to both the viscoelastic and elastic models. Suggestions for using an alternative with Bina Marga 2017â€™s design chart 3-B on FFF7 criteria are given regarding maximizing the performance of the Superpave mixture in the field. The mechanistic-empirical analysis of the design alternative shows that the predicted service life is above the 20-year design age limit, which is 30.7 years in the viscoelastic model and 40.9 years in the elastic model before the prediction of the first damage.
This study aims to provide an alternative design for flexible pavement and slope reinforcemen. To simplify the analysis process, this research will use the Geo5 program, the Kenpave program, the Bina Marga 2017, the Fellenius method, and the Wedge method. The results of alternative 3 flexible pavement designs are AC-WC 4 cm, AC-BC 5 cm, AC Base 6 cm, and LFA Class A 40 cm, with a load repetition value of 2.363.985 ESAL until deformation damage occurs at a service life of 20 years. For the soil nailing slope reinforcement design, the safe factor value is 1.90 â‰¥ 1.30 for the Wedge method calculation, and the safety factor value is 1.34 â‰¥ 1.30 for the results of the Geo5 program.