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International Context Indonesias Counter-Terrorism Policy, 2001-2004 Muhammad, Ali
Jurnal Ilmiah HUBUNGAN INTERNASIONAL Vol 8, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmiah HUBUNGAN INTERNASIONAL

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (856.321 KB)

Abstract

Terrorism is a serious security problem in Indonesia as indicated by a suicide bomb attack in Solo church and mosque in the Cirebon Police office complex (2011), JW Marriot (2009) and a series of terror attacks before. This article discusses the international context and the implications for the governments counter-terrorism policy. The extent to which international factors affect the governments counter-terrorism policy during the years 2001-2004? This period is considered important because it is a critical period in the war against terrorism. The argument is that global context "War on Terrorism" major impact on the direction of counter-terrorism policy in Indonesia. Led by United States (USA) and supported by its allies, international pressure has forced the government of Indonesia previously impressed hesitate to take crucial steps: for example, the application of anti-terrorism law, the arrest of the perpetrators of acts of terrorism and the "spiritual leader" of Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah (Ajai)) and the prohibition Ajai. The U.S. and its allies are using a combination of instruments - in the form of an intensive diplomatic channels, financial support, technical assistance and anti-terrorism pledge to abolish the military embargo - to persuade the government that initially reluctant to follow perspective and American pressure. This article also argues that, although the government has received several international pressure and reject others because of domestic political considerations, international influence has strengthened the governments determination and capability of agents in combating terror network in Indonesia.Keywords : Indonesia, war on terror, international pressures, counterterrorism policy
International Context Indonesias Counter-Terrorism Policy, 2001-2004 Muhammad, Ali
Jurnal Ilmiah Hubungan Internasional Vol 8, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Parahyangan Center for International Studies

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (856.321 KB) | DOI: 10.26593/jihi.v8i2.542.%p

Abstract

Terrorism is a serious security problem in Indonesia as indicated by a suicide bomb attack in Solo church and mosque in the Cirebon Police office complex (2011), JW Marriot (2009) and a series of terror attacks before. This article discusses the international context and the implications for the governments counter-terrorism policy. The extent to which international factors affect the governments counter-terrorism policy during the years 2001-2004? This period is considered important because it is a critical period in the war against terrorism. The argument is that global context "War on Terrorism" major impact on the direction of counter-terrorism policy in Indonesia. Led by United States (USA) and supported by its allies, international pressure has forced the government of Indonesia previously impressed hesitate to take crucial steps: for example, the application of anti-terrorism law, the arrest of the perpetrators of acts of terrorism and the "spiritual leader" of Al-Jamaah Al-Islamiyah (Ajai)) and the prohibition Ajai. The U.S. and its allies are using a combination of instruments - in the form of an intensive diplomatic channels, financial support, technical assistance and anti-terrorism pledge to abolish the military embargo - to persuade the government that initially reluctant to follow perspective and American pressure. This article also argues that, although the government has received several international pressure and reject others because of domestic political considerations, international influence has strengthened the governments determination and capability of agents in combating terror network in Indonesia.Keywords : Indonesia, war on terror, international pressures, counterterrorism policy
The Spread of Democracy and International Security Muhammad, Ali
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 1, No 1 (2012): April
Publisher : Program Studi Hubungan Internasional, UMY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/hi.2012.0006.56-62

Abstract

This paper rejects the determinism of the realist position. Domestic politics or the nature of the regime does influence the foreign behavior of the states, and in turn, the probability of war, peace, and international security. In supporting the liberal argument, it will be argued that the spread of democracy will contribute to the promotion of international security. The argument is based on three main reasons:first, the persuasiveness of “democratic peace” thesis, secondly, the strong evidence of the existence of the democratic peace, and, thirdly, the failure of realist critique. Following the logic, the more the states in the world become democratic, the wider “the zone of peace” will emerge and the less the likely are conflicts and war among states
The Clash of Civilizations: a Myth? Muhammad, Ali
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 1, No 2 (2012): Oktober
Publisher : Program Studi Hubungan Internasional, UMY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/hi.2012.0014.131-138

Abstract

“The Clash of Civilizations” adalah sebuah metafora kontroversial yang berkembang di politik global pasca perang dingin. Diperkenalkan oleh Samuel Huntington, metafora tersebut menyarankan bahwa politik dunia mengalami konfigurasi ulang yang “fault line” antara budaya menggantikan batasan politik dan ideologi sebagai “flashpoint krisis dan pertumpahan darah”. Tujuan dari artikel adalah untuk mengkaji secara kritis proposisi dan asumsi teoretikal yang menguatkan tesis. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa proposisi tidak berdasar dan asumsi teoretikal dibalik argumen kurang dapat dipercaya. Ini memperdebatkan bahwa “clash of civilizations” merupakan mitos belaka.
“Selamat Datang Perang Dingin!” Kepentingan Rusia Di Krimea Dan Ukraina Timur Dan Ketegangan Hubungan Dengan Barat Muhammad, Ali
Insignia: Journal of International Relations Vol 2 No 02 (2015): November 2015
Publisher : Laboratorium Hubungan Internasional, FISIP, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (799.251 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.ins.2015.2.02.454

Abstract

AbstrakPaper ini berupaya memahami memburuknya hubungan antara Rusia dan Barat (Uni Eropa danAmerika Serikat) terkait dengan dengan Ukraina. Yang akan menjadi fokus pembahasan adalahmengapa Rusia melakukan anekasi semenajung Krimea dan melakukan intervensi di Ukraina Timur.Inti argumennya adalah bahwa, pertama, aksi aneksasi Rusia sebenarnya adalah hal yang bisadipahami sebagai puncak reaksi terhadap aksi ekspansi masif pengaruh Barat ke Eropa Timur sejakberakhirnya Perang Dingin. Ukraina hanyalah salah satu sisa-sisa dan benteng akhir mitra Rusia diEropa Timur. Kejatuhan tragis presiden Viktor Janukovych yang pro-Rusia di negara tersebut hanyalahmenjadi faktor pemicu bagi tindakan petualangan Rusia. Kedua, sejauh mana efektivitas respons ataureaksi Barat yang berupa sanksi ekonomi dan diplomatik negara-negara Barat atas Rusia belum bisadipastikan. Bagi Barat, upaya mengendalikan aksi ”illegal” Rusia sangat dilematis mengingat Rusiaadalah negara great power. Serangkian aksi Rusia sangat mengkawatirkan Barat dan telah memicuketegangan serius, yakni, ”Perang Dingin Baru” yang tak terelakkan Kata-kata Kunci: Rusia, Barat, Ukraina, Krimea, Ukraina Timur, Perang Dingin AbstractThis paper attempts to explain the worsening relationship between Russia and the West (EuropeanUnion and the United States) related to Ukraine issue. The focus of the discussion is to elaborate whyRussia carried out an annexation of Crimea peninsula and intervention in the Eastern Ukraine. Themain argument of the paper consists of two points; firstly, annexation by Russia is a peak of reactionsagainst massive expansion of the Western to Eastern Europe since the end of Cold War. Ukraine wasthe last standing partner of Russia in the Eastern Europe. The tragic fall of Victor Janukovych whichwas pro-Russia in the country was only a trigger to Russia’s action. Secondly, the extent of effectivityof response or reaction from the West, for example the economic and diplomatic sanction of Westercountries to Russia is still uncertain. For the West, the attempts to control the “illegal” action of Russiais found to be a dillematic issue considering that Russia is one of the great powers. This worrisomeaction by Russia has led to a sirious tension, namely “a New Cold War”. Keywords: Rusia, West, Ukraine, Crimea, East Ukraine, Cold War
Indonesia’s Way To Counter Terrorism 2002—2009: Lesson Learned MUHAMMAD, ALI
Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan Vol 5, No 2 (2014): August 2014
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (126.856 KB) | DOI: 10.18196/jgp.2014.0018

Abstract

Terrorism emerged as serious security problem inIndonesia since a network of terrorist group rockedthis country, started from the Bali bombing (2002)followed by other consecutive bombings, such as, J.W. Marriott Hotel bombing (2003), the AustralianEmbassy bombing (2004), and the Ritz Carlton Hotelbombing (2009). This article attempts to examinethe ways in which the government responded towardsthe problem. What sort of policies did theIndonesian government take to respond to terrorismduring the 2002—2009 period? This study uses aqualitative research method. The data used in thisresearch are derived from official documents, directinterviews with government officials and the secondarysources (books and journals) on terrorism andcounterterrorism. This article shows that the governmentadopted the legal approach or law-enforcement(“hard approach”) by issuing the anti-terrorismlaw as a legal framework and by reorganizingthe police force to strengthen its counter-terroristcapability. It also adopted an “ideological” approach(soft approach) to battle religious extremism. Thissort of approach is mainly aimed at defusing andneutralizing the religious extremism of terrorist groupsand preventing it from spreading into the wider community.This article shows that the government hasused effectively both approaches in destroying problemof terrorism in Indonesia.Key Words: Indonesia, policy, terrorism,counterterrorism, legal approach, “ideological”approach.
Paradiplomacy Policies and Regional Autonomy in Indonesia and Korea Mukti, Takdir Ali; Fathun, Laode Muhammad; Muhammad, Ali; Sinambela, Stivani Ismawira; Riyanto, Sugeng
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 9, No 2 (2020): October
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/jhi.v9i2.8931

Abstract

This analysis focuses on the paradiplomatic policies in Indonesia and Korea. The two countries have similar characteristics, namely as unitary state systems, and enacted regional autonomy in the same era, 1998s. This qualitative research aims to examine paradiplomatic types in both countries and why the policies are rationalized. The findings revealed that although both countries are unitary states, paradiplomatic activism runs in different types. Provinces and cities in Indonesia face many restrictions and limitations by national regulations, while regional governments in Korea have more discretions and authorities to practice paradiplomacy around the world. The research finding also portrayed several provinces in Indonesia instrumentalizing paradiplomacy as instruments to provide international recognitions related to self-determination, and this similar fact is not met in Korea. This paper argues that the different types of paradiplomatic policies in both countries are influenced by domestic political conditions and typically influenced by the presence or absence of regional movements.
The Obstacles of Serbia in Obtaining the European Union Membership Status Firmansyah, Firmansyah; Muhammad, Ali
Politea Vol 3, No 2 (2020): Politea : Jurnal Pemikiran Politik Islam
Publisher : IAIN Kudus

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21043/politea.v3i2.8875

Abstract

The European Union (EU) is an intergovernmental and supranational organization enlarging its membership since its formation. Due to the benefits, neighboring European countries are volunteering to join the EU. One of the EU candidate member countries is Serbia. In the process of gaining the status of EU candidate country, Serbia has faced many challenges and yet to fulfill the Copenhagen criteria as the conditions of membership by transforming and strengthening democracy. In the economic field, it is struggling to develop free markets and the rule of law. Serbia has collaborated with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) to process the war criminals in the past. Serbia succeeded in obtaining the status of candidate membership of the EU on March 1, 2012, which then became its new chapter.  
Paradiplomacy Policies and Regional Autonomy in Indonesia and Korea Mukti, Takdir Ali; Fathun, Laode Muhammad; Muhammad, Ali; Sinambela, Stivani Ismawira; Riyanto, Sugeng
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 9, No 2 (2021)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/jhi.v9i2.8931

Abstract

This analysis focuses on the paradiplomatic policies in Indonesia and Korea. The two countries have similar characteristics, namely as unitary state systems, and enacted regional autonomy in the same era, 1998s. This qualitative research aims to examine paradiplomatic types in both countries and why the policies are rationalized. The findings revealed that although both countries are unitary states, paradiplomatic activism runs in different types. Provinces and cities in Indonesia face many restrictions and limitations by national regulations, while regional governments in Korea have more discretions and authorities to practice paradiplomacy around the world. The research finding also portrayed several provinces in Indonesia instrumentalizing paradiplomacy as instruments to provide international recognitions related to self-determination, and this similar fact is not met in Korea. This paper argues that the different types of paradiplomatic policies in both countries are influenced by domestic political conditions and typically influenced by the presence or absence of regional movements.
The Spread of Democracy and International Security Muhammad, Ali
Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Vol 1, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/hi.2012.0006.56-62

Abstract

This paper rejects the determinism of the realist position. Domestic politics or the nature of the regime does influence the foreign behavior of the states, and in turn, the probability of war, peace, and international security. In supporting the liberal argument, it will be argued that the spread of democracy will contribute to the promotion of international security. The argument is based on three main reasons:first, the persuasiveness of “democratic peace” thesis, secondly, the strong evidence of the existence of the democratic peace, and, thirdly, the failure of realist critique. Following the logic, the more the states in the world become democratic, the wider “the zone of peace” will emerge and the less the likely are conflicts and war among states