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KARAKTERISASI SELULOSA KULIT ROTAN SEBAGAI MATERIAL PENGGANTI FIBER GLASS PADA KOMPOSIT Siti Nikmatin; Y. Aris Purwanto; Tieneke Mandang; Akhirudin Maddu; Setyo Purwanto
JURNAL AGROTEKNOLOGI Vol 5 No 01 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Jember

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Abstract

Abundant of natural resources in Indonesia give advent to the development of Biocomposite technology. Furthermore, agricultural wastes as one typical sources of bio-composite are available everywhere in Indonesia. Rotan-bark is one kind of agriculture waste that can be use as main input for bio-composite. This research deals with characterisation of cellulose content from rotan-bark as substitute for fibber glass as filler in composite. Cellulose from Rotan-bark made in long and short fibbers by means of fermentation. In this case, aspergillus niger is used as fermentation agent. Rotan type, Rotan mass, and temperature are maintained constant during the treatment. Variable of fermentation time ( tF ) and fungi-volume ( Vf) are varied. Fermentationtime range from: 4,5,6,8 to 10 days. Extraction of rotan-bark-cellulose by means of fermentation developed specific enzyme. This enzyme can break-down the filament of non-cellulose plant. Then this enzyme can separated fibber component from: parenchyma, xylem and epidermis at weight density = 0,58 and optimal efficiency up to 60,8% at tF = 8 days ; Vf = 15 ml. X-Furthermore, XRay Diffraction (XRD) shows the crystallized structure obtained from rotan-bark cellulose at Apparent Crystal Size (ACS) = 29130,42 nm and η (inhomogeneous mechanical micro strain) = 0,94 x 10-3 . Characterization by means of SEM-EDS shows rotan-bark cellulose composed from : C = 47,5 % massa, O = 46 % massa and mineral. The result is close to recommended fibber glass composition for industrial application. Keywords : fibber glass, extraction, celulosa, bio-composite, aspergilus niger
PENGARUH ATMOSFER DAN SUHU SINTERING TERHADAP KOMPOSISI PELET HIDROKSIAPATITYANG DIBUAT DARI SINTESAKIMIA DENGAN MEDIAAIR DAN SYNTETHIC BODY FLUID (SBF) Arifianto Arifianto; Siti Nikmatin; Ratih Langenati
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia EDISI KHUSUS: OKTOBER 2006
Publisher : Center for Science & Technology of Advanced Materials - National Nuclear Energy Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (963.617 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jusami.2006.0.0.5080

Abstract

PENGARUH ATMOSFER DAN SUHU SINTERING TERHADAP KOMPOSISI PELET HIDROKSIAPATITYANG DIBUAT DARI SINTESAKIMIA DENGAN MEDIAAIR DAN SYNTETHIC BODY FLUID (SBF). Penggunaan hidroksiapatit(HAp) sebagai bahan implantasi tulang sintetis telah banyak digunakan. Salah satu penerapannya adalah sebagai bahan pelapis logam yang akan diimplantasikan ke dalam tubuh sebagai pengganti tulang. Masalah yang timbul pada saat pelapisan adalah pada suhu yang tinggi, HAp dapat terdekomposisi menjadi β-TCP, α-TCP, CaO ataupun senyawa lain yang tidak diinginkan. Pada penelitian ini digunakan variasi jenis pelarut pada saat pembuatan HAp yakni pelarut air dan pelarut SBF (Syntethic Body Fluid). Pelarut SBF menyumbangkan gugus karbonat dan ion-ion lain pada HAp yang menyebabkannya stabil. Sintering dilakukan untuk mendapatkan HAp dengan densitas tinggi yang stabil. Variasi suhu sintering yang digunakan adalah 900 oC, 1000 oC, 1100 oC dan 1150 oC. Variasi atmosfer yang digunakan adalah gas Ar dan gas CO2. Dari hasil karakterisasi dengan XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) diperoleh hasil bahwa secara umum HAp yang disinter dengan gas Ar maupun CO2 tidak mengalami dekomposisi sampai suhu 1150 oC. Pengamatan terhadap foto SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) HAp menunjukkan perbedaan bentuk morfologi HAp dengan pelarut air memiliki bentuk butir yang bulat dan berdempetan satu sama lain sedangkan morfologi HAp dengan pelarut SBF menunjukkan bentuk seperti jaring yang lebar. Pengukuran volume dan massa tiap sampel menunjukkan perubahan densitas, yakni semakin tinggi suhu sinter maka densitas pelet HAp semakin besar.
Peningkatan Sifat Papan Partikel Sengon dengan Perlakuan Perendaman Air Dingin (Improvement the Propoerties of Particleboard Made from Sengon with Cold Water Immersion Treatment) Marwanto, Marwanto; Maulana, Sena; Maulana, Mohammad I; Wistara, Nyoman J; Nikmatin, Siti; Febrianto, Fauzi
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 16, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

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Abstract

The objectives of this research is to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of particle board made from sengon and mangium woods treated with cold water immersion. Particles of sengon and mangium immersed in cold water for 24 hours. The particles of sengon and mangium are combined with a ratio of 100: 0; 0: 100; 75:25; and 50:50. Particle boards are made in size (30x30x0,9) cm3 with target densities of 0.7 g cm-3. The particle board was binded with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) adhesive at 10% content and hot press at 140 °C with 25 kgf cm-2 for 7 minutes. The physical and mechanical properties of particle board are evaluated according to JIS A 5908-2003 standard. The physical and mechanical properties of particle board were much affected by particle combination and cold water immersion treatment. The physical (i.e density, moisture content, water absorption (WA), and thickness swelling (TS)) and mechanical properties (ie. modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and internal bonding (IB)) were evaluated. The results showed that cold water immersion improved dimensional stability (WA and TS) of particle board obtained. However, some mechanical properties decreased.Keyword: cold water immersion, mangium, particleboard, sengon
SIFAT MEKANIK BIONANOKOMPOSIT FILLER NANOPARTIKEL BIOMASS KULIT ROTAN METODE INJEKSI MOLDING siti nikmatin
Jurnal Biofisika Vol. 9 No. 1 (2013): Jurnal Biofisika
Publisher : Jurnal Biofisika

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Abstract

Rattan  biomass  is  one  of  the  agricultural  waste  that  can  be  used  as  a  source  of cellulose  nanoparticle.  To  produce  cellulose  nanoparticle  bark  rattan  that  is  low density,  good  mechanical  properties,  natural  resources  and  renewable  resources needed a new method of development nanotechnology using hummer mill methods. The  purpose  of  this  study  is  synthesis  and  mechanical  properties  of bionanocomposite  reinforce  cellulose  nanoparticle  bark  rattan  used  injection moulding.  Cellulose  nanoparticle  is  made  with  mechanical  systems  (milling  and shakers) in size 75 μm and hummer mill t =30 minute. PSA test results produced a maximum particle size of 25.6 nm (number distribution commulant method) at the t   =30 minute. Meanwhile, the hardness and impact strength of bionanocomposite show 79.9 HRR and 67.7 J/m.
Morphological, Chemical, and Thermal Characteristics of Nanofibrillated Cellulose Isolated Using Chemo-mechanical Methods Achmad Solikhin; Yusuf Sudo Hadi; Muh Yusram Massijaya; Siti Nikmatin
Makara Journal of Science Vol 21, No 2 (2017): June
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to analyze the morphology, crystallinity, elemental components, and functional group changes, as well as thermal stability of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). Nanofibrillated cellulose has an irregular and aggregated shape with a diameter of about 100 nm. NFC self-aggregations were observed due to hydrogen bonding and Van-der Waals forces. The cellulose crystallinity index, atomic size, and polymorph of the NFC sample were found to be 63.57%, 2.2 nm, and cellulose I, respectively. The NFC sample was composed of various elemental components, such as C, O, N, Na, Al, Si, and K. IR analysis showed only small amounts of hemicellulose and lignin deposits, whereas cellulose functional groups appeared in several wavenumbers. Aromatic and oxygenated compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones, and aldehydes, were deposited as extractive on NFC; these compounds were associated with cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The NFC thermal degradation process consisted of four steps: water evaporation (50-90 ºC); hemicellulose degradation and glycosidic linkage cleavage (250-325 ºC); amorphous cellulose and lignin degradation (325-429.29 ºC); and cellulose crystalline degradation (above 429.29 ºC).
Mikrostruktur Arang Aktif Batok Kelapa untuk Pemurnian Minyak Goreng Habis Pakai Rinto Paputungan; Siti Nikmatin; Akhiruddin Maddu; Gustan Pari
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018): JURNAL KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN
Publisher : PERTETA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (983.406 KB) | DOI: 10.19028/jtep.06.1.69-74

Abstract

AbstractThe obejective of this study was to investigate the effect of active carbon derived from coconut shell as adsorbents for consumables cooking oil. Method used in this rescarch was started with coconut shell preparation in form of chips and then carbonized and activated as well as morphological analysis by means of SEM. Variation used were activation times of activated carbon of coconut shell for 80, 100 and 120 min. The analysis results showed that the coconut shell charcoal yield was 41.66%, water contents was 3.7767%, ash contents was 2.9997% and Iod adsorbsion was 1051.07 mg/g. Consumables cooking oil refining process by activated charcoal from coconut shells can increased the quality of the oil market by a decrease in water contents, free fatty acids, peroxide value and turbudity numbers. Purification of cooking oil waste with activated carbon as adsorbent was archieved at temperature of 1000C, a contact time of 20 minutes, water contents of 0.10567%, free fatty acids of 0.7933%, peroxide numbers of 21.4667% andturbidity value of 69.7700 NTU.AbstrakPenelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh arang aktif batok kelapa sebagai adsorben pada pemurnian minyak goreng habis pakai. Metode penelitian diawali dengan preparasi batok kelapa dalam bentuk cip, kemudian karbonisasi dan aktivasi, serta pengujian morfologi arang aktif menggunakan SEM. Variasi yang dilakukan ialah lama aktivasi arang aktif batok kelapa 80, 100 dan 120 menit. Hasil yang terbaik analisis arang aktif batok kelapa menunjukkan rendemen 41.66%, kadar air 3.7767%, kadar abu 2.9997% dan daya serap Iodin 1051.07 mg/g. Proses pemurnian minyak goreng habis pakai oleh arang aktif dari batok kelapa dapat meningkatkan kualitas minyak yang ditandai dengan penurunan kadar air, bilangan asam lemak bebas, bilangan peroksida dan angka kekeruhan. Pemurnian limbah minyak goreng dengan adsorben arang aktif batok kelapa, tercapai pada temperatur 1000C, waktu kontak 20 menit, kadar air dalam minyak 0.10567%, bilangan asam lemak bebas 0.7933%, bilangan peroksida 21.4667% dan nilai kekeruhan 69.7700 NTU.
Peningkatan Sifat Papan Partikel Sengon dengan Perlakuan Perendaman Air Dingin (Improvement the Properties of Particleboard Made from Sengon with Cold Water Immersion Treatment) Marwanto Marwanto; Sena Maulana; Muhammad I Maulana; Nyoman J Wistara; Siti Nikmatin; Fauzi Febrianto
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 16, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1220.502 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v16i2.450

Abstract

The objectives of this research is to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of particle board made from sengon and mangium woods treated with cold water immersion. Particles of sengon and mangium immersed in cold water for 24 hours. The particles of sengon and mangium are combined with a ratio of 100: 0; 0: 100; 75:25; and 50:50. Particle boards are made in size (30x30x0,9) cm3 with target densities of 0.7 g cm-3. The particle board was binded with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) adhesive at 10% content and hot press at 140 °C with 25 kgf cm-2 for 7 minutes. The physical and mechanical properties of particle board are evaluated according to JIS A 5908-2003 standard. The physical and mechanical properties of particle board were much affected by particle combination and cold water immersion treatment. The physical (i.e density, moisture content, water absorption (WA), and thickness swelling (TS)) and mechanical properties (ie. modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and internal bonding (IB)) were evaluated. The results showed that cold water immersion improved dimensional stability (WA and TS) of particle board obtained. However, some mechanical properties decreased.
Pengembangan Teknologi Proses Produksi Bionanokomposit Filler Biomassa Rotan Siti Nikmatin; Lisdar Idwan Sudirman; Mersi Kurniati
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol. 19 No. 3 (2014): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Rattan biomass is a fiber waste from processing industry of rattan. Its abundant availability, as well as does not threaten the balance of food and feed, make it a potential source as raw material for composite filler of cellulose nanoparticles. To obtain a high cellulose content, it was inoculated with White rote fungi and Aspergillus niger. The experiments were conducted at inoculation time of 15, 21, and 30 days. The results showed that biomass of rattan extracted with White rote fungi and Aspergillus niger reached maximum cellulose content at the inoculation time of 21 days ie 76.47% cellulose, lignin 2.39%, and 20% moisture content. Cellulose has a monoclinic crystal structure, a =7.87; b=10.31; c=10.13 α= γ = 90, β=120. Nanoparticles were produced by disk mill-hummer mill method with variation milling time of  15, 30, and 45 minutes. Collision, friction, and heat for 30 minutes of milling could produce energy that was transferred to the particles and caused cavitation which resulted particles of 16.22-51.30 nm particle size. Production of test piece and prototype of nanocomposite using TSE and injection molding produced material which has 2 phases of crystal structure, namely monoclinic, and orthorhombic phases. The mechanical properties of impact strength was 67.769 J/m and hardness of 79.97 HRR. Thermal properties and density of bionanokomposit showed comparable values with synthetic composites.
Morphology of Microfibrillated Cellulose from Primary Sludge Iwan Risnasari; Fauzi Febrianto; Nyoman J Wistara; Sucahyo Sadiyo; Siti Nikmatin
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 11, No 2 (2013): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1108.247 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v11i2.96

Abstract

Sewage sludge is the largest waste produced from the pulp and paper mill, consist of fibers (50-60%) and inorganic materials.The aim of this study was to obtain the microfibrillated cellulose of sludge through extraction and cellulose disintegration. The cellulose disintegration conducted by a combinations of the refining and ultrasonication treatment. The results showed that after extraction process the mass of C and O were increased. Conversely the mass of Al, Ca, Si and S were decreased. The mass of C and O was further increased after refining and ultrasonication treatment. The process of extraction on sludge could remove lignin, hemicellulose and inorganic materials to obtain more pure cellulose. Cellulose disintegration by a combination of the refining 30 times followed by ultrasonication for 120 min produced microfibrillated cellulose with diameter of 284 nm.Key words: extraction, microfibrillated cellulose, morphology, sludge
Properties of Wood Plastic Composite Using Primary Sludge as Filler Iwan Risnasari; Fauzi Febrianto; Nyoman J Wistara; Sucahyo Sadiyo; Siti Nikmatin
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 13, No 1 (2015): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (935.751 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v13i1.58

Abstract

Sludge is the largest waste produced from the pulp and paper mill, it consists of 50-60% fibers and inorganic materials and have caused serious disposal problem. Recycling sludge into value-added product can give environmental and economic benefits. The objective f this research was to optimize utilization of sludge as filler in wood plastic composite using polypropylene as a matrix resin. Sludge with and without purification treatment were used as filler. The concentration of filler used was 40%, 50% and 60%. Maleic anhydride-modified- polypropylene (MAPP) with concentration of 5% was used as a coupling agent. Filler, matrix with and without coupling agent were compounded using Haake polydrive labopastomill at 175 °C, 60 rpm for 20 min. The results indicated that the morphology, physical, mechanical and thermal properties of wood plastic composites was much influenced by purification treatment, filler loadings and addition of coupling agent. Interaction of between fibers and matrix resin and thermal stability of wood plastic composites were much improved by purification treatment on sludge and addition of coupling agent.Keywords: coupling agent, fillers, purification, sludge, wood plastic composite