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Pyrolysis of Microalgae Chlorella sp. using Activated Carbon as Catalyst for Biofuel Production Viqhi Aswie; Lailatul Qadariyah; Mahfud Mahfud
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 1 Year 2021 (March 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.1.10316.205-213


Microalgae, as a potential raw material for biofuel, has several advantages compared to other biomass. One effective way to convert microalgae into biofuel is by thermal cracking or pyrolysis, and using a catalyst or not. So far, studies on the use of microalgae, that are converted into biofuels, is still use highly concentrated catalysts in packed bed reactors, which is not economical. Therefore, the aim of this study is to convert Chlorella sp. into biofuels with conventional pyrolysis without and using an activated carbon catalyst using packed bed reactor with bubble column. The reaction temperature is 400–600 °C, pyrolysis time is 1–4 hours, and the active carbon catalyst concentration is 0–2%. The 200 grams of Chlorella sp. and the catalyst was mixed in a fixed bed reactor under vacuum (−3 mm H20) condition. Next, we set the reaction temperature. When the temperature was reached, the pyrolysis was begun. After certain time was reached, the pyrolysis produced a liquid oil product. Oil products are measured for density and viscosity. The results showed that the conventional pyrolysis succeeded in converting microalgae Chlorella sp. into liquid biofuels. The highest yield of total liquid oil is obtained 50.2 % (heavy fraction yield, 43.75% and light fraction yield, 6.44%) at the highest conditions which was obtained with 1% activated carbon at a temperature and pyrolysis time of 3 hours. Physical properties of liquid biofuel are density of 0.88 kg/m3 and viscosity of 5.79 cSt. This physical properties are within the range of the national biodiesel standard SNI 7182-2012. The packed bed reactor completed with bubble column is the best choice for converting biofuel from microalgae, because it gives different fractions, so that it is easier to process further to the commercial biofuel stage. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License ( 
Production of Methyl ester from Coconut Oil using Heterogeneous K/Al2O3 under Microwave Irradiation Andi Suryanto; Ummu Kalsum; Lailatul Qadariya; Mahfud Mahfud
Journal of Chemical Process Engineering Vol 5, No 2 (2020)
Publisher : Universitas Muslim Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (957.548 KB) | DOI: 10.33536/jcpe.v5i2.754


Methyl esters derived from coconut oil are very interesting to study because they contain free fatty acids with a medium carbon chain structure (C12-C14), so most methyl esters (70%) can be bio-kerosene and the rest can be biodiesel. The process of preparing methyl ester by reaction of Trans-esterification triglyceride generally using a homogeneous KOH catalyst but this process requires a long catalyst separation process through washing and drying process. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in the production of methyl esters can remove the washing and drying processes, but trans-esterification reactions with heterogeneous catalysts require severe conditions (high pressure and high temperature), whereas at low temperatures and atmospheric conditions, the methyl ester yield is relatively low. Using microwave-irradiated trans-esterification reactions with heterogeneous catalysts, it is expected to be much faster and can obtained higher yields. Therefore, in this study we prepare a heterogeneous catalyst K/Al2O3 using solution KOH that impregnated in catalyst support Al2O3, and catalyst obtained are caracterized by XRD, BET dan SEM. Our objective was to compare the yield of methyl esters obtained through the trans-esterification process of coconut oil assisted by microwave using a heterogeneous K / Al2O3 catalyst with yield obtained using a homogeneous KOH catalyst. Experimental equipment consists of a batch reactor placed in a microwave oven equipped with a condenser, agitator and temperature controller. The batch process was carried out at atmospheric pressure with variation of K/Al2O3 catalyst concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5%) and microwave power (100, 264 and 400 W). In general, the process of producing methyl esters by heterogeneous catalysts will get three layers, wherein the first layer is the product of methyl ester, the second layer is glycerol and the third layer is the catalyst. The experimental results show that the methyl ester yield increases with increasing of microwave power, catalyst concentration and reaction time. The results obtained with K /Al2O3 catalysts are generally slightly lower than those obtained using a homogeneous KOH catalyst. However, the yield of methyl esters obtained by the K / Al2O3 heterogeneous catalyst process are relatively easy to separate rather than using a homogeneous KOH catalyst.
Response Surface Methodology-Based Parameter Optimization of Candlenut Seeds Extraction (Aleurites moluccana Willd) Yeni Variyana; Dewi Ermaya; Shintawati Shintawati; Devy Cendekia; Mahfud Mahfud
Equilibrium Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol 7, No 1 (2023): Volume 7, No 1 July 2023
Publisher : Program studi Teknik Kimia UNS

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20961/equilibrium.v7i1.72842


ABSTRACT. Aleurites moluccana Willd, known candlenut plant, has the potential to be used for vegetable oil, pharmacological purposes, and biofuel. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the optimal extraction conditions for this extraction. The current study aimed to use response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Microwave Hydrodiffusion Gravity (MHG) conditions for extraction yield. A three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to investigate the effects of three independent parameters: material size (A), microwave power (B), and extraction time (C). The experimental data for the candlenut seed extraction were analyzed to obtain quadratic polynomial equations. The effects of various parameters on the yield of extraction yield were then examined and analyzed using plots and contours.The results showing extraction yield significantly influenced all independent parameters were p < 0.0001.  Further, The study predicted the optimum conditions for extracting candlenut seeds, which included using material size in 1.378 cm, microwave power of 599.359 W, and extraction time 66.076 min, resulted yield of 5.015%. Based on experimental data conditions, the highest extraction yield was 5.5% of 1 cm, 600 W, and 60 min, respectively, which were in good agreement with the predicted model. The study concluded that the optimized MHG method could be useful in industrial extraction processes and the use of statistical method can optimize the extraction process and reduce the number of experiments required.Keywords: candlenut, RSM, MHG, yield