Mukhamad Nurhadi
Department of Chemical Education, Universitas Mulawarman, Kampus Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, 75119, East Kalimantan

Published : 7 Documents Claim Missing Document
Claim Missing Document
Check
Articles

Found 7 Documents
Search

Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant Mukhamad Nurhadi
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2017: BCREC Volume 12 Issue 1 Year 2017 (April 2017)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (617.653 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61

Abstract

The modified coal char from low-rank coal by sulfonation, titanium impregnation and followed by alkyl silylation possesses high catalytic activity in styrene oxidation. The surface of coal char was undergone several steps as such: modification using concentrated sulfuric acid in the sulfonation process, impregnation of 500 mmol titanium(IV) isopropoxide and followed by alkyl silylation of n-octadecyltriclorosilane (OTS). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and hydrophobicity. The catalytic activity of the catalysts has been examined in the liquid phase styrene oxidation by using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic study showed the alkyl silylation could enhance the catalytic activity of Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0). High catalytic activity and reusability of the o-Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0) were related to the modification of local environment of titanium active sites and the enhancement the hydrophobicity of catalyst particle by alkyl silylation. 
Negative Effect of Calcination to Catalytic Performance of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 Catalyst in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant Mukhamad Nurhadi; Ratna Kusumawardani; Hadi Nur
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2018: BCREC Volume 13 Issue 1 Year 2018 (April 2018)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (726.892 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1171.113-118

Abstract

The research of negative effect of calcination to catalytic performance of coal char-loaded TiO2 catalyst in styrene oxidation with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant has successfully done. The effects of calcination step to catalyst properties were characterized with Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), X-ray Difraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The catalytic performance of the catalysts has been investigated in styrene oxidation with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic study showed the calcination step influenced to catalytic properties and could decrease the catalytic performance of coal char-loaded TiO2 catalyst in styrene oxidation.  
Carbon-containing Hydroxyapatite Obtained from Fish Bone as Low-cost Mesoporous Material for Methylene Blue Adsorption Mukhamad Nurhadi; Ratna Kusumawardani; Wirhanuddin Wirhanuddin; Rahmat Gunawan; Hadi Nur
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (858.967 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.5365.660-671

Abstract

The carbon-containing hydroxyapatite has been synthesized using the fish bone obtained from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The synthesis was conducted at varying calcination temperature (300-700 °C) and duration time (1-5 h). The carbon-containing hydroxyapatite were characterized by using Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential thermal analysis (DTA). The carbon-containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles consisted of the mesoporous structure with a specific surface area of 159 m2.g-1 and pore size of 44 Å. The carbon-containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue by varying the contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The maximum amount of adsorption capacity was 56.49 mg.g-1. The adsorption was well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption model (R2 ~ 0.998) and the pseudo-second-order model. This indicated that the dye molecules were adsorbed on the surface-active site of carbon-containing hydroxyapatite via chemical binding, forming an adsorbate monolayer. Hence, the adsorption capability corresponds to the physical properties such as the surface area and pore volume of hydroxyapatite because the larger surface area consists of higher binding sites for the adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS), indicated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto the carbon-containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles was spontaneous. Thus, carbon-containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be applied as a low-cost adsorbent for the treatment of industrial effluents that are contaminated with the methylene blue.  
Catalytic Performance of TiO2–Carbon Mesoporous-Derived from Fish Bones in Styrene Oxidation with Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidant Mukhamad Nurhadi; Ratna Kusumawardani; Teguh Wirawan; Sumari Sumari; Sin Yuan Lai; Hadi Nur
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 1 Year 2021 (March 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.1.9729.88-96

Abstract

The catalytic performance of titania-supported carbon mesoporous-derived from fish bones (TiO2/CFB) has been investigated in styrene oxidation with aqueous H2O2. The preparation steps of (TiO2/CFB) catalyst involved the carbonization of fish bones powder at 500 °C for 2 h. followed by impregnation of titania using titanium(IV) isopropoxide (500 µmol) precursor, and calcined at 350 °C for 3 h. The physical properties of the adsorbents were characterized using Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption studies. The catalytic test was carried out using styrene oxidation with H2O2 as an oxidant at room temperature for 24 h. Its catalytic activity was compared with Fe2O3/CFB, CuO/CFB, TiO2, and CFB catalysts. It is demonstrated that the catalytic activity of TiO2/CFB catalyst has the highest compared to Fe2O3/CFB, CuO/CFB, TiO2, and CFB catalysts in the oxidation of styrene with styrene conversion ~23% and benzaldehyde selectivity ~90%. Kinetics of TiO2/CFB catalyzed oxidation of styrene has been investigated and mechanism for oxidation of styrene has been proposed. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA   License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Effective TiO2-Sulfonated Carbon-derived from Eichhornia crassipes in The Removal of Methylene Blue and Congo Red Dyes from Aqueous Solution Iis Intan Widiyowati; Mukhamad Nurhadi; Muhammad Hatami; Lai Sin Yuan
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.6997.476-489

Abstract

The study of TiO2-sulfonated carbon-derived from Eichhornia crassipes (TiO2/SCEC), as an effective adsorbent to remove Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) dyes from aqueous solution, has been conducted. The preparation steps of TiO2/SCEC adsorbent involved the carbonisation of E. crassipes powder at 600 °C for 1 h, followed by sulfonation of carbon for 3 h and impregnation through titanium(IV) isopropoxide (500 µmol). The physical properties of the adsorbents were characterized by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy with Energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption studies. The dye removal study using TiO2/SCEC adsorbent was carried out by varying of contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, particles size of adsorbent and temperature. The kinetics models were determined by the effects of contact time and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG), which were calculated by the effects of temperature. The results showed that the maximum dye removal capacity of TiO2/SCEC were 18.8 mg.g-1 for MB and 36.5 mg.g-1 for CR. The removal of MB and CR dyes using TiO2/SCEC adsorbent performed a pseudo-second order kinetic models with spontaneity. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Kinetic Study of Styrene Oxidation over Titania Catalyst Supported on Sulfonated Fish Bone-derived Carbon Ratna Kusumawardani; Mukhamad Nurhadi; Teguh Wirawan; Anton Prasetyo; Nabila Nur Agusti; Sin Yuan Lai; Hadi Nur
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2022: BCREC Volume 17 Issue 1 Year 2022 (March 2022)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.17.1.13133.194-204

Abstract

The kinetic evaluation of titania supported sulfonated fish bone-derived carbon (TiO2/SFBC) as a catalyst in styrene oxidation by aqueous hydrogen peroxide was carried out. The catalysts were prepared by carbonation of fishbone powder at varying temperatures 500, 600 and 700 °C, respectively for 2 h, followed by sulfonation with sulfuric acid (1M) for 24 h and impregnated by varied titania concentration 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol. The physical properties of catalysts were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) and the nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The catalytic activity result showed that TiO2/SFBC can be used as a potential catalyst in styrene oxidation. Worth noting that the sulfonation process has not only transformed the TiO2/FBC particulates (without sulfonation) to cuboid-shaped TiO2/SFBC (with sulfonation) but also contributed to the high selectivity of benzaldehyde. On the other hand, carbonization at different temperatures has an indistinct effect on catalytic performance due to their similar surface areas. The styrene conversion rate responded positively with the increasing amount of titania in the functionalized composites. The styrene oxidation by aqueous H2O2 unraveled the first-order reaction with the activation energy of ⁓63.5 kJ. Copyright © 2022 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Activated Bledug Kuwu’s Clay as Adsorbent Potential for Synthetic Dye Adsorption: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies Sri Lestari; Muflihah Muflihah; Ratna Kusumawardani; Mukhamad Nurhadi; Yuniati Mangesa; Fathur Insani Ridho; Robbiatul Adawiyah; Pristiningtyas Ambarwati; Siti Rahma; Sin Yuan Lai; Hadi Nur
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2022: BCREC Volume 17 Issue 1 Year 2022 (March 2022)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.17.1.12473.22-31

Abstract

Bledug Kuwu is one of the geological phenomena as a mud volcano that occurs in Kuwu, Purwodadi, Grobogan, Central Java, Indonesia. The evaluation of Bledug Kuwu’s clay as one of the adsorbents for synthetic dyes has been carried out. The preparation of the adsorbent started with washing the clay with distilled water, followed by activation with a solution of hydrochloric acid (1 M) under mechanistic stirring for overnight. The C−H and O−H groups found on the clay adsorbent could attract methylene blue by dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding. Hydrocloric acid activation process for clay can increase surface area from 49 to 70 m2.g−1, meanwhile, reducing the average crystal size from 48.3 to 43.4 nm. The dye removal capacity increased from 34 to 40 mg.g−1 in corresponding to the increase of the temperature from 30 to 50 °C. The results showed that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of activated Bledug Kuwu’s clay reached 99% in an adsorption time of 20 min. The kinetic models of methylene blue adsorption onto BKC and ABKC adsorbents follow the pseudo-second order and the adsorption process is spontaneous with free energy (ΔG) as −23.519 kJ.mol−1. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).