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IDENTIFIKASI POTENSI INTERAKSI OBAT PADA PASIEN RAWAT INAP PENYAKIT DALAM DI RSUD Prof. Dr. MARGONO SOEKARJO PURWOKERTO DENGAN METODE OBSERVASIONAL RETROSPEKTIF PERIODE NOVEMBER 2009 - JANUARI 2010 Sari, Andriana; Wahyono, Djoko; Raharjo, Budi
PHARMACIANA Vol 2, No 2: November 2012
Publisher : PHARMACIANA

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Abstract

Potensi interaksi obat adalah potensi aksi suatu obat diubah atau dipengaruhi oleh obat lain yang diberikan bersamaan. Interaksi obat didefinisikan sebagai fenomena yang terjadi ketika efek farmakodinamik dan farmakokinetik dari suatu obat berubah karena adanya pemberian obat yang lain. Interaksi obat dapat menyebabkan advers drug reaction apabila potensi terjadinya interaksi tersebut tidak diketahui sebelumnya upaya optimalisasi tidak dapat dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi potensi interaksi obat pada pasien rawat inap penyakit dalam RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto. Metode penelitian adalah observasional retrospektif (November 2009 - Januari 2010) dengan menggunakan metoda deskriptif untuk analisa data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan potensi interaksi obat pada pasien rawat inap penyakit dalam RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto sebesar 56,76% (n = 259). Berdasarkan kategori signifikansi yang dikemukakan Tatro (2006), terdapat potensi interaksi obat kategori signifikansi 1 pada pasien rawat inap penyakit dalam RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto sebesar 16,60%. Penggunaan obat berpotensi interaksi yang masuk kategori signifikansi 1 sebaiknya disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan pasien akan obat, risk and benefit serta dilakukan upaya optimalisasi.
APLIKASI WEB GRABBER UNTUK MENGAMBIL HALAMAN WEB SESUAI DENGAN KEYWORD YANG DIINPUTKAN Budhi, Gregorius Satia; Setiabudi, Djoni Haryadi; Raharjo, Budi
Jurnal Informatika Vol 7, No 1 (2006): MAY 2006
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (98.919 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/informatika.7.1.pp. 24-29

Abstract

At this time the use of search engine on the Internet still does not reach maximum result. Users need to browse every web page list as the result of the search that fit with the topic one by one. We need an application that has a capability to look and to save web pages with their links fit with the topic without browsing, so that the result can be accessed offline. This application is called Web Grabber. Web Grabber application uses inputs such as keyword and searching depth. The input will be processed to obtain the appropriate web pages with the keyword and the searching depth, which is automatically saved. Firstly a keyword is needed to be search in the available search engine to get the search lists, which can be picked by the user. Every pick list will be used as the first search page. This application results are web pages that contain the keyword. This application also has a facility to browse the results. This application was succeed to automatically save web pages that appropriate with the input keyword and the depth, that previously search in AltaVista or Google. Web pages that contain with the keyword saved in the computer so that it can be browsed offline. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Saat ini penggunaan search engine pada internet masih belum memperoleh hasil yang maksimal. Pengguna masih harus browsing halaman-halaman web hasil pencarian untuk mencari topik yang diinginkan satu-persatu. Untuk itu perlu dibuatkan aplikasi yang dapat mencari dan menyimpan halaman-halaman web dengan link-link-nya sesuai topik tanpa harus melalui proses browsing, sehingga hasilnya dapat dilihat secara offline. Aplikasi ini biasa disebut Web Grabber. Program aplikasi Web Grabber ini mendapatkan inputan berupa keyword dan kedalaman pencarian. Inputan ini akan diproses untuk memperoleh hasil berupa halaman - halaman web yang disimpan secara otomatis sesuai dengan keyword yang diberikan dan tingkat kedalaman pencariannya. Proses didahului dengan pencarian keyword pada search engine yang tersedia menjadi sebuah list yang dapat dipilih oleh pengguna. Hasil aplikasi ini berupa halaman - halaman web yang mengandung keyword. Aplikasi juga menyediakan fasilitas untuk browsing hasil yang didapat. Program yang dibuat berhasil melakukan penyimpanan halaman-halaman web sesuai dengan keyword yang diberikan dengan tingkat kedalaman tertentu, yang sebelumnya dicari melalui search engine Altavista atau Google. Halaman-halaman web yang mengandung keyword dapat diambil dan disimpan pada komputer sehingga dapat di-browse secara offline. Kata kunci: web grabber, keyword, kedalaman, search engine, internet.
Isolasi Dan Uji Aktivitas Kitinase Isolat Bakteri Dari Kawasan Geotermal Dieng Nafisah, Hidayatun; Pujiyanto, Sri; Raharjo, Budi
Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 1, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (201.301 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma.19.1.22-29

Abstract

Chitinase (EC.3.2.2.14) is an enzyme which can degradatechitin became N-acetilglucosamin. Chitinase has many benefits made the demand of it increases. High demands spur its availability in large quantities, cheap, fast production, resistant to any physical factor and chemical environment. Rapid and resistant enzyme production to environment factor can be obtained using chitinolitic bacteria of Geothermal Dieng. The utilization of chitin as bacterial growth substrate from waste of shell crab can be done considering high prices of commercial chitin on the market. The purpose of the research is to get the isolate of termoleranchitinolitic of watery mud in Geothermal Dieng and to know the character of the chosen isolate producing highest chinitase activity type of chitin source treatment and pH of media production. The research is done by growing the chitinolitic in the room temperature for 14 days. The experimental design used in this study is a complete randomized design of factorial pattern (two factors). The first factor is the type of chitin source that includes commercial chitin and chitin crab kits. The second factor is the pH of liquid chitin media for the production of enzymes, ie pH 6, 7 and 8.Chitinase activity is tested by measuring the result of sugar reduction. Obtained data is analyzed with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Result of isolation and selection is obtained one potential isolate, KSR 121. The isolate produce 1,4 cm of chitinolitic index after 96 hour incubation. Result of statistical test show both citin source type, pH of media production treatment and interaction were not significantly different (P˃0,05). KSR 121 isolate experience the highest growth of crab chitin treatment pH 8 (K2P3) with 6 hour incubation, whereas highest kinitase activity happen on crab chitin treatment pH 7 (K2P2) with 24 incubation, in amount of 0,125 (U/mL). Key words: N-acetil glucosamin, chtinase activity, chitinase, chitin, chitinolitic bacteria, isolation
MIX CULTURE INOCULANT PRODUCTION OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILYZING AND INDOLE ACETIC ACID (IAA) PRODUCER RHIZOBACTERIA WITH AMBARAWA PEAT SOIL RAWAPENING AS CARRIER Raharjo, Budi; Suprihadi, Agung
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 18 Issue 2 Year 2010
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT---Plant production development  is the main goals  that do for increase the farming quality to fulfill the man needed  in  food. One of the ways is intensive farming, by using organic or inorganic  fertilizer. Phosphate is the essential  for plants. IAA is the necessary plant regulator for the root. Both phosphate  and IAA need in  plant  growing  and production.  Biological  fertilizer  is  fertilizer  with  microbial  as the main material. Bacillus sp.DUCC-BR-K1.7, Bacillus sp. DUCC-BR-KI3, Bacillus sp.DUCC-BR-KI.2b  and Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobqcter vinelandii, Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter brazilensis are bacteria that can solubilization  the phosphate  and IAA  synthesize.  Those bacteria can be used as  inoculants or biological  fertilizer  that put on carrier. One way to support  the aim is giving  the altemative carrier with  suitable composition. The carrier should be support bacterial life  during the storage.  The aim ofthis  research  is find  ths right  consortia so can be used to optimized  viabilities  of  culture Bacillus  sp. DUCC-BR-KIJ,  Bacillus sp. DUCC-BR-K1.3, Bacillus sp. DUCC-BR-KI.2b, P. flourescens, A. chroococcum, A. vinelandii, Azospirillum  sp., and  A. brazilensis in mix  culture  on peat soil  as carrier. This research done in Microbiology Laboratory of Biology Department Diponegoro University. Subculture and activated culture in Nutrient  Broth medium, make the growth curve to the biomass production, make the inoculums, prepare the peat soil, biomass production and mixed biomass with  the carrier, enumeration bacterial culture viability  test in carrier during the storage  by TPC method.  The  results  show  that  all  consortia  culture  bacteria viabiliry Bacillus  sp. DUCC-BR-KI.3  with Azospirillum (A) and Bacillus  sp. DUCC-BR-K1.7, with P.  flourescens (B)  still viable and increasing number of population during seven weeks storage with  l0 t-n CFU/g at To and up to  l0 r3-ro CFU/g at  the end storage. The  consortium  C  between Bacillus  sp.  DUCC-BR-KI.2  b  and A-  brssilensis  increasing  the  number  of population  and  still viable during eight weeks  storage  (1013  - 1014  CFU/g).Key words: biofertilizer, peat soil, viability,  mix cultare, consortiumPermalink : http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/sm/article/view/3138
Pelarutan Fosfat Anorganik oleh Kultur Campur Jamur Pelarut Fosfat Secara In Vitro Raharjo, Budi
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2007
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

ABSTRAK---Fosfat merupakan nutrient essensial yang diperlukan oleh tanaman dalam pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya. Fosfat sebenarnya terdapat dalam jumlah yang melimpah dalam tanah, namun sekitar 95-99% terdapat dalam bentuk fosfat tidak terlarut sehingga tidak dapat digunakan oleh tanaman Upaya untuk mengatasi masalah ini, salah satunya adalah dengan pembuatan pupuk biologi dengan mikroba pelarut fosfat sebagai agen biofertilizer. Penelitian terdahulu, diperoleh isolat jamur pelarut fosfat dari sampel tanah gambut yang sudah teruji kemampuannya dalam melarutkan fosfat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh perbandingan isolat jamur pelarut fosfat yang tepat untuk digunakan sebagai formula kultur campur agar dapat melarutkan fosfat secara optimal, meningkatkan kemampuan jamur dalam melarutkan fosfat dengan adanya kerja yang sinergis dari jamur-jamur tersebut, menghasilkan pupuk biologi dengan mikroba sebagai agen biofertilizer. Penelitian dilakukan dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan perlakuan perbandingan isolat jamur pelarut fosfat yaitu kultur jamur tunggal NSJ 1, NSJ 5, NSJ 6, kultur jamur campur NSJ 1-NSJ 5, NSJ 1-NSJ 6, NSJ 5-NSJ 6, NSJ 1-NSJ 5-NSJ 6 dan kontrol. Kontrol perlakuan digunakan medium uji Pikovskaya tanpa inokulasi jamur. Variabel yang diamati meliputi pH medium kultur, total konsentrasi fosfat yang terlarut. Setiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak empat kali. Analisis data yang digunakan analisis sidik ragam (Ansira) dengan taraf kepercayaan 95 % untuk mengetahui perbedaan antar perlakuan. Jika Fhitung> Ftabel dilakukan uji lanjut dengan uji Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas pelarutan fosfat pada setiap perlakuan perbandingan isolat jamur F1-F7 secara umum terlihat pada perubahan medium Pikovskaya cair yang semula keruh menjadi bening. Aktivitas pelarutan fosfat mulai terlihat pada awal inkubasi (jam ke 0), dengan konsentrasi fosfat terlarut tertinggi 7,87 ppm yang dihasilkan oleh F5 dan terendah 5,33 ppm oleh F3. Konsentrasi fosfat terlarut menunjukkan penurunan setelah inkubasi 24 jam dengan memperlihatkan penurunan pH dari pH kultur awal inkubasi (jam ke 0) yang tidak begitu drastis. Pada inkubasi 48 jam, semua perlakuan mulai menunjukkan kenaikan konsentrasi fosfat terlarut. Penurunan pH pada inkubasi 48 jam ini dikarenakan adanya aktivitas metabolisme yang mensekresi asam organik. Hasil analisis sidik ragam konsentrasi fosfat terlarut pada inkubasi 48 jam, menunjukkan adanya perbedaan nyata (p<0,05) antar perlakuan perbandingan isolat jamur dalam pelarutan fosfat anorganik. Hal ini berarti bahwa formulasi perbandingan isolat jamur F1-F7 mempengaruhi pelarutan fosfat anorganik. Hasil analisis pada inkubasi 48 jam ini memperlihatkan bahwa perlakuan formulasi F7 paling tinggi dalam melarutkan fosfat dan adanya kerja sinergis dalam meningkatkan pelarutan fosfat. Kata Kunci: Agen biofertilizer, kultur campur, pelarutan fosfat
Analisis Kandungan Kadmium (Cd) dalam Tanaman Bawang Merah dari Tegal Kusumaningrum, Hermin Pancasakti; Herusugondo, Herusugondo; Zainuri, Muhammad; Raharjo, Budi
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 20 Issue 4 Year 2012
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

Ketergantungan pestisida pada sentra produksi bawang merah Kabupaten Tegal telah menimbulkan pencemaran logam berat kadmium (Cd) di dalam tanah dan tanaman bawang merah. Kadar logam tersebut telah melebihi ambang batas yang dapat mengganggu kesehatan manusia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan analisis kandungan kadmium pada akar, daun dan umbi tanaman bawang merah dari Tegal. Metode penelitian dilakukan melalui analisis kandungan logam berat kadmium dalam tanaman bawang merah  dibandingkan dengan kontrol menggunakan metode spektrofotometri atom absorbansi (AAS). Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan kandungan kadmium pada umbi, daun dan akar bawang merah di Tegal pada umur 20 hari berturut-turut adalah sebagai berikut 3,4805 mg/g; 4,1374 mg/g dan 7,9175 mg/g. Kandungan kadmium pada umbi, daun dan akar bawang merah umur 50 hari atau usia panen berturut-turut adalah sebagai berikut 1,8331 mg/g; 1, 8331 mg/g dan 3,5323 mg/g. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh menunjukkan konsentrasi kadmium yang melampaui batas ambang aman bagi makanan, kesehatan dan lingkungan.    Pesticide dependence on onion production centers Tegal has caused heavy metal pollution of cadmium (Cd) in the soil and plant onions. This metal content exceeds the threshold that can impair human health. The purpose of this study was to analyze lead content in root, leaves and bulb of red onion from Tegal. Research methods to analyze the content of heavy metals in the soil compared to the control using atomic absorbance spectrophotometry (AAS). The research results showed lead content in roots, leaves and roots of onion at the age of 20 days in a row is as follows 3,4805 mg/g; 4,1374 mg/g and 7,9175 mg/g. The results obtained shows that cadmium concentrations exceed safe thresholds for food, health and the environment.
Identifikasi Jenis Pigmen Dan Uji Potensi Antioksidan Ekstrak Pigmen Bakteri Serratia marcescens Hasil Isolasi Dari Sedimen Sumber Air Panas Gedong Songo Naufal, Adhitya; Kusdiyantini, Endang; Raharjo, Budi
Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 2, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (231.736 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma.19.2.95-103

Abstract

Pigments can be produced by plants, animals, and microbes, including the bacteria Serratia marcescens. Pigments are believed to be used as antibacterial, anticancer, antibiotic and antioxidant. The quality of the pigment is greatly determined by its type. The aim of this study was to identify the type of pigment produced by S. marcescens resulting from the sediment of Gedong Songo hot spring, and testing its antioxidant activity. S. marcescens was grown on Nutrient Broth (NB) medium for 96 hours at room temperature and sampled once every 6 hours for growth measurement and pigment measurement. Cell dry weight was used to measure the growth of S. marcescens, while the measurement of pigment production was done using spectrophotometer with 535 nm wavelength for red pigment and identification of pigment with Thin Layer Chromatography and UV-Vis and testing of antioxidant activity using carotene bleaching method. The results showed the measurement of pigment production has optimal point at 48 hours at 1,319 mg/L. Identification of pigment type S. marcescens using TLC obtained value of  0,8 with spectrophotometer wavelength at 536 nm. The value of antioxidant activity Pigment S. marcescens obtained at 13%. Keywords: Serratia marcescens, prodigiosin, KLT, antioxidant
PENGARUH KONSENTRASI DAN LAMA PERENDAMAN DALAM SUPERNATAN KULTUR Bacillus sp.2 DUCC-BR-KI.3 TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN STEK HORISONTAL BATANG JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.) Pamungkas, Febriani Tri; Damranti, Sri; Raharjo, Budi
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 17 Issue 3 Year 2009
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT--Jarak pagar (J. curcas L.) is a plant whose the seed can produce oil or it is known as biodiesel. J.  curcas's oil is the source of alternative oil energti that can be renewable and environmentally safe. Another ways  to increase the production of J. curcas's oil is by improving its  productivity. This activity cannot be separated from the problem of supplying the seed. Stem cutting  is one of the most ways to provide the seed than another way. The growth of stem cutting can be stimulated by giving ZPT that is IAA both naturally and synthetically. Bacillus  sp.2  DUCC-BR-KL.3 supernatant culture that contain IAA can be one of naturally alternative hormone. The aims of this research was to study the effect of concentration and submersion period in Bacillus  sp.2 DUCC-BR-KL.3  supernatant culture to the growth of J. curcas L. hoizontal stem cutting. This experiment was  condueted in Plant's Biologi Structure and Function Laboratory, MIPA faculty, Diponegoro University. Experimental design used in this research is Completely Random  Design with Factorial pattern 5x4 by using 5 replications. The first factor was concentration, ie P0 (control), P1 (25%), P2 (50%), P3 (75%) and P4 (100%). The  second factor was submerged periods, i.e T1 (1 hour), T2 (2 hours), and T3 (3 hours). The data were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis Test and ANOVA, if there are significantly  influence, were analyzed by using Duncan multiple range test with 95% confidence intevals that is in the variable of root lenght and weight of dry root. The result of this sudy showed that the giving of Bacillus sp.2 DUCC-BR-KL.3 supernatant culture influence to improve the bud and root growth of J. curcas L. Keywords :  Jatropha culcos L., supernalant, concentration, growth
MODA BUS KE MODA KERETA API JURUSAN SURABAYA – MOJOKERTO Widyastuti, Hera; Buana, Cahya; Istiar, Istiar; Herijanto, Wahju; Kartika, Anak Agung Gde; Arif, Catur; Raharjo, Budi; Solikhah, Ummatus; Prabawati, Aldila Riana
Prosiding Forum Studi Transportasi Antar Perguruan Tinggi Vol 2 No 1 (2014): The 17th FSTPT of International Symposium
Publisher : FSTPT Indonesia

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Abstract

Under the terms of the capacity, the railway mode is more efficient in terms of moving passengers and goods as to accommodate more passengers and goods than bus modes. Moreover, when there are obstacles in the road such as road maintenance progress, and hole on the road, flooding, existence of demonstration and others, bus modes will not be able to serve passenger well. However in terms of mobility and flesibility the bus is more flexible than the train because it hasn’t limited by the schedule The government started to build new tracks to reduce the delay in the arrival of trains and increase the frequency of train departures. The new tracks are expected to make better services for passengers and goods. Under these conditions, they need to do research on the possibility displacement modes of transportation on passengers. Stated Preference technique used to obtain data on the willingness of passengers to switch modes by distributing questionnaires to Surabaya-Mojokerto line passengers. Those questionnaire are distributed in three terminals which are Joyoboyo Terminal (Surabaya), Purabaya Terminal, Bungurasih (Sidoarjo), and Kertajaya Terminal (Mojokerto). The obtained data were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression. The result shown that respondent who spent 45 minute willing to move from bus to train is 27,13% whilst 60 minute is 48,10%. Considering the money spending of the respondent each time travel using bus in which stated as Rp. 15.000 it’s only 12,02% who are willing to move from bus to train.
Uji Potensi Bakteri Endofit Kitinolitik Tanaman Padi (Oryza sativa L.) Sebagai Penghasil Hormon IAA (Indole Acetic Acid) Hanafi, Ahmad; Purwantisari, Susiana; Raharjo, Budi
Bioma : Berkala Ilmiah Biologi Vol. 19, No. 1, Tahun 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (77.909 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma.19.1.76-82

Abstract

IAA (Indole Acetic Acid) is a hormone in plants that was role in the cleavage of roots, inhibits the growth of side shoots, stimulate cell division and the formation of xylem and phloem tissue. This study aimed to test the potential of endophytic bacteria chitinolytic rice crop as hormone-producing IAA. This study uses 9 isolates of endophytic bacteria chitinolytic rice plants in isolation during practical work. The experiment consisted of 15 treatments and 3 replications. This study uses a randomized block design. The treatments tryptophan concentration combined with a variation pH, the endophytic bacteria grown on media chitinolytic tryptophan concentration of 0 mg/L, 102 mg/L, 204 mg/L, 306 mg/L and 408 mg/L are combined with pH 5, 7 and 9. the treatment was observed for 48 hours and observation once every 3 hours. The measured variable is the result of the production of IAA hormone with the treatment combination of tryptophan with pH. IAA hormone outcome data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance Univariates at level of 95%. IAA hormone qualitative test results showed positive results in bacterial isolates KA12, KA11 and KB24. IAA hormone quantitative results of bacterial isolates producing IAA hormone KA12 high of 2,03 mg/L in the combination treatment of tryptophan 408 mg/L at pH 7 at 24 hours incubation. KA12 bacterial isolates are endophytic bacteria chitinolytic potential to produce hormones IAA, yet the results of data analysis showed that each treatment combination with pH tryptophan to IAA production were not significantly different. Keywords: hormone IAA, chitinolytic endophytic bacteria, tryptophan, pH