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Journal : Paediatrica Indonesiana

Stimulation and cognitive function in short-stature preschoolers Ika Citra Dewi; Rini Sekartini; Hartono Gunardi; Asrawati Nurdin
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 61 No 2 (2021): March 2021
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi61.2.2021.74-81


Background Normal-height children generally have better cognitive function than growth-stunted, short-stature children. Children’s cognitive function reportedly improves with stimulation. However, a correlation between stimulation and cognitive function in children with a history of short stature remains unclear. Objective To assess correlation between stimulation and cognitive function in normal-height vs. short-stature preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was performed in four sub-district areas in Jakarta. Preschool-aged children and their primary caregivers from previous studies on short stature were eligible for inclusion. An Indonesian version of a questionnaire was used to assess stimulation. A psychologist assessed verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and full-scale IQ (FSIQ) with the Indonesian version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation and Chi-square tests, and P values <0.05 were considered to be significant. Results Of 62 subjects, 64.5% had normal height and 35.5% had short stature. Both normal-height and short-stature children had similar IQ outcome and history of stimulation. The stimulation was significantly correlated with FSIQ in normal-height children (r= 0.316; P=0.047), but not short-stature children (r=0.049; P=0.828). However, the percentage differences in VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ between normal-height and short-stature children were not significant (P=0.409, 0.119 and 0.877, respectively). Conclusion There is a significant correlation between stimulation and IQ in normal-height children. Short-stature preschoolers were not worse in terms of IQ than normal-height preschoolers. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to provide regular and adequate stimulation to their young children.
Autism spectrum disorder screening in children aged 16-30 months using the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-Revised (M-CHAT-R) Clarissa Josephine Aditya; Jenni Kim Dahliana; Ariani Dewi Widodo; Rini Sekartini
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 61 No 5 (2021): September 2021
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi61.5.2021.247-52


Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a global prevalence of 7.6 in 1,000 children. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers - Revised (M-CHAT-R) is one of many screening tools for ASD. It is fast, easy to use, and has been translated and validated in the Indonesian language. Objective To determine the prevalence of ASD in Indonesia and its risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to October 2020. In the first protocol (March to July 2020), 219 children aged 16-30 months from 20 hospital walk-in clinics in five districts of Jakarta were included. Subjects’ parents filled out the M-CHAT-R questionnaire during their visit. A series of questions were asked to provide information about probable risk factors associated with ASD: gender, family history of ASD, preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), and history of seizures. The second protocol (August to October 2020) was completed by parents via an online form, where 746 children aged 16-30 months were enrolled. Therefore, a total of 965 subjects were eligible for statistical analysis. Results Of 965 subjects, 56.58% were males. Subjects’ mean of age was 22.59 (SD 4.15) months. M-CHAT-R screening showed that 34 (3.52%) subjects were at high risk of developing ASD. Only male gender was significantly associated with ASD. Conclusion We screened for ASD in healthy 16-30-month-old Indonesian children. The rate of high-risk M-CHAT-R score was 3.52%. Male gender was a significant risk factor for high-risk M-CHAT-R results.