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PENGHILANGAN AMONIAK DI DALAM AIR LIMBAH DOMESTIK DENGAN PROSES MOVING BED BIOFILM REACTOR (MBBR) Said, Nusa Idaman; Syabani, Muhammad Rizki
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 7 No. 1 (2014): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (701.042 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v7i1.2399

Abstract

The treatment process of wastewater contains organic pollutant which used in Indonesia especially in Jakarta is generaly activated sludge process. The problem is its treated water quality which frequently does not yet fulfilled to effluent standard of wastewater. Some affecting factors  are hydraulic retention time (HRT) too short, the fluctuation of wastewater flow rate, unfavorable function of aeration process and also which do not less important is operational mistake caused by insufficient knowledge of operator. To overcome the mentioned problems it is needed technological innovation to increase efficiency of wastewater treatment process especially activated sludge process. Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) technology is one of the  effective alternative for treating wastewater containing organic pollutants. In principle, MBBR is a modification of the activated sludge process is enhanced by adding the media into the aeration tank.This paper describes the study of domestic waste water treatment  using MBBR process which is filled with bioball plastic media which has specific surface 210 m2/m3 as much as 20 % of the volume of the aeration tank for attaching microorganism to increase efficiency and  keep stability of process.Result of the study shows that within 12 hours, 8 hours, 6 hours and 4 hours of hydraulic retention time (HRT) in aeration tank and sludge circulation ratio 0f R = 1.0 Q, the removal efficiency of ammonia were 94.05 %, 93.42 %, 89 %, and 79.6 % respectively. In ammonia loading 0.106 – 0.302 kg/m3.day, the removal efficiency of ammonia were 95.54 – 83.01 %. The greater ammonia loading,  removal efficiency of  ammonia  is getting smaller. Optimal residence time is 6 hours with ammonia removal efficiency reached 89 %, and the average concentration of ammonia in the effluent of 8.3 mg per litre.  Keyword : Domestic wastewater, ammonia, bioball, MBBR.
METODA PENGHILANGAN LOGAM BERAT (As, Cd, Cr, Ag, Cu, Pb, Ni dan Zn) DI DALAM AIR LIMBAH INDUSTRI Said, Nusa Idaman
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 6 No. 2 (2010): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (430.366 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v6i2.2464

Abstract

Industry is a potential source of water pollution, it produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment. Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant and into rivers, lakes and oceans. Inorganic industrial wastes are more difficult to control and potentially more hazardous Industries discharge a variety of toxic compounds and heavy metals. The most pollutans heavy metals are Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Selenium, Mercury, Nickel, Zinc, Arsen and Chromium. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate. Mercury for example, causes damages to the brain and the central nervous system, causes psychological changes and makes development changes in young children. Normally Mercury is a toxic substance which has no known function in human biochemistry.There are several methods to eliminate or remove heavy metals in water such as chemical oxidation process, ion exchange process, adsorption process, an electrochemical process, reverse osmosis process and other alternative methods likes biosorption. Each method has strengths and weaknesses, therefore to choose the method of removing heavy metals in wastewater depending on pollutants conditions such as concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater, types of heavy metal, heavy metal concentrations in treated water, land availability, flow rate of wastewater will be processed and other parameters. In this paper discusses several methods of removal of heavy metals in industrial wastewater such as chemical precipitation and oxidation processes, adsorption and ion exchange process. Keywords : water pollution, heavy metal, industrial wastewater, removal methods
KONDISI OSEANOGRAFI DI SELAT MATAK KABUPATEN KEPULAUAN ANAMBAS MELALUI MODEL HIDRODINAMIKA Riyadi, Agung; said, nusa idaman; Santos, Matih
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 7 No. 2 (2014): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1262.804 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v7i2.2416

Abstract

This paper describes some of the general condition of the oceanographic parameters in the Strait Matak, Anambas Archipelago. The data flow is obtained by direct measurement by using a current meter types RCM-7. Simulation models using Mike 21. Mike flow pattern is divided into two seasons, namely west season (January) and the east season (August) and flow patterns ahead of the tide when the season is generally moving west to wards the south, it demonstrates the role of strong tidal influence the movement of waterin the study area. Flow velocity in the strait just before the tide on the west season reaches 1m/s.  Flow patterns at high tide on the west season looks still moving toward sthe south. The maximum flow velocity in the strait when the tide reaches 0.32 m/s, while the average speed in the area of the model is 0.12 m/s. Low tide towards the current pattern is still moving towards the south, it reinforces the notion that in addition to tidal windsare also very significant role in moving the flow, in this case that the current is moving toward the south. Flow velocity just before low tide reaches 0.85 m/s. Flow patterns at low tide shows the differences in the three previous conditions, the current in the strait to move out to the north toward the South China Sea. In condition slow tide, the tida lmore dominantly than the wind, this proved to even though the wind toward the south, the currents inthestraitis moving toward snorth along the tidal flow leading to the South China Sea. Flow velocity is quite varied location of modeling; flow velocity at low tide reaches 0.5m/s, with the average 0.15 m/s. Keywords: current and direction, wind, tide, model.
APLIKASI BIO-BALL UNTUK MEDIA BIOFILTER STUDI KASUS PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH PENCUCIAN JEAN Said, Nusa Idaman
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 1 No. 1 (2005): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (398.104 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v1i1.2276

Abstract

The textile industry is one of the most popular industries in Indonesia. Although it’s giving a positive value towards economic value, it also contributes a bed effect towards environmental quality. One of those industries is small-scale laundry industry located in Kelurahan Sukabumi Selatan, West of Jakarta. The lack of land and money, most of the jeans laundry industry throws away their wastewater straight to the river system without any process. The present study describes the application plastic media called bio-ball as a biofilter supporting media for treating of jeans laundry industry wastewater using combined anaerobic and aerobic process. The type of reactor that is used in this research is a continuous flow biological reactor which has total volume 195 litter and divided into 5 zones, i.e. presedimentation , 2 anoxic zone, aerobic zone and post sedimentation zone. Reactor effluent is recirculated into presedimentation zone with hydraulic recycle ratio (HRR) 1:1. Seeding is done in a natural way by directly flowing the domestic wastewater into reactor with retention time 72 hours, until a biofilm layer is formed on the surface of bio-ball media. Acclimatization is done gradually by replacing domestic with laundry jeans wastewater in 72 hours retention time, until domestic wastewater was 100 % replaced, The main research were conducting by continuous operation under condition 72 hours, 48 hours and 24 hours retention time. The result of experiment shows that within the combined anaerobic and aerobic process using bio-ball plastic media under conditions 1 - 3 days retention time, the removal efficiency of COD 78 – 91 %, BOD 85 – 92 %, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 80 – 93 %, and Colour 48 – 57 % respectively.  The longer retention time has resulted in higher removal efficiency
METODA PENGHILANGAN ZAT BESI DAN MANGAN DI DALAM PENYEDIAAN AIR MINUM DOMESTIK Said, Nusa Idaman
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 1 No. 3 (2005): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (522.519 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v1i3.2352

Abstract

Small amounts of iron and manganese are quite common in domestic water supply because of the presence of iron and manganese in the soil and rock formations through which the water passes in reaching the point of use. Iron and manganese is characterized by red-brown staining of bathroom fixtures and laundry, and cause taste and odor problems. Iron and manganese are brought into solution by biological reactions under anaerobic reducing conditions. When the water is exposed to air or oxygen, oxidation of iron and manganese occurs slowly, forming objectionable colloidal precipitates. The deposition of these precipitates will stain plumbing fixtures, interfere with laundering, and cause difficulties in water distribution systems by supporting growth of microorganisms such as clonotrix and crenotrix that can clog pipelines and cause taste and odor problems. Processes in which oxidation is followed by removal of suspended solids can effectively remove soluble iron and manganese from water. Three common processes for removing iron and manganese are: aeration-filtration, chlorination filtration, and potassium permanganate-manganese greensand filtration. This article describes these processes and present result from pilot’s studies of iron and manganese removal from water. Kata kunci : zat besi, mangan, aerasi, kkhlorinasi, filtrasi, mangan zeolit.
PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH DOMESTIK DENGAN PROSES LUMPUR AKTIF YANG DIISI DENGAN MEDIA BIOBALL Said, Nusa Idaman; Utomo, Kristianti
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 3 No. 2 (2007): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (452.25 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v3i2.2337

Abstract

Recently, the treatment process of waste water contains organic pollutant which used in Indonesia especially in Jakarta is activated sludge process. The problem is its treated water quality which frequently does not yet fulfilled to effluent standard of wastewater. Some affecting factors  are hydraulic retention time (HRT) too short, the fluctuation of wastewater flow rate, unfavorable function of aeration process and also which do not less important is operational mistake caused by insufficient knowledge of operator. To overcome the mentioned problems it is needed technological innovation to increase efficiency of wastewater treatment process especially activated sludge process. This paper describes the study of domestic waste water treatment  using activated sludge process which is filled with bioball plastic media for attaching microorganism to increase efficiency and  keep stability of process. Result of the study shows that within 6 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT), the removal efficiency of COD, BOD, Ammonia and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) were 78.42%, 79.41%, 61.41%, and 82.06% respectively. The most effective of sludge circulation ratio is R=0,5Q. In sludge circulation ratio R= 0,5Q, the removal efficiency of COD, BOD, organic loading coming into bioreactor, the lower  removal efficiency. In organic loading (BOD loading) 0.3 - 1.0 kgBOD/m3.day, the removal efficiency of BOD was 80 - 85 %.  Kata kunci : Air limbah domestik, lumpur aktif, bioball, aerob.
PENGELOLAAN AIR LIMBAH DOMESTIK DI DKI JAKARTA Said, Nusa Idaman
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 2 No. 2 (2006): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (327.278 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v2i2.2307

Abstract

Water pollution problem caused by household waste water in the region of DKI Jakarta, and more made worse by affecting of expanding settlement area in buffer zone around Jakarta which without provided with waste water facilities, so that all waste water thrown to public channel and finally flowing  into river bodies in region of DKI Jakarta.To overcome the mentioned above Government of Province DKI Jakarta have released Regulation of Governor Province Special District Capital of Jakarta Number 122 Year 2005 About Management Of Domestic Water Waste In Province Special District Capital Of Jakarta. According To Regulation Of Governor of DKI Jakarta Number 122 Year 2005 Section 7 express that house building and non house building is obliged to manage domestic waste water before discharge to public channel or drainage. Planning of domestic waste water treatment installation which represent environmental utilities or building represent conditions in course of publication of Permit Directing Of Usage Of Land;Ground (SIPPT), Plan Arrange Situation Building ( RTLB), Permission Found Building (IMB), and awaking up of domestic waste water treatment installation represent conditions in course of publication of Permit of Building Usage (IPB) and Elegibility Use Building (KMB), and also licensing of operational of institution in charge related to such operational.  Kata Kunci : Air limbah domestik, air limbah rumah tangga, pengelolaan.
TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN AIR ASAM TAMBANG BATUBARA “Alternatif Pemilihan Teknologi” Said, Nusa Idaman
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 7 No. 2 (2014): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1474.528 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v7i2.2411

Abstract

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) treatment systems can be broadly categorised as either active or passive systems, which differ according to their ability to handle Acidity, flow rate and Acidity Load of the influent AMD.  Most passive and active systems utilise aggregate carbonate to neutralise the pH and encourage precipitation of metals as hydroxides or sulphide minerals.  In addition, passive treatment systems often use organic matter to provide alkalinity and create reducing conditions which favour the precipitation of metal sulphides.Active treatment systems can be engineered to accommodate essentially any acidity, flow rate and acidity load. Active treatment of AMD can be achieved using fixed plants or portable equipment for in-situ treatment. Passive treatment systems are almost invariably used for post closure treatment scenarios, and are best suited to AMD with low Acidity and low flow rates. The key factors in selection and design of active and passive AMD treatment systems are water chemistry including pH, metals, sulphate levels and redox state and flow rate of influent AMD, and the objectives of AMD treatment. Other important factors include capital and operating costs, availability of suitable treatment reagents or materials and sludge management issues. Keywords: Acid Mine Drainage, Active Treatment, Passive Treatment, Coal Mining.
REMOVAL OF COMMERCIAL ANIONIC DETERGENT IN WATER USING CONTINUOUS PROCESS OF BIOLOGICAL REACTOR WITH ADDING OF PAC Said, Nusa Idaman
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 3 No. 1 (2007): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (248.656 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v3i1.2317

Abstract

Synthetic detergents, mostly anionic detergents have been widely used in Indonesia  over past two decades, similar to its use in other developing countries, and residuals from such use have entered the country's riverine and estuarine systems. Detergent problems have become more serious especially in urban areas where the spread of sewerage systems are still low, even in drinking water treatment process. According to this reason, it is important to develop low-cost technology to solve this problem such as developing biological treatment for removing detergents.Effects OF continuous adding of powdeR activated carbon (PAC) on biological removal of anionic detergent in continuous reactor was assessed. Results of these experiments showed that introduction of PAC into biological treatment of anionic detergent (ABS or LAS), has indicated significant effect on removal efficiency. Conducting continuous feeding of PAC into bench scale of continuous process system for removal of detergent has resulted better stability of MBAS removal efficiency, even when MLSS concentration in aeration tank dropped or MBAS concentration in influent water rose rapidly. With continuous addition of PAC, the MBAS removal efficiency was relatively constant even when the water temperature dropped rapidly.  In other words, continuous feeding of PAC can improve the stability for shock loads or temperatures changes. At lower temperatures, micro organisms that were used for detergent removal in bench scale of continuous process system, need longer adaptation or acclimation periods compared with higher temperatures. Key Words: Commercial anionic detergent, biodegradation, biological reactor, powdered activated carbon (PAC).
MIKROORGANISME PATOGEN DAN PARASIT DI DALAM AIR LIMBAH DOMESTIK SERTA ALTERNATIF TEKNOLOGI PENGOLAHAN Said, Nusa Idaman; Marsidi, Ruliasih
Jurnal Air Indonesia Vol. 1 No. 1 (2005): Jurnal Air Indonesia
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (346.647 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jai.v1i1.2293

Abstract

Domestic waste are known to be a potential pollutant due to its’ organic and inorganic content. It is also harmful for society for its pathogenic microorganism contents such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasitic worms, parasitic protozoa, etc. The lack of domestic waste processing facilities is contributing to the increasing seriousness of this matter.One of the alternative ways to amend the problem is to process the waste individually or semi-communally by utilizing an aerobic-anaerobic biofilter process. Some of the advantage of utilizing this process is: easy maintenance, low operation cost, relatively lower sludge compared to the activated sludge  process, can remove nitrogen and phosphorus, relatively lower air supply requirement for aeration, applicable in processing waste water with large amount of BOD and it can also remove suspended solid (SS).  Results gained from experiments of the “Aerobic-Anaerobic Biofilter Combination” tool prototype, used for processing domestic waste showed that with a hydraulic retention time of 1 to 3 days and a Hydraulic   re-circulation ratio (HRR) of 1, is a highly efficient process which is: BOD 84.7% - 91%, COD 79.6%-95.3%, SS 94.1% - 95%, Ammonia (NH4-N) 89.3%-89.8%, Detergent (MBAS) 83% - 87% and phosphate (PO4) 44,4% - 47.3%. Kata kunci : Air limbah domestik, patogen, parasit, biofilter, anaerob, aerob.