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Journal : Animal Production : Indonesian Journal of Animal Production

Vibrational Spectroscopic Investigation of Biomolecular Responses of Carbohydrate Structure to Moisture and Dry Heating in Soybean Seed (Glycine max) Samadi, Samadi; Yu, P
ANIMAL PRODUCTION Vol 14, No 1 (2012): January
Publisher : Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Faculty of Animal Science, Purwokerto-Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (717.4 KB)

Abstract

Abstract. The objective of this experiment was to investigate carbohydrate structures of seed tissue affected by different heat processing methods using infrared vibrational molecular spectroscopy.  In this study, soybean seeds (two different harvested years; 2008 and 2010) were used as a model to investigate the alteration of inherent structure carbohydrate due to heat treatments. Structural characteristics of the bands in typical infrared molecular spectrum were studied in the region at ca. 1452-1188 cm-1 related to cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds and the region at ca. 1193-881 cm-1, related to total CHO. Multivariate molecular spectral analyses: Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were applied to identify heat-induced changes of molecular spectral profiles. Treatments used in this study were raw soybean seeds as control,  autoclaved soybean seeds at 120°C for 1 h (HT-1: wet heating) and dry roasted soybean seeds at 120°C for 1 h (HT-2: dry heating).  The results showed that the heat treatments did not change spectral profiles of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and total CHO. Based on spectral analysis, CLA and PCA also did not produce any alterations among different treatments in original spectra at cellulosic, hemicellulosic and total CHO regions. In conclusion, the molecular spectral technique with multivariate spectral technique can be considered as a research tool to investigate the magnitude of heat-induced change in carbohydrate molecular structure and other biopolymers in feeds, seed and plant tissues. These techniques could be used in the food and feed industry in which, losing or changing carbohydrate molecular chemistry was able to be detected in rapidly without any destruction and chemical hazardous. Further studies are needed to understand the trend in structural changes by heating with increasing temperature and time of exposure.Keywords: carbohydrate molecular, heat processing, molecular spectroscopy, soybean seed, feedsAnimal Production 14(1):23-31, January 2012
In Vitro Study of Fermented Complete Feed by Using Sago Residues as Main Source Diet Samadi, Samadi; Wajizah, Sitti; Usman, Yunasri
ANIMAL PRODUCTION Vol 17, No 3 (2015): September
Publisher : Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Faculty of Animal Science, Purwokerto-Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (788.011 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.anprod.2015.17.3.542

Abstract

Recently, fermentation of low quality feed such as agro industry by products has been widely applied to produce enriched animal feed and improve animal productivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro digestibility of fermented complete feed by using agro-residues from sago starch processing industries as main source diet.  Feed was formulated on the basis of 40% sago residue and mixed with other ingredients (rice brand, coconut meal, bread by product, soybean meal and soybean hulls) to fulfill the requirement of sheep with 16,10% of CP, 2,80 Mkal ME/kg and TDN 60,88% based on calculation. Mineral and Urea were added in the complete feed to reach mineral and CP requirements of sheep.  Complete feed formulation was fermented by using 3 commercial fermentation products (Saus Burger Pakan® (SBP), Probion® and EM4®) for 21 days. Total and types of microbes from commercial fermentation products which were utilized in this study were not determined. Parameters measured in this study were pH, NH3, IVDMD (in vitro dry matter digestibility), IVOMD (in vitro organic matter digestibility) and VFA total. The model used for the statistical analysis was completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments (control and 3 different commercial fermentation products) and 4 replications.  The results of this study indicated that administration of different commercial fermentation products into fermented complete feed based on sago residues significantly influenced (P<0.05) on pH, NH3, VFA total, IVDMD and IVOMD. Generally, commercial fermentation products mainly SBP produced better feed quality by improving the values of pH, NH3, VFA total, IVDMD and IVOMD. However, types and total microorganisms were needed to be determined before experiment.
Improving Sugarcane Bagasse as Animal Feed by Ammoniation and Followed by Fermentation with Trichoderma harzianum (In Vitro Study) Samadi, Samadi; Wajizah, Siti; Usman, Yunasri; Riayatsyah, Denny; Firdausyi, Zidny Al
ANIMAL PRODUCTION Vol 18, No 1 (2016): January
Publisher : Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Faculty of Animal Science, Purwokerto-Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (809.403 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.anprod.2016.18.1.516

Abstract

Sugarcane bagasse is one of agro-industrial residues containing low nutrient content and difficult to be digested by animals.  However, it can be recycled to produce value-added product such as protein-enriched animal feed by application feed technology such as ammoniation and fermentation. The purposes of these experiments were to evaluate the quality and in vitro digestibility of sugarcane bagasse by using two steps feed technology process: ammoniation and continued by fermentation process. Two studies were conducted in these experiments.  The first study was to determine the quality of amoniated sugarcane bagasse after incubation at room temperature at different days (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 days) and the second study was to determine in vitro degestibility of  ammoniated sugarcane bagasse fermented by using the various levels of sago flour (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% from sample total) and kept at room temperature for 21 day in an-aerobic condition. Parameters measured in this study were DM, CP, CF, pH, OM, IVDMD (in vitro dry matter digestibility), IVOMD (in vitro organic matter digestibility). The model used for the statistical analysis was completely randomized design (CRD). The results of the first study indicated that length of incubation was not significantly affect (P>0.05) on crude fiber content but had significant effect (P<0.05) on crude protein content but only for control treatment. For the second study concluded that administration of the various levels of sago flour into ammoniated sugarcane bagasse fermented with T.harzianum significantly influenced (P<0.05) on OM, IVDMD and IVOMD but had not significantly effect on pH value. The results of the study indicated that application 10% of soluble carbohydrate from sago flour was recommended for fermentation process based on the results of in vitro and fermented feed quality studies.
Administration of Various Feed Additives on Cholesterol Content of Meat and Fat Abdomen of Local Chicken (Gallus domesticus) Ilham, Ilham; Nurliana, Nurliana; Al azhar, Al azhar; Delima, Mira; Sugito, Sugito; Samadi, Samadi
ANIMAL PRODUCTION Vol 20, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Faculty of Animal Science, Purwokerto-Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (476.732 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.jap.2018.20.1.677

Abstract

Cholesterol consumed more than required body will influence health problem such as arteriosklerosis and finally resulted in coronary hearth. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concentration of cholesterol and fat abdomen local chicken administrated various levels of feed additives. Totally 200 chickens from growth study were selected for 20 chickens at the age of 90 d for further cholesterol and fat abdomen analysis. This study was designed by using completely randomized consisting of 4 treatments and 5 replications. Four treatments in this study was administration of feed additives either in the water or in the feed (A0 = control-vita chick 0.7 gram/liter; A1= 20 ml/liter probio-FM; A2= 0.08% MOS (manan-oligosakarida)/kg in feed and A3= herbal leuser KI 5 ml/liter). Variables observed in this study were the content of cholesterol and fat abdomen. All data were statistically analyzed using SPSS and differences between treatments were stated (P<0.05) by using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results of the study indicated that administration of various feed additives significantly effected (P<0.05) on the cholesterol content of breast meat of local chickens.  The average of breast meat cholesterol content was 52 mg/100g, 44 mg/100g, 43 mg/100g and  46 mg/100g for A0, A1, A2 and A3 respectively. Administration of administration of various feed additives significantly reduced (P<0.05) the percentage of fat abdomen of local chickens with the percentage of 0.78%, 0.36%, 0.27% and 0.42% for A0, A1, A2 and A3 respectively. This study concluded that administration various feed additives significantly reduced cholesterol content and the percentage of fat abdomen with the lowest of cholesterol content 43 mg/100g and the lowest percentage of fat abdomen 0.27% for prebiotic treatment.
Evaluation of Agro-Industrial by Products as Potential Local Feed for Ruminant Animals: Chemical Composition, Fiber Fractions and In Vitro Rumen Fermentation Pratama, Said Mirza; Wajizah, Sitti; Jayanegara, Anuraga; Samadi, Samadi
ANIMAL PRODUCTION Vol 20, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Faculty of Animal Science, Purwokerto-Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (868.044 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.jap.2018.20.3.715

Abstract

Animals are considered as source of protein should be improved their productivity with the minimum cost production. Agro-industrial by products have been used as animal feed to reduce feed cost. The purpose of this study is to evaluate agro-industrial by product in Aceh as potential local feed for ruminant animals based on chemical composition, fiber fraction and in vitro rumen fermentation. There were eight sources of agro-industrial by products (sago residues, coconut meal, soybean-ketchup by product, coffee pulp, cacao pod, sago tree, corncob, and rice brand) which were collected from 3 different locations in Aceh.  All agro-industrial by product samples were dried at 600C for 24 h and ground to pass a 1 mm sieve. Grounded samples were analyzed to determine chemical composition, fiber fractions and in vitro rumen fermentation. Incubation was conducted at temperature 390C for 48 h in water bath with three replicates. Data for in vitro rumen fermentation were statically calculated by using SPSS differences between treatments were stated (P≤0.05) by using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results indicated that agro industrial by product from coconut meal, ketchup residues, coffee by product, cacao by product, and rice brand can be used as source of protein and industrial by product from sago by product, sago tree and corncob can be used as source of energy. Neutral detergent  insoluble  CP (NDICP) and Acid detergent insoluble CP (ADICP)  were relatively high for sago by product, sago tree and rice brand but relatively low for cacao by product and corncob. The value of incubated pH for most feed samples was in the normal range. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro organic matter  digestibility (IVOMD) were significantly difference (P≤0.05) each agro-industrial by products with the highest for sago and the lowest for coffee by product. In conclusion, agro-industrial by products had a potential feed for ruminant animals both as protein and energy sources. However, feed ingredients with high fiber content and low degradability, further treatments such as physical, chemical and biological treatments were required to improve the feed quality. 
The Effects of Various Types of Feed additives on The Chemical Composition of Local Chicken Meat (Gallus domestica). Makmur, Ali; Sugito, Sugito; Samadi, Samadi
ANIMAL PRODUCTION Vol 20, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Faculty of Animal Science, Purwokerto-Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (775.364 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.jap.2017.19.3.666

Abstract

Abstract. This study aims to determine the effect of giving various types of feed additives to the chemical composition value of super chicken chicken (Gallus domestica). This research is an experimental research using 20 super chicken chickens that come from chicken growth research (growth study). The design used in this study was Completely Randomized Design (RAL), consisting of 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatment given was (A0 = control (Vita chick 0.7 gram / liter; A1 = 20 ml / liter probio-FM; A2 = 0.08% MOS-oligosaccharide / kg of feed and A3 = herbal leuser KI 5 ml / liter). is a 90 day old super chicken breast Chicken Variable observed moisture content, protein content and fat content The data obtained were analyzed by using vocabulary and tested further by Duncan's Multiple Range Test The results showed that treatment (P> 0,05) to the value of water content and protein of super chicken fowl.Average value of water content at each treatment A0 (69,81%), A1 (70,74%), A2 (71,56%) and A3 (71,52%) while mean value of protein A0 (18,95%), A1 (19,61%), A2 (19,01%) and A3 (19,14%)) P <0,05) to the fat content of super chicken flesh, mean of fat content were A0 (2.02%), A1 (1.49%), A2 (1.37%) and A3 (2.0%).Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemberian berbagai jenis imbuhan pakan terhadap nilai komposisi kimia daging ayam kampung super (Gallus domestica). Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian experimen dengan menggunakan 20 ekor ayam kampung super yang berasal dari penelitian pertumbuhan ayam (growth study). Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL), terdiri dari 4 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Perlakuan yang diberikan adalah (A0 = kontrol (Vita chick 0.7 gram/liter; A1= 20 ml/liter probio-FM; A2= 0.08% MOS-oligosakarida/kg pakan dan A3= herbal leuser KI 5 ml/liter). Sampel penelitian adalah Daging dada ayam kampung super umur 90 hari. Variabel yang diamati kadar air, kadar protein dan kadar lemak. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan sidik ragam dan di uji lanjut dengan uji Duncan (Duncan’s Multiple Range Test). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pemberian perlakuan tidak berpengaruh nyata (P>0,05) terhadap nilai kadar air dan protein daging ayam kampung super. Rataan nilai kadar air pada setiap perlakuan A0 (69,81%), A1 (70,74%), A2 (71,56%) dan A3 (71,52%) sedangkan rataan nilai kadar protein A0 (18,95%), A1 (19,61%), A2 (19,01%) dan A3 (19,14%). Perlakuan berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,05) terhadap nilai kadar lemak daging ayam kampung super. Rataan kadar lemak yaitu A0 (2,02%), A1 (1,49%), A2 (1,37%) dan A3 (2,0%).