Kudang B. Seminar
Departemen Teknik Mesin dan Biosistem, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor

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MODEL PENDUGAAN KANDUNGAN AIR, LEMAK DAN ASAM LEMAK BEBAS PADA TIGA PROVENAN BIJI JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.) MENGGUNAKAN SPEKTROSKOPI INFRAMERAH DEKAT DENGAN METODE PARTIAL LEAST SQUARE (PLS) PURWOKO, BAMBANG S.; SEMINAR, KUDANG B.; BUDIASTRA, I WAYAN; LENGKEY, LADY C. E. CH.
853-8212
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

ABSTRAKJarak pagar berpotensi sebagai sumber biodiesel karena kandunganlemak yang tinggi (>40%) dan belum ada penggunaan lainnya.Spektroskopi (Near Infrared) NIR adalah metode yang cepat untukmengukur spektrum sampel dan tidak terdapat limbah kimia. Tujuanpenelitian adalah mengembangkan metode pendugaan komposisi kimiabeberapa  provenan  jarak  pagar  berdasarkan  spektroskopi  NIRmenggunakan kalibrasi PLS. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan tigaprovenan jarak pagar yaitu IP-3A, IP-3M, dan IP-3P masing-masing 85sampel. Spektrum reflektansi diukur menggunakan alat NIRFlex SolidsPetri pada panjang gelombang 1000–2500 nm. Sekitar ⅔ jumlah sampeldigunakan untuk mengembangkan persamaan kalibrasi dan ⅓ jumlahsampel untuk validasi. Pra perlakuan data spektrum dilakukan dengannormalisasi antara 0-1, turunan pertama Savitzky-Golay 9 titik dangabungan keduanya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan spektroskopi NIRdapat menduga kadar air, lemak, dan asam lemak bebas . Koefisienkorelasi (r) antara komponen kimia metode acuan dengan dugaan NIR>0,83 menunjukkan ketepatan model cukup baik (r kadar air=0,96, r kadarlemak=0,92, dan r ALB=0,89 ). Konsistensi model kalibrasi kadarair=94,85%, lemak=82,56%, dan ALB=87,80%. Koefisien keragamandugaan (Prediction Coeficient Variability/PCV) ketiga model <10%menunjukkan model yang dibangun cukup handal. Ratio of standard errorprediction to deviation (RPD) menunjukkan metode spektroskopi NIRdapat digunakan untuk menentukan kadar air (RPD=3,30) dan lemak(RPD=2,06). Model-model yang dikembangkan secara umum layakuntuk menentukan kadar air dan lemak biji jarak pagar, tetapi belumoptimal untuk penentuan kadar ALB biji jarak pagar.Kata kunci: NIR , jarak pagar, kadar air, kadar lemak, kadar asam lemakbebasABSTRACTPhysic nut is a potential source of biodiesel. It is high in fat content,above 40% and has not been usesed for other purposes. Moisture, free fattyacid, and fat content are the chemical compounds and determinant factorfor physic nut seed quality. The objective of this study was to develop amethod to predict chemical composition of physic nut by NIRspectroscopy and PLS calibration. The study was conducted using threeprovenances of physic nut, i.e. IP-3A, IP-3M, and IP-3P, with 85 sampleseach. The wavelengths of near infrared reflectance ranged from 1000 to2500 nm, and measured by NIR Flex Solids Petri Apparatus.Approximately ⅔ of total samples were used for developing calibrationequation, while ⅓ of total samples for performing validation. Pre-treatmentof spectrum data was done by applying normalization, first derivative ofSavitzky–Golay 9 points, and as well as their combination. The resultsshowed that NIR spectroscopy performed acceptable prediction formoisture and fat content. Correlation coefficients (r) between the referencemethod and NIR prediction were 0.96 for moisture content, 0.92 for fatcontent, and 0.89 for FFA and the consistency of the model were 94.85%for moisture content, 82.56% for fat, and 87.80% for FFA. Prediction ofcoefficient of variability (PCV) of the three models ≤10 % shows that themodels are reliable. Ratio of standard error prediction to deviation (RPD)for moisture content has the potential to be used for screening (RPD=3.30)though the fat content model has rough screening (RPD=2.06).Key words: NIR, physic nut, moisture, fat, free fatty acid contents.
Akuisisi Spektrum Near Infrared Reflectance pada Biji Kakao Zulfahrizal, Zulfahrizal; Sutrisno, Sutrisno; Seminar, Kudang B.; Munawar, Agus A.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 4, No 1 (2013): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Akuisisi spektrum Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) untuk produk olahan kakao telah banyak dilakukan dalam berbagai penelitian namun untuk biji kakao utuh masih belum dilakukan. Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan teknik akuisisi spektrum NIRS untuk mendeteksi tingkat fermentasi biji kakao dan menentukan selang panjang gelombang yang mengandung informasi kualitas biji kakao secara nondestruktif. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia, Jember-Indonesia dan Georg August University of Göttingen di Göttingen-Jerman pada Juli 2012 sampai Februari 2013. Penelitian menggunakan Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) dan Standard Normal Variate (SNV), Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SGs) dan derivative pertama (D1), derivative kedua (D2) sebagai metode koreksi spektrum dan Principal Component Analysis (PCA) sebagai metode pengolah data spektrum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa akuisisi spektrum NIRS pada biji kakao tumpukan mampu menggantikan akuisisi NIRS pada biji kakao individu. NIRS juga diketahui mampu membedakan tingkat fermentasi pada biji dan bubuk kakao. Melalui studi ini ditemukan juga selang panjang gelombang yang dapat mengidentifikasikan kualitas kakao sehingga dapat digunakan untuk penelitian selanjutnya dalam pengembangan model identifikasi kualitas kakao.Kata Kunci: Biji kakao, NIRS, metode nondestruktifNear Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) spectra acquisition for processed cocoa products has been widely applied in various studies. The application of this method for whole intact cocoa beans is however scarce. The objectives of this research were to develop a spectral acquisition technique of NIRS to detect fermentation level of cocoa beans and determine the wavelength range interval containing cocoa bean quality information nondestructively. This research was performed in Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember-Indonesia for fermentation treatment and Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany for spectra acquisition. These were conducted from July 2012 to February 2013. Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC), Standard Normal variate (SNV), Savitzky-Golay Smoothing (SGS) and spectra transformation into its first and second derivative (D1 and D2 respectively) were used as spectral pre-processing method whilst principal component analysis (PCA) was applied as a method of data processing. The results showed that NIRS spectrum acquisition on bulk of cocoa beans could replace NIRS acquisition on the individual beans. NIRS is able to distinguish the fermentation stages both in cocoa beans and cocoa powder. The study also found several NIR wavelength range interval associated with cocoa quality so that it can be used for further studies to develop cocoa quality attributes prediction models.