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Dewi Sumaryani Soemarko
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia

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The influence of sitting work position and sitting time for the risk of hemorrhoid in female production workers at the hand-rolled cigarette factory Abadiyah, Izzatul; Soemarko, Dewi Sumaryani; Herqutanto2; Wibowo, Suryo; Roestam, Ambar
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 1 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (639.878 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i1.1.3-14

Abstract

Introduction: According to medical check up results of the hand-rolled cigarette factory PT. X in 2018, a hemorrhoid prevalence of 33% was found. Several studies have tried to show an association between individual factors such as age, family history, constipation, obesity, pregnancy, fiber consumption, and defecation position in research subjects in clinics and hospitals. Nevertheless, the effects of sitting work position and sitting time on the risk of hemorrhoid is yet to be revealed. This study aims to prove the effect of these factors on the increased risk of hemorrhoids. Methods: An observational study with a 1:1 unmatched case control design with 300 female workers as subjects. The risk factors related with hemorrhoids were obtained from primary and secondary data. Cases were workers diagnosed with hemorrhoids and controls were workers who were not diagnosed with hemorrhoids during a medical check-up 2018. Data analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate analysis. Results: The mean ages of the subjects were 42.49±3.05 years old (cases) and 42.83±3.02 years old (controls), with most education level was a junior high school in both groups. Bivariate analysis pointed out that sitting work position and sitting time did not have a significant relationship with the incidence of hemorrhoids. Meanwhile, consumption of less fruit (OR=3.84;95%CI 1.87-7.91) and less vegetable (OR=2.41;95%CI 1.36-4.28) increased the risk of hemorrhoid compared to sufficient vegetables and fruit consumption. Conclusion: Sitting work position and sitting time were not associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Meanwhile, consumption of less vegetable and fruit increased the risk of hemorrhoids.
Determination of Occupational Disease in Worker with Liver Cirrhosis That Exposed by Vinyl Chloride Superimposed with Hepatitis B Infection Soemarko, Dewi Sumaryani; Prasetyo, Aditya Agung
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (305.183 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.11.78-83

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Background: Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases that characterized by the formation of regenerative nodules and fibrotic tissue. The etiology of liver cirrhosis are hepatitis C, hepatitis B, alcohol, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and can also be caused by chemicals in the workplace. The occupational diagnosis of Liver Cirrhosis that exposed by vinyl chloride superimposed with hepatitis B infection with was performed by using The Seven Steps of Occupational Diagnosis, a method that issued by PERDOKI (Indonesian Occupational Medicine Association-IOMA). The aim of this case report is to determine whether liver cirrhosis in this patient is an occupational disease or not.Case Presentation: Fifty years old man came to Emergency Room with complaints of vomiting black blood since 4 hours. Vomiting blood as much as 5 times with a volume of about 200 cc each time. One day before, patient admitted that his defecation is black, watery, and smell bloody. Volume of defecation was unknown. Three months before, patient complainted that the stomach often felt bloated, enlarged, and got full quickly. There was no icteric in eyes and body.This complaints (vomiting black blood and black stools) were often occured since 2017. In 2017, 2018 and 2020, this patient was hospitalized once while in 2019, the patient was hospitalized twice for this complaint. In 2017, when the complaint first appeared, the patient was declared to have hepatitis B and in 2019, the patient underwent an endoscopy and was said to have enlarged blood vessels in the esophagus, and an abdominal ultrasound was performed and was said to be suspected of liver cirrhosis.This patient works as a family owned chemical industry. The chemical produced is called zamitex, a mixture for paints. These chemicals contain formaldehyde, Vinyl Chloride, and CMC (Carboxymethyl Cellulose). This patient had worked in this field for 21 years, and was exposed to these chemicals. In addition, there are also dangers of heat, awkward positions, and psychosocial.Conclusion: Based on The Seven Steps of Occupational Diagnosis, Liver cirrhosis in this patient can be categorized as an occupational disease superimposed with hepatitis B infection. Liver cirrhosis in this patient can be caused by prolonged exposure to Vinyl Chloride. Vinyl Chloride is known to cause damage to the liver, especially to cause carcinoma of the liver. There is a synergistic effect between exposure to Vinyl Chloride and hepatitis B infection, exacerbating the condition of liver damage. However, because the exposure to Vinyl Chloride has been going on for a longer time, compared to hepatitis B infection, the condition of liver cirrhosis in this patient is still categorized as an occupational disease.