Subyakto Subyakto
Research Center for Biomaterials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jalan Raya Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong, Bogor 16911,

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Journal : Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan

Characteristics of Environmentally Friendly Food Container Composite Made From Sorghum Bagasse and Citric Acid ismadi, ismadi; Kusumah, Sukma Surya; Subyakto, Subyakto; Subiyanto, Bambang; Suryanegara, Lisman; Marlina, Resti
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 9, No 2 (2020): December 2020 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v9i02.27345


The common food container product was made from plastic such as polypropylene, polystyrene, etc which has slowed to degrade hence affected to the environmental pollution and health disorder. Therefore, environmentally friendly food container composite is developed from sustainable resources such as sorghum bagasse and citric acid. The effects of sorghum species, sorghum particles and citric acid content on the composite properties were investigated. Local species of sorghum was used as raw material such as Super 2 in the manufacturing of food packaging.  The size and moisture content of the particles were passthrough on 40 mesh and 10%, respectively. The content of the particle was variated such as 10, 15, and 20% wt. Furthermore, citric acid was used as a binder with difference content such as 10, 20, and 30% wt.  Those raw materials were mixed with tapioca starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and glutaraldehyde. The mixing material was hot pressed at 180 ℃ for 15 minutes. The composite dimension was 12 cm x 10 cm x 3 mm. The physical and mechanical properties of the composite were carried out. Considering the properties of the composite, sorghum bagasse and citric acid are suitable as raw material of food container composite.
Hybrid Particleboard Made of Corn Husk (Zea Mays L.) and Sembilang Bamboo (Dendrocalamus Giganteus Munro): Effect of Adhesive Type and Particle Composition Prasetiyo, Kurnia Wiji; Hermawan, Dede; Hadi, Yusuf Sudo; Subyakto, Subyakto; Firdaus, Muhammad; Syamani, Firda Aulya; Astari, Lilik
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 2 (2021): December 2021 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i2.31600


Particleboard is a panel product made of wood particles or other lignocellulosic materials added with adhesive then pressed. The development of particleboard manufactured using non wood biomass has become important due to the decreased of wood as main raw material for the particleboard industry. Corn husk (Zea mays L.) and Sembilang bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro) are lignocellulosic biomass that has  potential as  renewable materials for hybrid particleboard. The purposes of this study were to determine the suitability, the effect of adhesive type, and particle composition on physical and mechanical properties of hybrid particleboard made of corn husk and Sembilang bamboo particles. The adhesive types used were urea formaldehyde (UF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) with 10 wt% adhesive content and the composition of corn husk : Sembilang bamboo was  set at 100 : 0, 75 : 25, 50 : 50, 25 : 75, 0 : 100 (% w/w). The target density of hybrid particleboard was set at 0.80 g/cm3. The boards were manufactured at 130 °C for UF and 150 °C for PF press temperature, 10 minutes and 2.5 MPa for the pressure of the hot press. The results showed that hybrid particleboard properties improved with increasing the amount of Sembilang bamboo particles in the board. Hybrid particleboard properties affected in ascending order were modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond (IB) and screw holding power (SHP). Generally, hybrid particleboard bonded PF adhesive has better properties than bonded UF adhesive. Results indicated that the addition of Sembilang bamboo particles in the mixture resulted in better properties of hybrid particleboard.
Synthesis and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches and Mahogany Sawdust Arundina, Ria Yolanda; Permana, Indri; Togatorop, Ester Rimma Suryani; Ismadi, Ismadi; Kusumah, Sukma Surya; Budiman, Ismail; Subyakto, Subyakto; Marlina, Resti
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan Vol 10, No 2 (2021): December 2021 [Nationally Accredited - Sinta 2]
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jbat.v10i2.33488


Lignocellulosic biomass is a biological residue from the agricultural or forestry industry which is composed of polymeric cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and other extractive components. One of the products in the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass waste is activated carbon products. In this study, two types of lignocellulosic biomass waste were used, namely Empty Palm Oil Bunches (OPEFB) and Mahogany Sawdust (MS) to be converted into activated carbon using the hydrothermal-pyrolysis method. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as an activating agent at high concentrations (50% w/w) to improve the adsorption mechanism in activated carbon material. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain information related to yield, moisture content, and ash content. In addition, activated carbon samples were characterized using FTIR, XRD, and FESEM to observe the chemical bonds, structure, and morphology of activated carbon, respectively. The proximate analysis showed that the activated carbon sample had met the SNI 63-3730-1995 standard for technical activated carbon on the parameters of water content and ash content, while the FTIR spectrum showed the mechanism of biomass conversion from raw materials to activated carbon on a chemical bond approach. Furthermore, the XRD graph shows a reduction in the crystal size of the material from raw material to activated carbon material. Finally, the FESEM image shows a significant increase in the quality and quantity of pores on the carbon material before and after activation.