Muhammad Bahrul Ulum
Faculty Of Law, University Of Jember

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Revisiting Liberal Democracy and Asian Values in Contemporary Indonesia Ulum, Muhammad Bahrul; Hamida, Nilna Aliyan
Constitutional Review Vol 4, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (332.629 KB) | DOI: 10.31078/consrev415

Abstract

This paper aims to examine the complex and often contentious relationship between constitutionalism and integralism in the Indonesian government and provides a criticism of democratization within the contemporary state. Integralist state portrays the relationship between the state and the people as analogous to a family, with the state as a father and the people as children (the Family Principle). Those that adhere to this view, with regard to contemporary Asian politics, claim that Asian values are inherently integralist, that Asia’s particular history and values different considerably from the West’s, and that Pancasila, Indonesia’s state philosophy, is utilized to establish romanticized relations between the ruler and the ruled. The data presented in this paper was collected from relevant articles on Indonesian democracy and Asian values. It also demonstrates how Pancasila, as Indonesia’s core guiding philosophy, has influenced debates over how the constitutional should be applied and interpreted. As the research shows, during the regimes of Sukarno and Suharto, Pancasila was manipulated in order to promote the goals of the state, and that a reliance on integralism during Indonesia’s founding years severely diminished human rights and Indonesia’s capacity for an efficient democracy. By continually putting the priorities of the state above those of the people, the Indonesian government has contradicted its adoption of human rights and liberal democracy is often challenged by the spirit of integralism.
Mekanisme Pemakzulan Presiden dan/atau Wakil Presiden Menurut UUd 1945 (Antara Realitas Politik dan Penegakan Konstitusi) Ulum, Muhammad Bahrul
Jurnal Konstitusi Vol 7, No 4 (2010)
Publisher : Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (591.297 KB) | DOI: 10.31078/jk%x

Abstract

The Inquiry rights was the implementation of the oversight function of House Representative (DPR) to Presiden/and  or Vice President. The  use  of  inquiry  right  as  a  political  strategy  in impeachment mechanism to President/and or Vice President depend on reality and political consensus of the DPR, so there are possibilities and tendencies that the rule of law and democracy    are not be able to maintained as stipulated in Article 1 the 1945 Constitution. The decree of impeachment of the President and/or Vice President as provide in the 1945 Constitution tend unable  to uphold the rule of law when the Constitutional Court decided the President and / or Vice President violated the constitution, namely the dismissal of the President and or the Vice President made by the Assembly through a political decision (politeke beslssing). The efforts to maintains consistency of the concept of law as stipulated in Article 1 paragraph (3), Article 7B paragraph (3) and paragraph (7) of the 1945 Constitution, without opening  the chance intervention of political interests and obligations of the Assembly to implement the decision of the Constitutional Court. Therefore, the rule of law must be a cornerstone in the practice of constitutional law in  Indonesia.
Promoting the Right to Education through A Card: A Paradox of Indonesia’s Educational Policy? Ulum, Muhammad Bahrul; Wildana, Dina Tsalist
JILS (Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies) Vol 4 No 1 (2019): Penal Policy and The Development of Criminal Law Enforcement
Publisher : Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3055.297 KB) | DOI: 10.15294/jils.v4i01.26973

Abstract

In 2015, the Indonesian government unveiled the Smart Indonesia Program, or Program Indonesia Pintar (PIP). The program consisted of educational subsidies through cash transfers exclusively granted to students aged from 6 to 21 years old from poor families. This paper examines the role of the PIP subsidy pertaining to the fulfilment of the right to education. As a consequence, it resulted in a competing account between cash transfers and the minimum standard of government duties to fulfil the need for adequate educational support. There is a paradox in the government’s educational policy on the fulfilment of human rights to education in dealing with the PIP program. While educational complexities faced in remote areas cannot be hindered and it is granted not solely to students from vulnerable families. Such discrepancies in programs circumstantially affirm that the government ignores the root of Indonesia’s educational problems, including providing free education as its obligation to human rights. The research conducted concludes by suggesting the government to evaluate the current policies by considering budget priorities and the efficiency of providing inclusive education.
Promoting the Right to Education through A Card: A Paradox of Indonesia's Educational Policy? Ulum, Muhammad Bahrul; Wildana, Dina Tsalist
JILS (Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies) Vol 4 No 1 (2019): Penal Policy and The Development of Criminal Law Enforcement
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jils.v4i01.26973

Abstract

In 2015, the Indonesian government unveiled the Smart Indonesia Program, or Program Indonesia Pintar (PIP). The program consisted of educational subsidies through cash transfers exclusively granted to students aged from 6 to 21 years old from poor families. This paper examines the role of the PIP subsidy pertaining to the fulfilment of the right to education. As a consequence, it resulted in a competing account between cash transfers and the minimum standard of government duties to fulfil the need for adequate educational support. There is a paradox in the government's educational policy on the fulfilment of human rights to education in dealing with the PIP program. While educational complexities faced in remote areas cannot be hindered and it is granted not solely to students from vulnerable families. Such discrepancies in programs circumstantially affirm that the government ignores the root of Indonesia's educational problems, including providing free education as its obligation to human rights. The research conducted concludes by suggesting the government to evaluate the current policies by considering budget priorities and the efficiency of providing inclusive education.
IMPLEMENTASI MERDEKA BELAJAR KAMPUS MERDEKA (MBKM) DI FAKULTAS ILMU KOMPUTER UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL Ulum, Muhammad Bahrul
Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat AbdiMas Vol 8, No 02 (2021): Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat Abdimas
Publisher : Universitas Esa Unggul

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.47007/abd.v8i02.5044

Abstract

Program Merdeka Belajar-Kampus Merdeka (MBKM) merupakan program dari Menteri Pendidikan, Kebudayaan, Riset, dan Teknologi (Kemendikbudristek) Republik Indonesia yang mana baru dijalankan di tahun 2021. Fakultas Ilmu Komputer sudah mengikuti dan mengimplementasikan kegiatan dari program MBKM yang digagas oleh Kemendikbudristek. Dari hasil survei dan implementasi program MBKM, Fakultas Ilmu Komputer sudah memiliki persiapan yang baik dalam menjalankannya dan memiliki dampak positif terhadap terutama pada mahasiswa. Dengan adanya program MBKM yang tidak hanya melibatkan Dosen untuk dapat aktif dalam kegiatan pengajaran, pembimibingan dan penelitian tetapi juga bisa melibatkan mahasiswa terjun langusng ke dunia industry dengan program magang bersertifikat menjadikan mahasiswa memiliki hardskill dan softskill sesuai dengan Capaian Pembelajaran Lulusan di setiap prodinya.Kata kunci : MBKM, Fakultas Ilmu Komputer
Mekanisme Pemakzulan Presiden dan/atau Wakil Presiden Menurut UUd 1945 (Antara Realitas Politik dan Penegakan Konstitusi) Muhammad Bahrul Ulum
Jurnal Konstitusi Vol 7, No 4 (2010)
Publisher : The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (591.297 KB) | DOI: 10.31078/jk747

Abstract

The Inquiry rights was the implementation of the oversight function of House Representative (DPR) to Presiden/and  or Vice President. The  use  of  inquiry  right  as  a  political  strategy  in impeachment mechanism to President/and or Vice President depend on reality and political consensus of the DPR, so there are possibilities and tendencies that the rule of law and democracy    are not be able to maintained as stipulated in Article 1 the 1945 Constitution. The decree of impeachment of the President and/or Vice President as provide in the 1945 Constitution tend unable  to uphold the rule of law when the Constitutional Court decided the President and / or Vice President violated the constitution, namely the dismissal of the President and or the Vice President made by the Assembly through a political decision (politeke beslssing). The efforts to maintains consistency of the concept of law as stipulated in Article 1 paragraph (3), Article 7B paragraph (3) and paragraph (7) of the 1945 Constitution, without opening  the chance intervention of political interests and obligations of the Assembly to implement the decision of the Constitutional Court. Therefore, the rule of law must be a cornerstone in the practice of constitutional law in  Indonesia.
Presidential Power’s Limitation to Emergency Provisions in Indonesia Jayus Jayus; Muhammad Bahrul Ulum
Jurnal Cita Hukum Vol 8, No 2 (2020)
Publisher : Fakultas Syariah dan Hukum, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15408/jch.v8i2.12473

Abstract

Abstract.After the demise of Suharto’s regime, Indonesia’s 1945 Constitution was successfully revised from 1999 to 2002. This period of constitutional revision added emphasis to avoid authoritarian administrations such as those experienced during the times of Sukarno and Suharto; consequently, the constitution was re-designed to limit the powers of the government. This article examines the trajectory of constitutional practices in the post-constitutional revision by taking into account emergency provisions exemplifying the new challenges of democratization in contemporary Indonesia. Currently, emergency provisions are amongst the unamended norms in the 1999-2002 agenda of constitutional revision. As a consequence, authoritarianism threatens the future of liberal democracy in Indonesia, especially the enjoyment of civil and political rights. Hence, this analysis elucidates the extent to which the deficit is inherent to Indonesia’s revised constitution on emergency laws and how this deficit threatens the design of liberal constitutionalism. Selected cases were collected to illustrate how Indonesia’s current constitution is reflected, articulated, debated, and negotiated toward the idea of legally limited powers. The deficits have resulted in two major adverse impacts; first, the ambiguous provisions on emergency laws prevail as they are mentioned in Articles 12 and 22 of the 1945 Constitution; second, the President’s monopoly on the power to issue emergency laws is a result of the absence of limitations outlined in the constitution. While the monopoly of such a power is often utilized by the government under the backdrop of constitutional legitimacy, there is a possible effort to eschew potential authoritarianism to add the constitutional restraint to presidential powers in the agenda of constitutional revision.Keywords: constitutionalism, emergency provisions, Indonesian constitution Batasan Kekuasaan Presiden untuk Ketentuan Darurat di IndonesiaAbstrak.Pasca runtuhnya rezim Suharto, UUD 1945 berhasil direvisi dari 1999 hingga 2002. Revisi konstitusi periode ini menambahkan penekanan untuk menghindari pemerintahan otoriter seperti yang dialami pada masa Sukarno dan Suharto; akibatnya, konstitusi dirancang ulang untuk membatasi kekuasaan pemerintah. Artikel ini mengkaji lintasan praktik ketatanegaraan dalam revisi pasca konstitusi dengan memperhatikan ketentuan darurat yang menjadi contoh tantangan baru demokratisasi di Indonesia kontemporer. Saat ini, ketentuan darurat merupakan salah satu norma yang belum diamandemen dalam agenda revisi konstitusi 1999-2002. Akibatnya, otoritarianisme mengancam masa depan demokrasi liberal di Indonesia, khususnya penikmatan hak sipil dan politik. Oleh karena itu, analisis ini menjelaskan sejauh mana defisit melekat pada revisi konstitusi Indonesia tentang undang-undang darurat dan bagaimana defisit ini mengancam rancangan konstitusionalisme liberal. Kasus-kasus terpilih dikumpulkan untuk menggambarkan bagaimana konstitusi Indonesia saat ini direfleksikan, diartikulasikan, diperdebatkan, dan dinegosiasikan menuju gagasan kekuasaan terbatas secara hukum. Defisit tersebut mengakibatkan dua dampak merugikan yang besar; pertama, ketentuan hukum darurat yang ambigu sebagaimana diatur dalam Pasal 12 dan 22 UUD 1945; kedua, monopoli Presiden atas kewenangan mengeluarkan undang-undang darurat adalah akibat tidak adanya batasan yang diuraikan dalam konstitusi.Kata kunci: konstitusionalisme, ketentuan darurat, konstitusi Indonesia Аннотация.После падения режима Сухарто  Конституция 1945 года была успешно пересмотрена с 1999 по 2002 год. Пересмотр конституции на этот период добавил напряжение на недопущение авторитарного правления, которое имело место в периоды Сукарно и Сухарто; в результате конституция была изменена с целью ограничить полномочия правительства. В данной статье исследуется развитие конституционной практики в период постконституционного пересмотра с учетом чрезвычайных положений, которые стали примерами новых вызовов демократизации в современной Индонезии. В настоящее время чрезвычайные положения являются одной из неизменных норм в программе пересмотра конституции на 1999–2002 года. В результате авторитаризм угрожает будущему либеральной демократии в Индонезии, особенно осуществлению гражданских и политических прав. Таким образом, этот анализ объясняет, в какой степени недостатки связаны с пересмотром конституции Индонезии о чрезвычайном законе, и как эти недостатки угрожают проекту либерального конституционализма. Отобранные случаи собраны, чтобы проиллюстрировать, как текущая конституция Индонезии отражается, формулируется и обсуждается в отношении понятия юридически ограниченной власти. Этот дефицит привёл к двум основным пагубным эффектам: во-первых, неоднозначные положения чрезвычайного закона, предусмотренные статьями 12 и 22 Конституции 1945 года; во-вторых, монополия президента на право издавать чрезвычайные законы является результатом отсутствия каких-либо ограничений, предусмотренных конституцией.Ключевые слова: конституционализм, чрезвычайные положения, конституция Индонезии.
Examining Recall of the House Member: How Does It Impact on Eradicating Corruption in Indonesia? Jayus Jayus; Muhammad Bahrul Ulum; Moch. Marsa Taufiqurrohman
Lentera Hukum Vol 7 No 1 (2020): LENTERA HUKUM
Publisher : University of Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19184/ejlh.v7i1.14434

Abstract

This study aims to discuss the existing contentious recall policy that becomes the legitimate reason to replace or retire the House member proposed by political parties. The discussion also examines to what extent recall, in practice, whether it enables the promotion of Indonesia's anti-corruption agenda. Through the recall, political parties can withdraw their members in the House, either in the form of dismissal or changing positions before the end of the term of office of members who sit in the House of representatives. This study finds that the existing recall policy impedes democracy and negates how to eradicate corruption in Indonesia. As a result, the current policy needs an option to ensure that recall will work as it is expected. Therefore, this alternative should include constituents to propose recall, which will disrupt the existing parties' domination, resulted in a more participatory system, and it reflects the more reciprocal ways to link people, parties, and the House in Indonesian politics. The judiciary's role is another essential aspect to highlight, in which the process and settlement of the recall may involve the Constitutional Court as the hub of the political and constitutional settlement. KEYWORDS: Indonesian Democracy, Anti-Corruption Agenda, Recall Policy, Political System.
Evaluasi Kewenangan Mahkamah Konstitusi Memutus Perselisihan Hasil Pemilihan Umum Kepala Daerah Muhammad Bahrul Ulum
Lentera Hukum Vol 1 No 2 (2014): LENTERA HUKUM
Publisher : University of Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19184/ejlh.v1i3.16911

Abstract

Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kewenangan peyelesaian perselisihan hasil pemilu di tingkat lokal yang diberikan kepada Mahkamah Konstitusi. Analisis ini membahas masalah yang cukup besar dan implikasi lebih lanjut terhadap manajemen pengadilan dan desain kelembagaan untuk mendorong lintasan demokratisasi di negara ini dalam rezim pasca-otoritarianisme. Dengan menggarisbawahi bahwa Mahkamah Konstitusi diberikan kewenangan yang besar, dan banyaknya kasus yang ditangani MK menjadikan lembaga ini kelebihan beban dalam usaha menjaga konstitusi, analisis ini mengkritik sejauh lembaga ini dapat menangani kekuasaan dan mengadili kasus-kasus yang diajukan ke pengadilan dengan perselisihan pemilu yang efisien berikut ini terhadap jumlah terbatas hakim konstitusi dan skandal korupsi di antara mereka. Pada akhirnya, makalah ini menyoroti penerapan pembentukan pengadilan adhoc dalam menangani sengketa pemilu yang diajukan ke lembaga ini yang dapat memastikan manajemen pengadilan yang efektif dan efisien untuk mempromosikan rezim konstitusional Indonesia. Kata kunci: Mahkamah Konstitusi, Pemilihan Umum Kepala Daerah, Desain Kelembagaan.
Book Review: The First Muslims History and Memory Muhammad Bahrul Ulum
Lentera Hukum Vol 4 No 3 (2017): LENTERA HUKUM
Publisher : University of Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19184/ejlh.v4i3.6176

Abstract

This is one of remarkably few recent books devoted to the Islamic theoretical conversation of constitutional law, by considering the genesis of polity within the Muslim community through historical, political, theological, and legal perspectives. The book provides the contentious concept of jihad and Islamic state which is perceived as the early Muslims’ legacy in this contemporary world. Specifically, it opens a window into the way of understanding the Muslim history by contesting Muhammad’s tolerant polity and the current extremism notion attached to Islam. Beginning the chapter, Asma Afsaruddin, an associate professor at the University of Notre Dame, presents an account of the dawn of Islam brought by the Prophet Muhammad. She takes the lifetime of Muhammad into an account of how the early Muslim community would be shaped from the age of ignorance (Al-Jahiliyya). The term Al-Jahiliyya refers to the time of recklessness and disregard for certain moral, spiritual, and social values revered by Muslims and other righteous people.