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Evaluasi terhadap Stimulan Ethephon dalam Penyadapan Pinus merkusii (Evaluation on Ethephon Stimulant to Pinus merkusii Tapping) Lukmandaru, Ganis; Sunarta, Sigit; Listyanto, Tomy; Kasmudjo, Kasmudjo; Pujiarti, Rini; Widyorini, Ragil
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 16, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (38.454 KB)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to find out the effect of Ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, in a combination with sulfuric acid resin production Pinus merkusii. The tested stimulants were ETRAT; SR4; 20% sulfuric acid; 20% sulfuric acid - Ethephon 2%; 3.3% sulfuric acid – 4.1% Ethephon; and sulfuric acid – 8.3% Ethephon. Trees without stimulant spraying were the controls. The results showed that for daily production, the first-day observation gave the highest value but decreased drastically after second-day observation in a varied degree depent on the stimulants. On the basis of accumulated production, the addition of Ethephon in a high or low level of sulfuric acid concentration exhibited significantly higher resin production compared to that of ETRAT; SR4; and 20% sulfuric acid stimulants as well as control trees. It increased resin production by 98.0-150.6% compared to control trees in class age of VII and increased by 140.9-227.1% in class age of IV stands. Moderate significant correlations (r=0.65) were observed between the values of resin production and tree diameter (controls) as well as between the values of resin production and tree diameter of trees treated by sulfuric acid stimulants (r=0.65-0.82).Keywords : class age, ethylene, quarre, resin production, tree diameter
Evaluasi proses produksi industri gondorukem dari tinjauan aliran massa dan energi (Studi kasus PGT Sapuran) [Evaluation of the gum rosin industrial production process based on mass and energy balances (PGT Sapuran case study) Primaningtyas, Annisa; Widyorini, Ragil
Jurnal Riset Industri Hasil Hutan Vol 12, No 1 (2020)
Publisher : Kementerian Perindustrian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24111/jrihh.v12i1.5996

Abstract

Abstrak. Gondorukem dan terpentin adalah hasil hutan non kayu hasil distilasi dari getah pinus (Pinus merkusii) dan digunakan sebagai bahan baku pada berbagai industri. Gondorukem dan terpentin termasuk salah satu industri andalan penyumbang devisa negara sehingga perkembangan teknologinya harus mempertimbangkan aspek lingkungan, efisiensi, dan konservasi energi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi aliran massa dan energi yang terdapat pada proses produksi gondorukem dan terpentin untuk selanjutnya dianalisis kesesuaiannya dalam penggunaan energi dan terbentuknya limbah agar menjadi lebih efisien. Penelitian dilakukan di Pabrik Gondorukem dan Terpentin (PGT) Sapuran, Wonosobo, Jawa Tengah milik Perum Perhutani. Data input dan output proses tiap unit produksi dianalisis menggunakan neraca massa dan neraca panas yang dihitung manual dengan data sifat fisika bahan kimia didapatkan dari referensi. Kasus diamati pada waktu musim penghujan dan musim kemarau serta meliputi dua kondisi, yaitu kondisi operasi menggunakan Oleo Pine Resin (OPR) dan tanpa OPR. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa energi yang terbuang pada unit pengendap dan unit penampung untuk kedua jenis proses masing-masing sekitar 6% dan 12% dari total energi yang digunakan di kedua unit tersebut. Limbah terbanyak berupa getah campuran yang terdiri dari getah pinus dan terpentin paling banyak dihasilkan di unit pengencer sebesar 18,72% untuk proses tanpa OPR dan 24,80% untuk proses dengan OPR. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, beberapa perbaikan proses produksi perlu dilakukan oleh perusahaan agar limbah yang terbentuk minimal dan penggunaan energinya menjadi lebih efektif.Kata Kunci: non-kayu; industri; neraca massa; neraca panas Abstract. Gum rosin and turpentine are non-timber forest products distilled from pine sap (Pinus merkusii) and uses as raw materials in various industries. The gum rosin and turpentine industry are one of the pillar contributors to the country's foreign exchange. Therefore, technology development for this industry must consider environmental aspects, efficiency, and energy conservation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the mass and energy flow contained in the gum rosin and turpentine production processes for subsequent analysis of their suitability in energy use and waste generation to be more efficient. The research was conducted at Pabrik Gondorukem dan Terpentine (PGT) Sapuran, Wonosobo, Central Java owned by Perum Perhutani. Input and output process data of each unit of production were analyzed using a mass balance and heat balance that was calculated manually. The physical and chemical data properties were obtained from the references. The cases were observed during the rainy and dry season and included two conditions: operating conditions using Oleo Pine Resin (OPR) and without OPR. The results showed that the energy wasted in the settling unit and storage unit for the two types of processes were around 6% and 12% of the total energy used in the two units. The mixed resin as a waste consisted of both pine resin and turpentine was produced in the dilution unit. The amounts of waste produced in the process without OPR  and with OPR were 18.72 and 24.80%, respectively. The company should improve the production process to minimise waste and increase energy efficiency.Keywords : non-timber; industry; mass balance; energy balance
Manufacture and Properties of Non-Wood Binderlessboard: Effect of Storage Method and Manufacturing Process on Chemical Composition of Bagasse Binderlessboard Ragil Widyorini; Shuichi Kawai
Wood Research Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2010): Wood Research Journal
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.51850/wrj.2010.1.1.27-33

Abstract

Effects of storage and pressing methods on the chemical composition of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse binderlessboards were investigated by chemical and spectroscopic analyses. The inner layer (core/pith) and the outer hard fibrous layer (face/rind) of bagasse were used as raw materials. The result showed that effect of steam-injection pressing was higher than hot pressing treatment on the chemical composition of bagasse binderlessboards. Under steam-pressure of 1.0 MPa for 10 min, hemicelluloses of bagasse were more significantly degraded than α-cellulose and lignin. Decreasing of Syringyl/Guaiacyl (S/G) and Cinnamic acids/Guaiacyl (C/G) ratios indicated that modification of lignin had occurred during steam and heat treatments. Considering that the residual sugar in bagasse was still high, the storage method of Sugarcane bagasse was an important key for producing bagasse binderlessboards.
Effects of Wood Modification Using Natural Resin on Wood Quality and Bonding Properties Muhammad Navis Rofii; Ragil Widyorini; Ganis Lukmandaru
Wood Research Journal Vol 10, No 2 (2019): Wood Research Journal
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.51850/wrj.2019.10.2.48-52

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gum rosin impregnation upon a low quality young teak wood in order to enhance its quality. The main objective of the treatment was to enhance the dimensional stability, as well as strength and to reduce the hygroscopicity. A 15-years old thinned teak wood (Tectona grandis L.f.) and gum rosin from Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vries were used for wood modification treatment by impregnation. Three kinds of non-polar solvents, i.e. turpentine oil, petroleum oil and n-hexane-, were used to make gum rosin solution. The results indicated that gum rosin impregnation did not markedly enhance the quality of young teak wood in terms of either dimensional stability or hygroscopicity; however, a little enhancement was delivered by using 15% gum rosin solution with n-hexane as the solvent. The treatment with petroleum oil solvent (at concentration of 7.5%) and at 15% concentration with n-hexane solvent resulted in highest bending properties. The highest bonding strength in dry condition was resulted by treatment with turpentine oil solvent.
Wood Anatomical Features and Physical Properties of Fast Growing Red Meranti from Line Planting at Natural Forest of Central Kalimantan Joko Sulistyo; Harry Praptoyo; Ganis Lukmandaru; Ragil Widyorini; Widyatno Widyatno; Oka Karyanto; Sri Nugroho Marsoem
Wood Research Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2018): Wood Research Journal
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.51850/wrj.2018.9.2.52-59

Abstract

High productivity fast growing species plantation establishment such as the line planting of red meranti (i.e Shorealeprosula and Shorea parvifolia) with intensive silviculture is one potential solution to improve wood supply for industries in Indonesia. However, the information of anatomical properties and wood properties of these two species related to the influence of the line planting system and tree growth rate is limited. This paper studies the anatomical features, wood cell proportions, fiber dimensions and physical properties of wood in radial variation in relation to the line planting effect and tree growth rate. Wood of the trees grown in the line planting system showed higher proportion of vessel element compared to those of wood from natural forest. The vessel diameter of wood from the line planting was also larger than that of in wood from natural forest. The specific gravity of wood from Shorea parvifolia grown on the line planting was higher than that of wood grown in natural forest. The variation of specific gravity on wood portion near to the pith of Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia trees grown on the line planting was related to the variation of the cell wall thickness. The bigger diameter of trees grown or the faster growth rate in the line of planting at the same age shows the greater vessel diameter in wood of Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia and greater specific gravity of Shorea parvifolia wood.
Some of the Properties of Binderless Particleboard Manufactured from Bamboo Ragil Widyorini; Ari Puspa Yudha; Tibertus Agus Prayitno
Wood Research Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2011): Wood Research Journal
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.51850/wrj.2011.2.2.89-93

Abstract

Bambo particles as a waste byproduct from bamboo processing industry are suggested to be a promising material for binderless particleboard. The quality of binderless particleboard is affected by several factors, such as pretreatment, pressing method, pressing condition, moisture content, and particle size. This study was focused on the effect of particle size and moisture content on the physical and mechanical properties of binderless particleboard from Petung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper Backer) and conducted using the completely randomized design with two factors. Bamboo particles in three types of particle size, i.e. coarse (10~20 mesh), medium (20~60 mesh), and fine (passed 60 mesh), were used as materials for binderless board. Each particle size was then prepared for two moisture content conditions: air dry and 20±2%. Binderless boards were prepared by hot pressing at temperature of 200°C for 15 min, and the properties of the binderless boards were then evaluated according to the Japanese Industrial Standard for particleboard, JIS A 5908. The results showed that the binderless boards made from 20±2% moisture content particles showed better mechanical and dimensional properties than those made from air-dried particles. The binderless particleboard made from medium size and the moisture content of 20±2% recorded a modulus of rupture of 94 kg/cm², water absorption of 29%, thickness swelling of 5%, internal bond strength of 2.7 kg/cm², and modulus of elasticity of 19.490 kg/cm².
Characteristic of Bamboo Particleboard Bonded with Citric Acid Ragil Widyorini; Ari Puspa Yudha; Yuditya Adifandi; Kenji Umemura; Shuichi Kawai
Wood Research Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2013): Wood Research Journal
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.51850/wrj.2013.4.1.31-35

Abstract

Converting biomass waste to high value-added product, such as biocomposite, tends to attract the interest of researcher and industry. Reducing the utilization of synthetic resin adhesives becomes one of the important points, considering the safe global environment. Binderlessboard is a product whose bonding depends mainly on the chemical composition of the raw materials. The aim of this research was to develop bio-based composites made from bamboo biomass waste materials. This report focused on the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards. To improve the properties of the boards, the possibility of using citric acid was investigated and discussed. Petung bamboo particles (Dendrocalamus asper Backer) were used in this research. The contents of citric acid were ranged in 0% (binderlessboard), 10%, and 20% based on dried particles. The dimension of the boards was 25 x 25 x 0.7 cm, with the target density was 0.9 g/cm3. The particleboards were hot pressed at 200ºC and 220ºC for 10 and 15 min. The physical and mechanical properties of those particleboards were then evaluated based on Japanese Industrial Standard A 5908 for particleboard. The results showed that the physical and mechanical properties of the boards improved significantly by adding the citric acid. The bamboo particleboards obtained had good properties, with the spesific IB, specific MOR and specific MOE values under the optimum condition of 20 wt % citric acid content and 200ºC hot press were 0.44 MPa, 15.1 MPa and 4.6 GPa, respectively. It stated that bamboo particleboards bonded using citric acid had high performance on mechanical properties and good dimensional stability.
PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN SERAT KAYU PINUS DAN BAMBU PETUNG TERHADAP KUALITAS PAPAN SERAT KERAPATAN SEDANG KAYU MAHANG DENGAN PEREKAT ASAM MALAT Agus Wahyudi; T A Prayitno; Ragil Widyorini; J.P. Gentur Sutapa
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 37, No 2 (2019): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2019.37.2.81-92

Abstract

Sifat dan kualitas produk papan serat dipengaruhi oleh kualitas serat bahan, proses kempa dan jumlah serta tipe perekat yang digunakan. Penggunaan perekat asam malat dalam pembuatan papan serat kerapatan sedang (MDF) dari kayu mahang memiliki sifat mekanika yang rendah, terutama nilai keteguhan lengkung statis. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh penambahan serat panjang kayu pinus dan bambu petung terhadap sifat papan MDF kayu mahang dengan perekat asam malat. Komposisi perbandingan serat kayu mahang, kayu pinus dan bambu petung sebanyak 6 perlakuan yaitu 100/0/0, 90/10/0, 80/20/0, 90/0/10, 80/0/20 dan 80/10/10, dengan kadar perekat asam malat 25% berdasarkan berat kering serat dan dikempa panas pada suhu 180ºC selama 10 menit. Pengujian sifat fisika dan mekanika papan berdasarkan standar pengujian JIS 5905-2003. Penambahan serat panjang kayu pinus dan bambu petung dapat meningkatkan nilai mekanika papan MDF dari kayu mahang, komposisi campuran serat yang paling baik adalah serat kayu mahang 90%: bambu petung 10%, dengan nilai keteguhan rekat internal 0,7 MPa, keteguhan patah 9,11 MPa dan keteguhan elastisitas 2,5 GPa.
Mutu Papan Partikel Pelepah Salak Tiga Lapis Berperekat Asam Sitrat (The Quality of Citric Acid Bonded Three Layered Particle Board of Snake Fruit Frond ) Bangun Dwi Prasetyo; Ragil Widyorini; Tibertius Agus Prayitno
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 15, No 2 (2017): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (350.927 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v15i2.385

Abstract

Salacca (snack fruit) frond is a non-timber alternative for the production of composite boards. The study was aimed to determine the interaction between pressing time and shelling ratio on the quality of three layered particle board of salacca frond bonded with natural citric acid. Snack fruit frond composite boards of (25x25x1) cm3 were made at pressing temperature of 180 oC, specific pressure of 3 MPa, and target density of 0.8 g cm-3. A completely randomized factorial design was used with two factors, namely pressing times (10 and 15 minute) and shelling ratio of surface and core layer (10:90, 20:80 and 30:70%). Physical and mechanical properties of composite boards were tested based on JIS A 5908: 2003 standard. Results showed that the physical and mechanical properties were improved with increasing pressing time.The increase of shelling ratio between surface layer and core layer  positively influenced mechanical properties, however negatively influenced dimension stability and moisture content. The optimal properties of three-layered snake fruit frond particle board were achieved with 15 min pressing time and 20:80% shelling ratio.
Sifat Fisis dan Mekanis Papan Partikel Sengon dengan Perekat Asam Sitrat-Sukrosa Ragil Widyorini; Pradana A. Nugraha
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 13, No 2 (2015): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (226.552 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v13i2.33

Abstract

Pengembangan perekat alam untuk papan partikel masih sangat terbatas. Pada penelitian ini, asam sitrat dan sukrosa digunakan sebagai perekat alami papan partikel. Partikel sengon (Falcataria mollucana) digunakan sebagai bahan baku penelitian. Asam sitrat dan sukrosa dilarutkan dalam air dengan konsentrasi 59 ~ 60% pada komposisi tertentu. Rasio asam sitrat/sukrosa adalah 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, dan 0/100. Larutan kemudian dicampur dengan partikel dengan kadar perekat 7,5% dan 15% berdasarkan berat kering udara partikel. Pembuatan papan partikel diset dengan target kerapatan 0,9 g cm-3 dan dikempa pada suhu 200 oC selama 10 menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan jumlah kadar perekat meningkatkan sifat fisika dan mekanika papan partikel. Kualitas papan partikel tertinggi diperoleh pada papan partikel yang dibuat dengan kadar perekat 15% dan rasio asam sitrat/sukrosa adalah 50/50. Nilai tertinggi modulus patah, modulus elastisitas, dan kekuatan rekat internal papan partikel adalah 10,7  MPa,  3,3  GPa,  dan  0,5  MPa.  Nilai  pengembangan  tebal  dan  penyerapan  air  setelah direndam  selama  24  jam  adalah  4,3%  dan  26%,  mengindikasikan  bahwa  papan  partikel mempunyai ketahanan terhadap air yang baik.