Claim Missing Document
Check
Articles

Found 24 Documents
Search

INDUKSI POLIPLOIDI TANAMAN KANGKUNG (IPOMOEA AQUATICA FORSSK.) KULTIVAR SALINA IN VITRO DENGAN ORYZALIN Rahmi, Putri; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; ratnadewi, diah
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 15, No 1 (2019): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v15i1.3760

Abstract

ABSTRACTWater spinach is a vegetable plant consumed by people all over the world. Its small morphology requires improvement to increase the size and productivity. An alternative way to do that is by increasing the ploidy of its chromosome. This paper describes in vitro induction of polyploidy of water spinach. Inoculum of in vitro seedling, in vitro shoots and nodal stem segments were immersed in MS solution containing oryzalin at concentrations of 0.00, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5.00 µM with immersion duration of 4, 8 and 24 hours. Oryzalin treatments reduced the growth variables of the in vitro shoots of all inocula tested, compared to control of no oryzalin treatment.  On immersion of 24 hours and high concentration of 5.00 µM, many inoculum failed to grow to the third passage of subculture. The best growth of in vitro shoot to the third passages occurred in the treatment combination of oryzalin 1.25 µM-8 h immersion and 2.50 µM-4 h immersion for seedling inoculum, treatment combination of 3.75 µM-4 h immersion for shoot tip inoculum and 1.25 µM-4 h immersion for nodal stem segment, compared to other treatments. Analysis of flow cytometry on 41 leaf samples from oryzalin treatment derived shoots showed 14.63% tetraploid, 36.59% mixoploid and 48.78% diploid. The efficiency of tetraploid formation reached  60%, provided only by the treatment of oryzalin 1.25 µM-8 h on seedling segments inoculum. Tetraploid shoots need to be proliferated, acclimatized, grown into planting materials and planted for agronomical analysis to provide evidence whether or not tetraploid water spinach is viable for commercial cultivation. 
Uji Toleransi Tanaman Kentang Hitam (Plectranthus rotundifolius (Poir.) Spreng.) Hasil Radiasi Sinar Gamma terhadap Cekaman Kekeringan Ridwan, Ridwan; Handayani, Tri; Witjaksono, Witjaksono
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 12, No 1 (2016): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v12i1.2310

Abstract

Plectranthus rotundifolius (Poir.) Spreng. is one of the potential root crops to become an alternative food. The aim of thisstudy was to determine drought resistant status of Plectranthus rotundifolius irradiated by gamma irradiation. Thisexperiment was conducted in the Green House using a Completely Randomized Design with 2 factors and 5 replications.The first factor was plant number consisted of 7 accessions (D116, D69, M343, D40, M95, D3, and Klefa Imut/KI). Thesecond factor was the level of field capacity (FC) consisted of 100% FC, 60% FC, and 20% FC. The observed parameterwere vegetative and generative growth stage, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and chlorophyll content. The resultshowed that the resistance level of the 7 accessions can be devided into 3 categories: 1) The plants that were susceptible todrought i.e. D116, D69, M343, and KI; 2) The plants that were semi-tolerant to drought i.e. D40 and M95; and 3) The plantthat was tolerant to drought i.e. D3.Keywords: Plectranthus rotundifolius, gamma irradiation, drought stress
INDUKSI BIAK KALUS DAN BIAK SUSPENSI SEL Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. [Induction of Callus Culture and Cell Suspension Culture of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.] Leksonowati, Aryani; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Ratnadewi, Diah
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 16, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2672.281 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/beritabiologi.v16i1.2687

Abstract

Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. is a plant species producing fragrant woody material that contains some resin. The compounds can be used as medicine and perfume. Sesquiterpenoid, one group of compounds has been found being synthesized and subsequently extracted from callus and cell suspension culture of Aquilaria species. The aim of this research was to find a method of producing friable calli and cell suspension cultures from leaves or internodes of A. malaccensis in vitro by using suitable plant growth regulators; cell suspension that will suitably serve as material to produce sesquiterpenoid afterwards. Calli were established in almost all treatments of auxin-cytokinin on both leaves and internod explants. The treatment of 10 mg/L IBA induced the highest percentage of callus coverage from leaves with a rather compact structure. The combined treatment of 1–2 mg/L 2.4-D and 0.2–0.3 mg/L BA induced friable callus formation in more than 80% of cultures with 27–32% callus coverage percentage.  The use of 2,4-D induced a better formation of cell suspension than Picloram, with maximum volume up to 7 mL. Cell suspension culture with fine and homogenous aggregate could be established in the medium supplemented with 0.5 –1 mg/L 2,4-D.
INDUKSI KALUS DAN ORGANOGENESIS KULTUR IN VITRO Dendrobium lineale Rolfe Hoesen, Djadja Siti Hazar; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Sukamto, LA
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 9, No 3 (2008)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/beritabiologi.v9i3.790

Abstract

Callus induction and organogenesis were evaluated in the protocorm like bodies (PLB) culture of Dendrobium lineale Rolfe (Orchidaceae). The globular PLB were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with half strength macronutrients QA MS), supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ 0,1, 0,5 and 1) mg/1 and 2,4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5) mg/1 as treatments. The media containing 1 mg/1 TDZ and (1 and 5) mg/1 2,4-D was the best treatment for callus initiation (100%). The largest diameter of callus was obtained from 1 mg/1 TDZ (average 3.5 cm). Shoot buds regeneration achieved on 1 mg/1 TDZ (average 41.66 %). However roots regeneration was very low (average 6.66 %) obtained from 1 mg/1 2,4-D. The number of adventitious buds produced from the regenerated shoots on media without plant growth regulator
Iradiasi Sinar ? pada Biak Tunas Kentang Hitam (Solanostemon rotundifolius) Efektif untuk Menghasilkan Mutan Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Leksonowati, Aryani
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 8, No 1 (2012): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (608.916 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v8i1.3075

Abstract

Irradiation of ??ray at shoot culture of Kentang hitam (Solanostemon rotundifolius) is effective for mutant production. Kentang hitam is sterile and vegetatively propagated andtherefore its genetic diversity is narrow. Mutation is an alternative way to increase genetic heterogeneity. Irradiation of shoot cultures with different doses followed by culturing of the inoculum (leaf, petiole and internodes) from that irradiated culture on a regeneration medium MS containing 5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA has resulted in curvilinear respon of growth, morphogenesis and plant regeneration. The growth variables increase from 0 to 6 Gy and thendecrease to 25 and plateu or increase a little at 35 Gy and growth death wes observed at 50 Gy. Leaf and petiole inocula were more responsive than the internode. Respon of growth of shootregeneration of 50% were obtained at doses of 10-12.5 Gy. However higher level of doses, such as 25 Gy had also been effective for inducing mutant. Morphological and growth different were observed from growth in tissue culture to the field. Mutants were recovered, forexample, the one with early flowering.Keywords : Solanostemon rotundifolius, Irradiation, gammarays, cultur in vitro, mutan
Perbanyakan Massal Anthurium daun (Anthurium sp) asal biji dengan Teknologi In Vitro Witjaksono, Witjaksono
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 8, No 2 (2012): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (182.259 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v8i2.3058

Abstract

Mass propagation of leafy Anthurium (Anthurium spp.) from seed by in vitro technology. We have developed an efficient in vitro propagation of A. plowmanii from seed explants. The protocols include inoculation of seed in MS medium supplemented with 2 g/l BA. This medium is used to proliferate cluster of buds that developed from seeds. To induce the growth of the shoots from the bud clusters, the clusters were devided and transffered to MS medium enriched with 340 mg/l KH2PO4 and 0,1 mg/l BA and 0,05 mg/l NAA. To get high survival rate, the clusterof shoots were acclimatized as a whole cluster that in turn the shoots become easily separatable from each other during the growth. The acclimatized plantlets grew into mature plants through serial transfer to bigger pots and regular fertilizer application. This technology is applicable to other leafy anthuriums as well.Key words: leafy Anthurium, in vitro technology, BA, NAA, KH2PO4, plowmanii, hookeri, jenmanii, longilinguum
Persilangan Pisang Liar Diploid Musa acuminata Colla var malaccensis (RIDL.) Nasution Sebagai Sumber Polen dengan Pisang Madu Tetraploid Poerba, Yuyu S.; Ahmad, Fajarudin; Witjaksono, Witjaksono
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 8, No 1 (2012): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (576.794 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v8i1.3076

Abstract

Hybridization of wild diploid Musa acuminata Colla var malaccensis (Ridl.) Nasution as pollen source with teraploid Pisang Madu. Indonesia and South East Asia is the center of origin and genetic variability of bananas, specifically species Musa acuminata Colla. At least 15 varieties of wild Musa acuminata are found in Indonesia. Some of them have resistances for several diseases of bananas. One approach in banana breeding program is hybridizingbetween tetraploid parent and diploid parent of banana. This research was aimed to produce new triploid banana hybrid by crosses between tetraploid female parent ‘Pisang Madu’ and wild diploid male parent Musa acuminata Colla var malaccensis (Ridl.) Nasution. From 302 crosses, 53.9% of crosses produced seeds. However, only 48.46% of seeds contained embryos, and only 1.27% of embryos grew and developed. Bunch weight and leaf length of hybridplants were not significantly different with female parent, tetraploid Pisang Madu. Plant height of the hybrids was not significantly different with male parent, wild diploid Musa acuminatavar malaccensis. Pseudostem diameter and leaf width of the hybrid plants were between female tetraploid parent and male wild diploid parent. RAPD profiles (DNA bands) of the hybrids were originated from the female parent, male parent and both parents were 38.46, 34.6, and 26.92%, respectively. The hybrids were confirmed to be triploids (3x=33).Keywords: banana, breeding, hybrids, tetraploid, wild diploid, Pisang Madu, Musa acuminata Colla var malaccensis (Ridl.) Nasution
Induksi Tetraploid Pada Tanaman Jambu Biji Merah (Psidium guajava L.) secara In Vitro Handayani, Tri; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Nugraheni, K. Utami
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 13, No 2 (2017): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (909.481 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v13i2.3401

Abstract

ABSTRACTSome commercial varieties of Guava seedless are triploid and rarely found naturally. A triploid variety with less seeds and better yield potential can be achieved by crossing tetraploid to diploid variety. Guava tetraploid plants can be synthetically induced by using oryzalin or colchicine to double the chromosome from its diploid. This research was aimed to obtain tetraploid lines by studying the effects of oryzalin in germination and in vitro growth of Guava. Seed from Red Guava were cultured in liquid medium MS + 2 mgL-1 BA with adding oryzalin according to the treatment, then seed planted in MS solid medium. Seed explants were exposed to Oryzalin 0 (controls), 15, 30 dan 60 ?M with exposure time are 23, 36 and 49 days or 3, 5, and 7 weeks. Results from polyploid induction were 8 tetraploid (5.48%) and 9 (6.16%) mixoploid shoots in vitro. High est tetraploid shoots were obtained from treatments by exposing the seed explant to 15 – 30 ?M oryzalin for 23 – 36 days. Oryzalin treatments inhibit germination and in vitro growth of Guava until 1st subculture. After second subculture, tetraploid or mixoploid shoots quantitatively showed no difference respons on in vitro growth with its diploid.Keywords: guava, tetraploid, seed explant, in vitro germination, polyploid
Pembentukan dan Penampilan Pisang Rejang Hibrid Triploid Hasil Persilangan Pisang Rejang Mixoploid Dengan Pisang Rejang Diploid Poerba, Yuyu S.; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Handayani, Tri
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 12, No 1 (2016): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v12i1.2308

Abstract

Induction of tetraploid from diploid bananas often producing mixoploid plants.Characters of the mixoploidplant is similar to those of tetraploid plants. In this research mixoploid banana cultivar Rejang was crossed withdiploid Rejang to produce triploid hybrid Rejang. Triploid banana is one of plant breeding target because of itsbest vigor and productivity compared to diploid or tetraploid banana. 570 crosses were conducted withmixoploid Rejang as female parents and diploid Rejang as male parents. Out of 570 crosses, 130 hybrid seedswere produced. However, only 19 seeds (14.61%) contained embryos, and only two embryos were developedinto shoots. The two genotypes of developed embryos were then in-vitro propagated and planted in the field.Results of ploidy identification using Flowcytometer showed that the two genotypes were diploids (31%) andtriploids (69%). The triploid hybrid Rejang had plant growth habit of drooping, few suckers, higher and biggerpseudostem, higher bunch weight and fruit weight compared to those of the two parents. The triploid hybridhad similar genetic properties with genetic identity of 0.9174-0.9703.Keywords: Banana, crosses, diploid, Rejang, mixoploid, triploid, hybrids
Karakterisasi Pisang Hibrid Tetraploid ‘GRNK’ Hasil Persilangan Pisang Triploid ‘Goroho’ dengan Pisang Iiar Diploid Musa acuminata Colla var. nakaii Nasution Poerba, Yuyu S.; Martanti, Diyah; Handayani, Tri; Witjaksono, Witjaksono
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 13, No 2 (2017): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2794.062 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v13i2.3393

Abstract

ABSTRACTThe use of tetraploid banana in triploid banana breeding has been conducted through 4x x 2x crossing and/or its reciprocals, 2x x 4x crossing. However, the availability of tetraploid banana is naturally very limited, therefore artificially induced tetraploid banana is needed. The present research is aimed to generate tetraploid banana plants by crossing triploid banana ‘Goroho’ as female parent with wild diploid banana, Musa acuminata var. nakaii Nasution as male parent, and to characterize the tetraploid hybrid. 94 crossings were made by pollinating stigma of Pisang Goroho with polen of M. acuminata var. nakaii. Embrios resulted from hybridization were in vitro rescued and propagated. Hybrid plantlets were then acclimatized in the green house and seedlings were planted in the field for two cycles of banana reproduction. Ploidy identification, morphology and molecular characteristics were also conducted for two cycles of banana reproduction. Results of the experiment showed that 9 hybrid seeds were produced from 94 pollinations. However, only 2 hybrid embryos grew and developed into shoots and from two shoots only one shoot was survived. The one shoot were then in-vitro propagated to produce 21 hybrids planted in the field. After being evaluated for two plant reproductive cycles, all hybrid plants were tetraploids (2n=4x=44). The hybrid plants had drooping leaves, bigger fruit diameter compared to both parents, and blunt fruit tip. DNA (RAPD) profiles of tetraploid hybrid showed that 37.5% of the bands were from female parent, 37.5% from male parents, and 25% from both parents. The tetraploid hybrid ‘GRNK’ is expected to be useful in triploid banana breeding in the future.Key Words: Hybrid banana, tetraploid, Goroho, Musa acuminata Colla var. nakaii Nasution