Alfons Zakaria
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Journal : Arena Hukum

IMPRISONMENT FOR IUU FISHING IN INDONESIA’S EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE: WHY IT SHOULD NOT BE IMPOSED Zakaria, Alfons
Arena Hukum Vol 5, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Arena Hukum

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (394.547 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.arenahukum.2012.00502.2

Abstract

Article 73(3) of LOSC emphasizes that “Coastal State penalties for violations of fisheries laws and regulations in the exclusive economic zone may not include imprisonment, in the absence of agreements to the contrary by the States concerned, or any other form of corporal punishment.” Article 93 ofthe Indonesian Fisheries Act Nomor 31 2004 as revised by the Act Nomor 45 2009, however, imposes imprisonment for IUU fishing committed in the Indonesian EEZ. It can be seen that there is a clear contradiction in provisions between Article 93 of the Act Nomor 31 2004 and Article 73(3) of the LOSC. On the other side, Indonesia is a state party of this convention and has ratified the convention. Thus, Indonesia should comply with the provisions in the LOSC. The question is has Indonesia exercised itssovereignty over the EEZ? This paper argues that the implementation of imprisonment in Indonesian EEZ contradicts both Indonesian laws and international law of the sea.Key words: imprisonment, EEZ, sovereignty and sovereign rights
UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION AND GENERAL STRAIN THEORIES TO ANALYZE SUICIDE BOMBING IN INDONESIA Zakaria, Alfons
Arena Hukum Vol 5, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Arena Hukum

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (353.792 KB) | DOI: 10.21776/ub.arenahukum.2012.00503.3

Abstract

On Friday 21st April 2011, Indonesia was shocked by a suicide bombing in a police mosque in Cirebon,West Java Indonesia. The bombing exploded just before the Friday prayer began. Historically, althoughsuicide bombings or mosque bombing have occurred elsewhere, the suicide mosque bombing in Cirebonwas the first time this had occurred in Indonesia. There are similarities between the Cirebon bombingand other bombings occurring in Indonesia. First, there is a similar relationship among the suspects.Second, the suspects were all involved in organizations that have hard-line Islamic ideology. The aim ofthis paper is to understand the differential association and general strain theories in the light of the newform suicide bombing that occurred in Indonesia. This paper will be argued that differential associationtheory is an appropriate approach to explain the cause of the suicide bombing related to the relationshipamong suspects. Similarly, general strain theory is a suitable approach to explain the cause of theterrorism in Indonesia.KeyWords: terrorism, suicide bombing, differential association and general strain theories.
CONSIDERING (AGAIN) THE AGE OF CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY: A COMPARATIVE DISCUSSION BETWEEN THE QUEENSLAND YOUTH JUSTICE ACT 1992 AND THE INDONESIAN JUVENILE COURT ACT NO. 3 1997 Zakaria, Alfons
Arena Hukum Vol 4, No 8 (2011)
Publisher : Arena Hukum

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (950.794 KB)

Abstract

AbstrakPengadaan tanah sebagai suatu lembaga hukum untuk mendapatkan tanah bagi aktifitas pemerintah dalam menjalankan pembangunan bagi kepentingan umum dalam sejarah hukum Indonesia senantiasa penuh dengan penyimpangan. Debat pengadaan tanah senantiasa dipersempit hanya berkisar kepada makna kepentingan umum, musyawarah untuk mufakat serta ganti kerugian sesungguhnya dipertajam pada masalah esensial yakni ketimpangan struktur penguasaan dan pemilikan tanah, sehingga pihak yang kurang diuntungkan dan mengalami ketidakadilan inilah yang wajib mendapatkan perlindungan hukum dari negara (pemerintah).Kajian ini hendak mengupas tuntas bagaimana kelemahan substansial pada materi rancangan undang-undang pengadaan tanah untuk kepentingan umum belum tertangani, alih-alih justru kepentingan profit justru bersembunyi di balik kepentingna umum. Diperlukan adanya sikap kritik dan penolakan atas kehadiran rancangan undang-undang yang bakal menciptakan ketidakadilan dan resistensi ini. Inkonsistensi rancangan-undang-undang pengadaan tanah sesungguhnya merupakan langkah mundur pengaturan karena kembali pada pengaturan pengambilalihan tanah menurut Peraturan Menteri dalam Negeri pada era Orde Baru. DI samping itu, diprediksi implikasi hukum dari pengundangan rancangan undang-undang akan semakin menumbuhkembangkan kasus agraria.Kata kunci: pengadaan tanah, pembangunan, kepentingan umumAbstractAcquisition of land as a legal institution to obtain land for the government in carriying out development activities for the public interest in the legal history of Indonesia is always full irregularities. Land acquisition continues the debate narrowed down only about the meaning  of public interest, consensus, and real compensation sharpened on essential issues such as inequality in land control and ownership structure, so that the poor benefited and suffered the injustice of this law shall enjoy the protection of the state (goverment).This study is to analyze thoroughly how the substansial weaknesses in teh bill of material acquisition of land for public interest isn't properly handled, rather than just the interests of profit instead hiding behind the public interest. Attitudes needed criticism and rejection of the presence of the bill that would create injustice and resistance. Inconsistency plan of land acquisition laws are indeed a step back setting back setting for the acquisition of land in accordance with the minister of state in New Order era. In addition, predictable legal implications of the enactment of the bill will further resolve the agrarian or land cases.Key words: land acquisition, development, public interset